Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: maxilla retrognatism

19 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati


Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

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18 The Orthodontic Management of Multiple Tooth Agenesis with Macroglossia in Adult Patient: Case Report

Authors: Yanuarti Retnaningrum, Cendrawasih A. Farmasyanti, Kuswahyuning


Orthodontists find challenges in treating patients who have cases of macroglossia and multiple tooth agenesis because difficulties in determining the causes, formulating a diagnosis and the potential for relapse after treatment. Definition of macroglossia is a tongue enlargement due to muscle hypertrophy, tumor or an endocrine disturbance. Macroglossia may cause many problems such as anterior proclination of upper and lower incisors, development of general diastema and anterior and/ or posterior open bite. Treatment for such patients with multiple tooth agenesis and macroglossia can be complex and must consider orthodontic and/or surgical interventions. This article discusses an orthodontic non surgical approach to a patient with a general diastema in both maxilla and mandible associated with multiple tooth agenesis and macroglossia. Fixed orthodontic therapy with straightwire appliance was used for space closure in anterior region of maxilla and mandible, also to create a space suitable for future prosthetic restoration. After 12 months treatment, stable and functional occlusal relationships was achieved, although still have edentulous area in both maxilla and mandible. At the end of the orthodontic treatment was obtained with correct overbite and overjet values. After removal of the brackets, a maxillary and mandibular removable retainer combine with artificial tooth were placed for retention.

Keywords: general diastema, macroglossia, space closure, tooth agenesis

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17 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji


Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: CBCT, cone beam CT, effective dose, field of view, mandible, maxilla, resolution, voxel

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16 The Inhibition of Relapse of Orthodontic Tooth Movement by NaF Administration in Expressions of TGF-β1, Runx2, Alkaline Phosphatase and Microscopic Appearance of Woven Bone

Authors: R. Sutjiati, Rubianto, I. B. Narmada, I. K. Sudiana, R. P. Rahayu


The prevalence of post-treatment relapse in orthodontics in the community is high enough; therefore, relapses in orthodontic treatment must be prevented well. The aim of this study is to experimentally test the inhibition of relapse of orthodontics tooth movement in NaF of expression TGF-β1, Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and microscopic of woven bone. The research method used was experimental laboratory research involving 30 rats, which were divided into three groups. Group A: rats were not given orthodontic tooth movement and without NaF. Group B: rats were given orthodontic tooth movement and without 11.5 ppm by topical application. Group C: rats were given orthodontic tooth movement and 11.75 ppm by topical application. Orthodontic tooth movement was conducted by applying ligature wires of 0.02 mm in diameter on the molar-1 (M-1) of left permanent maxilla and left insisivus of maxilla. Immunohistochemical examination was conducted to calculate the number of osteoblast to determine TGF β1, Runx2, ALP and haematoxylin to determine woven bone on day 7 and day 14. Results: It was shown that administrations of Natrium Fluoride topical application proved effective to increase the expression of TGF-β1, Runx2, ALP and to increase woven bone in the tension area greater than administration without natrium fluoride topical application (p < 0.05), except the expression of ALP on day 7 and day 14 which was significant. The results of the study show that NaF significantly increases the expressions of TGF-β1, Runx2, ALP and woven bone. The expression of the variables enhanced on day 7 compared on that on day 14, except ALP. Thus, it can be said that the acceleration of woven bone occurs on day 7.

Keywords: TGF-β1, Runx2, ALP, woven bone, natrium fluoride

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15 One Way to Address the Complications of Dental Implantology

Authors: Predrag Kavaric, Vladimir L. Jubic, Maxim Cadenovic


The patient was transferred from his dentist to our tertiary medical institution. In anamnesis, we got information that his dental intervention was two years ago when he got dental implants but because of the coronavirus pandemic event, he didn’t finish the whole procedure. After two years, he decided that he will continue his work at his dentist, then his dentist noticed that there is no earlier inserted implant in the upper jaw on the right side. They do Panoramic X-ray and find that the implant is all in the maxillary sinus cavity. The flour of the maxilla was intact without any fistula on the place where the implant was inserted in the maxilla bone, After that initial diagnostic they sent the patient to maxillofacial surgery and otorhinolaryngology. We asked for a CT scan of paranasal sinuses, which confirmed the foreign body in the right maxillary sinus. The plan was that in general anesthesia we do FESS and try to find a foreign body in the maxillary sinus or in case of failure to do Caldwel Luc on that side. After preoperative preparation in GA, we do FESS. In inspection, we find small polyps and chronically changed mucosa of osteomeatal complex and right maxillary sinus. After removing polyps we did uncinectomy and medial maxillectomy. With Heuweiser Antrum grasping forceps after several attempts we managed to extract a foreign body from the bottom of the right maxillary sinus. On the first postoperative day we did detamponade, and then we discharge the patient from hospital. The Covid pandemic has contributed to the postponement of a large number of planned operations, which has resulted in various complications in the treatment of a number of patients. In this case, it happened that the implant was most likely rejected by the bone but in the direction of the maxillary sinus, which is not a common cause. On the other hand, the success was that less traumatic intervention was able to remove the foreign body from the maxillary sinus in which it was located. Since the sinus floor is free of bone defects, it can be continued relatively quickly with dental procedures.

Keywords: x-ray, surgery, maxillar sinus, complication, fees

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14 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar


Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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13 A Case Study of Meningoencephalitis following Le Fort I Osteotomy

Authors: Ryan Goh, Nicholas Beech


Introduction: Le Fort I Osteotomies, although are common procedures in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, carry a degree of risk of unfavourable propagation of the down-fracture of the maxilla. This may be the first reported case in the literature for meningoencephalitis to occur following a Le Fort I Osteotomy. Case: A 32-year-old female was brought into the Emergency Department four days after a Le Fort I Osteotomy, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (E3V1M4). A Computed Tomography (CT) Head showed a skull base fracture at the right sphenoid sinus. Lumbar puncture was completed, and Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). She was treated with Meropenem, and rapidly improved thereafter. CSF rhinorrhoea was identified when she was extubated, which was successfully managed via a continuous lumbar drain. She was discharged on day 14 without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: The most likely aspect of the Le Fort I Osteotomy to obtain a skull base fracture is during the pterygomaxillary disjunction. Care should always be taken to avoid significant risks of skull base fractures, CSF rhinorrhoea, meningitis and encephalitis.

Keywords: meningitis, orthognathic surgery, post-operative complication, skull base, rhinorrhea

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12 Modification of Hyrax Expansion Screw to Be Used as an Intro-Oral Distractor for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in a Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Case Report

Authors: Ananya Hazare, Ranjit Kamble


Introduction: Patients with Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) can present with a maxillary retrution after cleft repair. Anterior Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (AMD) is a technique that provides simultaneous skeletal advancement and expansion of the soft tissues related to an anterior segment of the maxilla. This case presented is a case of AMD. The advantage of this technique is that the occlusion in the posterior segment can be maintained, and only the segment in cross bite is advanced for correction of the midfacial deficiency. The other alternative treatment is anterior movement by a Lefort 1 osteotomy. When a Lefort 1 osteotomy is compared with the Distraction osteogenesis or AMD, the disadvantages of the Le Fort 1 include a higher risk of morbidity, requirement of fixation, relapse tendency and unexpected changes in the nasal form. These complications were eliminated by AMD technique. This was followed by placement of the implant in the bone formed after AMD. Hence complete surgical, orthodontic and prosthodontics rehabilitation of the patient was done by an interdisciplinary approach. Methods: Patient presented with repaired UCL/P of the right side with midfacial retrusion. Intro-oral examination revealed a good occlusion in the posterior arch and anterior Crossbite from canine to canine. Patient's both maxillary lateral incisors were missing. The lower arch was well aligned with all teeth present. The study models when scored according to GOSLON yardstick received a score of 4. After pre-surgical orthodontic phase was completed an intraoral distractor was fabricated by modification of HYRAX expansion screw. After surgery, low subapical osteotomy cuts were placed and the distractor was fixed. The latency period of 5 days was observed after which the distraction was started. Distraction was done at a rate of 1 mm/day with a rhythm of 0.5mm in morning and 0.5mm in the evening. The total distraction of 12 mm was done. After a consolidation period, the distractor was removed, and retention by a removable partial denture was given. Radiographic examination confirmed mature bone formation in the distracted segment. Implants were placed and allowed to osseointegrate for approximately 4 months and were then loaded with abutments. Results: Total distraction done was 12mm and after relapse it was 8mm. After consolidation phase the radiographic examination revealed a B2 quality of bone according to the Misch's classification and sufficient height from the maxillary sinus. These findings were indicative for placement of implants in the distracted bone formed in premolar region. Implants were placed and after radiographic evidence of osseointegration was seen they were loaded with abutments. Thus resulting in a complete rehabilitation of a cleft patient by an interdisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Anterior maxillary distraction can be used as an alternative method instead of complete distraction osteogenesis or Lefort 1 advancement of maxilla in cases where the advancement needed is minimum. Use of HYRAX expansion screw modified as intra-oral distractor can be used in such cases, which significantly reduces the cost of treatment, as expensive distractors are not used. This technique is very useful and efficient in countries like India where the patient cannot afford expensive treatment options.

Keywords: cleft lip and palate, distraction osteogenesis, anterior maxillary distraction, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics, hyrax expansion screw modification

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11 A Study on Reliability of Gender and Stature Determination by Odontometric and Craniofacial Anthropometric Parameters

Authors: Churamani Pokhrel, C. B. Jha, S. R. Niraula, P. R. Pokharel


Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that man has confronted. The determination of adult sex and stature are two of the four key factors (sex, stature, age, and race) in identification of an individual. Craniofacial and odontometric parameters are important tools for forensic anthropologists when it is not possible to apply advanced techniques for identification purposes. The present study provides anthropometric correlation of the parameters with stature and gender and also devises regression formulae for reconstruction of stature. A total of 312 Nepalese students with equal distribution of sex i.e., 156 male and 156 female students of age 18-35 years were taken for the study. Total of 10 parameters were measured (age, sex, stature, head circumference, head length, head breadth, facial height, bi-zygomatic width, mesio-distal canine width and inter-canine distance of both maxilla and mandible). Co-relation and regression analysis was done to find the association between the parameters. All parameters were found to be greater in males than females and each was found to be statistically significant. Out of total 312 samples, the best regressor for the determination of stature was head circumference and mandibular inter-canine width and that for gender was head circumference and right mandibular teeth. The accuracy of prediction was 83%. Regression equations and analysis generated from craniofacial and odontometric parameters can be a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature and gender when extremities are not available.

Keywords: craniofacial, gender, odontometric, stature

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10 Applicability of Cameriere’s Age Estimation Method in a Sample of Turkish Adults

Authors: Hatice Boyacioglu, Nursel Akkaya, Humeyra Ozge Yilanci, Hilmi Kansu, Nihal Avcu


The strong relationship between the reduction in the size of the pulp cavity and increasing age has been reported in the literature. This relationship can be utilized to estimate the age of an individual by measuring the pulp cavity size using dental radiographs as a non-destructive method. The purpose of this study is to develop a population specific regression model for age estimation in a sample of Turkish adults by applying Cameriere’s method on panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of 100 panoramic radiographs of Turkish patients (40 men, 60 women) aged between 20 and 70 years. Pulp and tooth area ratios (AR) of the maxilla¬¬ry canines were measured by two maxillofacial radiologists and then the results were subjected to regression analysis. There were no statistically significant intra-observer and inter-observer differences. The correlation coefficient between age and the AR of the maxillary canines was -0.71 and the following regression equation was derived: Estimated Age = 77,365 – ( 351,193 × AR ). The mean prediction error was 4 years which is within acceptable errors limits for age estimation. This shows that the pulp/tooth area ratio is a useful variable for assessing age with reasonable accuracy. Based on the results of this research, it was concluded that Cameriere’s method is suitable for dental age estimation and it can be used for forensic procedures in Turkish adults. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals.

Keywords: age estimation by teeth, forensic dentistry, panoramic radiograph, Cameriere's method

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9 A Radiographic Superimposition in Orthognathic Surgery of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira


Patients requiring correction of severe Class III skeletal discrepancy historically has been among the most challenging treatments for orthodontists. Correction of an aesthetic and functional problem is crucially important. This is a case report of an adult male aged 18 years who complained of difficulty in chewing and speaking. Patient has a prominent profile with mandibular excess. The pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. The panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, the pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, the post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It includes the superimposition of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible. Superimposition is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement. It is also important to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgery included mandibular set back by bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Although the discrepancy was severe using this combination of treatment and the use of radiographic superimposition, an aesthetically pleasing and stable result was achieved.

Keywords: cephalometric, mandibular set back, orthognathic, superimposition

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8 Some Remains of Fossil Artiodactyla: Evolutionary Status, Taxonomy and Biogeographical Distribution in Late Miocene of Pakistan

Authors: Khizar Samiullah Samiullah, Riffat Yasin, Khurrum Feroz, Omer Draz, Memmona Nazish


New fossil remains of artiodactyl have been recovered from three Late Miocene localities, Lava, Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon and Hasnoot. These localities belong to lower and middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan, the Chinji and Dhok Pathan Formation respectively and are remarkably rich in fossils of artiodactyl. The fauna mainly comprises various families of order Artiodactyla; Cervidae, Equidea, Proboscidea, Giraffidea, Rhinocerotidae, Tragulidea, Suidae and Primates. In Chinji Formation Lava and Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon are located in district Chakwal while in Upper Dhok Pathan Formation the best fossils exposure site is Hasnoot which is located in District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Specimens described and discussed here include right and left maxilla, isolated upper premolars and molars which have been collected during extensive fieldwork. After morphological and comparative analysis the collection is attributed to Giraffokeryx, Giraffa, Listriodon, Dorcatherium, Selenoportax and Pachyportax. In this study evolutionary status, taxonomy and biogeographical distribution as well as the relationship of different Artiodactyls have been discussed comprehensively. The Palaeoenvironmental studies reveal the persistence of mosaics of diverse habitats ranging from tropical evergreen forest to subtropical ones, closed seasonal woodlands to wooded savannas during the deposition of these outcrops.

Keywords: Artiodactyla, fossil dentition, late Miocene, lower and middle Siwaliks

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7 3D Dentofacial Surgery Full Planning Procedures

Authors: Oliveira M., Gonçalves L., Vale F., Caramelo F., Francisco I., Vale, F., Sanz D., Domingues M., Lopes M., Moreia D., Lopes T., Santos T., Cardoso H.


The ARTHUR project consists of a platform that allows the virtual performance of maxillofacial surgeries, offering, in a photorealistic concept, the possibility for the patient to have an idea of the surgical changes before they are performed on their face. For this, the system brings together several image formats, dicoms and objs that, after loading, will generate the bone volume, soft tissues and hard tissues. The system also incorporates the patient's stereophotogrammetry, in addition to their data and clinical history. After loading and inserting data, the clinician can virtually perform the surgical operation and present the final result to the patient, generating a new facial surface that contemplates the changes made in the bone and tissues of the maxillary area. This tool acts in different situations that require facial reconstruction, however this project focuses specifically on two types of use cases: bone congenital disfigurement and acquired disfiguration such as oral cancer with bone attainment. Being developed a cloud based solution, with mobile support, the tool aims to reduce the decision time window of patient. Because the current simulations are not realistic or, if realistic, need time due to the need of building plaster models, patient rates on decision, rely on a long time window (1,2 months), because they don’t identify themselves with the presented surgical outcome. On the other hand, this planning was performed time based on average estimated values of the position of the maxilla and mandible. The team was based on averages of the facial measurements of the population, without specifying racial variability, so the proposed solution was not adjusted to the real individual physiognomic needs.

Keywords: 3D computing, image processing, image registry, image reconstruction

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6 Prevalence of Oral Tori in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George


Oral tori are localized non-neoplastic protuberances of maxilla and mandible. Torus palatinus (TP) is found on the midline of the roof of mouth existing as single growth or in clusters. Torus mandibularis(TM) is located on the lingual aspect of the mandible commonly between canine and premolar region. Etiology of their presence was not clear and was found to be multifactorial. Their variations in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and also the characteristics of TP and TM have become the interest of multiple studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) among patients who have visited outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College. 108 patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College. Factors such as age, gender, ethnicity of the patients and size, shape, location of the oral tori were studied. For TP, Malays (62.96%) have been found to have the highest prevalence than Chinese (43.3%) and Indians (35.71%). For TM, Chinese (7.46%) had predominated compared to Malays (7.41%) and Indians (0%). There is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. For Torus palatinus, the most common size was Grade 1(1-3mm), most common location was molar region, and the most common shape was spindle. For Torus mandibularis, the most frequent location was canine premolar region and exists in unilateral single or bilateral single fashion. The overall prevalence rates were 47.2% for TP and 6.48% for TM. However, there is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. The results showed variations in clinical characteristics and support the findings that occurrence of tori is a dynamic phenomenon which is multifactorial owing to the environmental factors such as stress from occlusion and dietary habits. It could be due to the genetic make-up of the individual.

Keywords: torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, age, gender

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5 Self-Inflating Soft Tissue Expander Outcome for Alveolar Ridge Augmentation a Randomized Controlled Clinical and Histological Study

Authors: Alaa T. Ali, Nevine H. Kheir El Din, Ehab S. Abdelhamid, Ahmed E. Amr


Objective: Severe alveolar bone resorption is usually associated with a deficient amount of soft tissues. soft tissue expansion is introduced to provide an adequate amount of soft tissue over the grafted area. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sub-periosteal self-inflating osmotic tissue expanders used as preparatory surgery before horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation using autogenous onlay block bone graft. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Sixteen partially edentulous patients demanding horizontal bone augmentation in the anterior maxilla were randomly assigned to horizontal ridge augmentation with autogenous bone block grafts harvested from the mandibular symphysis. For the test group, soft tissue expanders were placed sub-periosteally before horizontal ridge augmentation. Impressions were taken before and after STE, and the cast models were optically scanned and superimposed to be used for volumetric analysis. Horizontal ridge augmentation was carried out after STE completion. For the control group, a periosteal releasing incision was performed during bone augmentation procedures. Implants were placed in both groups at re-entry surgery after six months period. A core biopsy was taken. Histomorphometric assessment for newly formed bone surface area, mature collagen area fraction, the osteoblasts count, and blood vessel count were performed. The change in alveolar ridge width was evaluated through bone caliper and CBCT. Results: Soft tissue expander successfully provides a Surplus amount of soft tissues in 5 out of 8 patients in the test group. Complications during the expansion period were perforation through oral mucosa occurred in two patients. Infection occurred in one patient. The mean soft tissue volume gain was 393.9 ± 322mm. After 6 months. The mean horizontal bone gains for the test and control groups were 3.14 mm and 3.69 mm, respectively. Conclusion: STE with a sub-periosteal approach is an applicable method to achieve an additional soft tissue and to reduce bone block graft exposure and wound dehiscence.

Keywords: soft tissue expander, ridge augmentation, block graft, symphysis bone block

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4 A Seven Year Single-Centre Study of Dental Implant Survival in Head and Neck Oncology Patients

Authors: Sidra Suleman, Maliha Suleman, Stephen Brindley


Oral rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients plays a crucial role in the quality of life for such individuals post-treatment. Placement of dental implants or implant-retained prostheses can help restore oral function and aesthetics, which is often compromised following surgery. Conventional prosthodontic techniques can be insufficient in rehabilitating such patients due to their altered anatomy and reduced oral competence. Hence, there is a strong clinical need for the placement of dental implants. With an increasing incidence of head and neck cancer patients, the demand for such treatment is rising. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the survival rate of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients placed at the Restorative and Maxillofacial Department, Royal Stoke University Hospital (RSUH), United Kingdom. Methodology: All patients who received dental implants between January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020 were identified. Patients were excluded based on three criteria: 1) non-head and neck cancer patients, 2) no outpatient follow-up post-implant placement 3) provision of non-dental implants. Scanned paper notes and electronic records were extracted and analyzed. Implant survival was defined as fixtures that had remained in-situ / not required removal. Sample: Overall, 61 individuals were recruited from the 143 patients identified. The mean age was 64.9 years, with a range of 35 – 89 years. The sample included 37 (60.7%) males and 24 (39.3%) females. In total, 211 implants were placed, of which 40 (19.0%) were in the maxilla, 152 (72.0%) in the mandible and 19 (9.0%) in autogenous bone graft sites. Histologically 57 (93.4%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma, with 43 (70.5%) patients having either stage IVA or IVB disease. As part of treatment, 42 (68.9%) patients received radiotherapy, which was carried out post-operatively for 29 (69.0%) cases. Whereas 21 (34.4%) patients underwent chemotherapy, 13 (61.9%) of which were post-operative. The Median follow-up period was 21.9 months with a range from 0.9 – 91.4 months. During the study, 23 (37.7%) patients died and their data was censored beyond the date of death. Results: In total, four patients who had received radiotherapy had one implant failure each. Two mandibular implants failed secondary to osteoradionecrosis, and two maxillary implants did not survive as a result of failure to osseointegrate. The overall implant survival rates were 99.1% at three years and 98.1% at both 5 and 7 years. Conclusions: Although this data shows that implant failure rates are low, it highlights the difficulty in predicting which patients will be affected. Future studies involving larger cohorts are warranted to further analyze factors affecting outcomes.

Keywords: oncology, dental implants, survival, restorative

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3 Radiographic Evaluation of Odontogenic Keratocyst: A 14 Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Nor Hidayah Reduwan, Jira Chindasombatjaroen, Suchaya Pornprasersuk-Damrongsri, Sopee Pomsawat


INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remain as a controversial pathologic entity under the scrutiny of many researchers and maxillofacial surgeons alike. The high recurrence rate and relatively aggressive nature of this lesion demand a meticulous analysis of the radiographic characteristic of OKC leading to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the radiographic characteristic of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) using conventional radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients histopathologically diagnosed as OKC from 2003 to 2016 by Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs of these cases from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University were retrieved. Assessment of the location, shape, border, cortication, locularity, the relationship of lesion to embedded tooth, displacement of adjacent tooth, root resorption and bony expansion of the lesion were conducted. RESULTS: Radiographs of 91 patients (44 males, 47 females) with the mean age of 31 years old (10 to 84 years) were analyzed. Among all patients, 5 cases were syndromic patients. Hence, a total of 103 OKCs were studied. The most common location was at the ramus of mandible (32%) followed by posterior maxilla (29%). Most cases presented as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated border. The lesion was in associated with embedded tooth in 48 lesions (47%). Eighty five percent of embedded tooth are impacted 3rd molar. Thirty-seven percentage of embedded tooth were entirely encapsulated in the lesion. The lesion attached to the embedded tooth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 40% and extended to part of root in 23% of cases. Teeth displacement and root resorption were found in 29% and 6% of cases, respectively. Bony expansion in bucco-lingual dimension was seen in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: OKCs were predominant in the posterior region of the mandible with radiographic features of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated margin. The lesions might relate to an embedded tooth by surrounding an entire tooth, attached to the CEJ level or extending to part of root. Bony expansion could be found but teeth displacement and root resorption were not common. These features might help in giving the differential diagnosis.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, imaging dentistry, odontogenic keratocyst, radiographic features

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2 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah


The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

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1 Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Antiresorptive Drug-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Bone Surgery under Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine Irrigation: A Case Series of 13 Treated Sites

Authors: Esra Yuce, Isil D. S. Yamaner, Murude Yazan


Aims and objective: Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates and denosumab as strong suppressors of osteoclasts are the most commonly used antiresorptive medications for the treatment of osteoporosis which counteract the negative quantitative alteration of trabecular and cortical bone by inhibition of bone turnover. Oral bisphosphonate therapy for the treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or Paget's disease is associated with the low-grade risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw, while higher-grade risk is associated with receiving intravenous bisphosphonates therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases. On the other hand, there has been a remarkable increase in incidences of antiresorptive related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) in oral bisphosphonate users. This clinical presentation will evaluate the healing outcomes via piezoelectric bone surgery under the irrigation of PVP-I solution irrigation in patients received bisphosphonate therapy. Material-Method: The study involved 8 female and 5 male patients that have been treated for ARONJ. Among 13 necrotic sites, 9 were in the mandible and 4 were in the maxilla. All of these 13 patients treated with surgical debridement via piezoelectric bone surgery under irrigation by solution with 3% PVP-I concentration in combination with long-term antibiotic therapy and 5 also underwent removal of mobile segments of bony sequestrum. All removable prosthesis in 8 patients were relined with soft liners during the healing periods in order to eliminate chronic minor traumas. Results: All patients were on oral bisphosphonate therapy for at least 2 years and 5 of which had received intravenous bisphosphonates up to 1 year before therapy with oral bisphosphonates was started. According to the AAOMS staging system, four cases were stage II, eight cases were stage I, and one case was stage III. The majority of lesions were identified at sites of dental prostheses (38%) and dental extractions (62%). All patients diagnosed with ARONJ stage I had used unadjusted removable prostheses. No recurrence of the symptoms was observed during the present follow-up (9–37 months). Conclusion: Despite their confirmed effectiveness, the prevention and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to oral bisphosphonate therapy remain major medical challenges. Treatment with piezoelectric bone surgery with irrigation of povidone-iodine solution was effective for management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Taking precautions for patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, especially also denture users, may allow for a reduction in the rate of developing osteonecrosis of the maxillofacial region.

Keywords: antiresorptive drug related osteonecrosis, bisphosphonate therapy, piezoelectric bone surgery, povidone iodine

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