Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5572

Search results for: surface blending

5572 Multiresolution Mesh Blending for Surface Detail Reconstruction

Authors: Honorio Salmeron Valdivieso, Andy Keane, David Toal


In the area of mechanical reverse engineering, processes often encounter difficulties capturing small, highly localized surface information. This could be the case if a physical turbine was 3D scanned for lifecycle management or robust design purposes, with interest on eroded areas or scratched coating. The limitation partly is due to insufficient automated frameworks for handling -localized - surface information during the reverse engineering pipeline. We have developed a tool for blending surface patches with arbitrary irregularities into a base body (e.g. a CAD solid). The approach aims to transfer small surface features while preserving their shape and relative placement by using a multi-resolution scheme and rigid deformations. Automating this process enables the inclusion of outsourced surface information in CAD models, including samples prepared in mesh handling software, or raw scan information discarded in the early stages of reverse engineering reconstruction.

Keywords: application lifecycle management, multiresolution deformation, reverse engineering, robust design, surface blending

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5571 The Customization of 3D Last Form Design Based on Weighted Blending

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Chu-Hsuan Lee, Rong-Qi Chen


When it comes to last, it is regarded as the critical foundation of shoe design and development. Not only the last relates to the comfort of shoes wearing but also it aids the production of shoe styling and manufacturing. In order to enhance the efficiency and application of last development, a computer aided methodology for customized last form designs is proposed in this study. The reverse engineering is mainly applied to the process of scanning for the last form. Then the minimum energy is used for the revision of surface continuity, the surface of the last is reconstructed with the feature curves of the scanned last. When the surface of a last is reconstructed, based on the foundation of the proposed last form reconstruction module, the weighted arithmetic mean method is applied to the calculation on the shape morphing which differs from the grading for the control mesh of last, and the algorithm of subdivision is used to create the surface of last mesh, thus the feet-fitting 3D last form of different sizes is generated from its original form feature with functions remained. Finally, the practicability of the proposed methodology is verified through later case studies.

Keywords: 3D last design, customization, reverse engineering, weighted morphing, shape blending

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5570 Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Olumana Dinka, Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse


Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.

Keywords: blending, infiltration, salinity, sodicity, sugarcane, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5569 Formation of Blends in Hausa Language

Authors: Maryam Maimota Shehu


Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used, and new words are formed and reformed to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire life. Despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on morphological processes in The Hausa language. Most of the works concentrated on borrowing, affixation, reduplication and derivation, but blending has been neglected to the extent that some of the Hausa linguists claim that, blending does not exist in the language. Therefore, the current study investigates and examines blending as one of the word formation processes' in the language. The study focuses its main attention on blending as a word-formation process and how this process is used adequately in the formation of words in The Hausa language. To achieve the aims, the research answered these questions: 1) is blending used as a process of word formation in Hausa? 2) What are the words formed using this process? This study utilizes the Natural Morphology Theory proposed by Dressler, (1985) which was adopted by Belly (2007). The data of this study have been collected from newspaper articles, novels, and written literature of Hausa language. Based on the findings, this study found out that, there exist new kind of words formed in The Hausa language under blending, which previous findings did not either reveal or explain in detail. Another part of the finding shows that some of the words change their grammatical classes and meaning while blended.

Keywords: morphology, word formation, blending in hausa language, language

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5568 Effect of Minerals in Middlings on the Reactivity of Gasification-Coke by Blending a Large Proportion of Long Flame Coal

Authors: Jianjun Wu, Fanhui Guo, Yixin Zhang


In this study, gasification-coke were produced by blending the middlings (MC), and coking coal (CC) and a large proportion of long flame coal (Shenfu coal, SC), the effects of blending ratio were investigated. Mineral evolution and crystalline order obtained by XRD methods were reproduced within reasonable accuracy. Structure characteristics of partially gasification-coke such as surface area and porosity were determined using the N₂ adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Experimental data of gasification-coke was dominated by the TGA results provided trend, reactivity differences between gasification-cokes are discussed in terms of structure characteristic, crystallinity, and alkali index (AI). The first-order reaction equation was suitable for the gasification reaction kinetics of CO₂ atmosphere which was represented by the volumetric reaction model with linear correlation coefficient above 0.985. The differences in the microporous structure of gasification-coke and catalysis caused by the minerals in parent coals were supposed to be the main factors which affect its reactivity. The addition of MC made the samples enriched with a large amount of ash causing a higher surface area and a lower crystalline order to gasification-coke which was beneficial to gasification reaction. The higher SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ contents, causing a decreasing AI value and increasing activation energy, which reduced the gasification reaction activity. It was found that the increasing amount of MC got a better performance on the coke gasification reactivity by blending > 30% SC with this coking process.

Keywords: low-rank coal, middlings, structure characteristic, mineral evolution, alkali index, gasification-coke, gasification kinetics

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5567 Computationally Efficient Stacking Sequence Blending for Composite Structures with a Large Number of Design Regions Using Cellular Automata

Authors: Ellen Van Den Oord, Julien Marie Jan Ferdinand Van Campen


This article introduces a computationally efficient method for stacking sequence blending of composite structures. The computational efficiency makes the presented method especially interesting for composite structures with a large number of design regions. Optimization of composite structures with an unequal load distribution may lead to locally optimized thicknesses and ply orientations that are incompatible with one another. Blending constraints can be enforced to achieve structural continuity. In literature, many methods can be found to implement structural continuity by means of stacking sequence blending in one way or another. The complexity of the problem makes the blending of a structure with a large number of adjacent design regions, and thus stacking sequences, prohibitive. In this work the local stacking sequence optimization is preconditioned using a method found in the literature that couples the mechanical behavior of the laminate, in the form of lamination parameters, to blending constraints, yielding near-optimal easy-to-blend designs. The preconditioned design is then fed to the scheme using cellular automata that have been developed by the authors. The method is applied to the benchmark 18-panel horseshoe blending problem to demonstrate its performance. The computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it especially suited for composite structures with a large number of design regions.

Keywords: composite, blending, optimization, lamination parameters

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5566 Study of Interaction between Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Material and Virgin Material

Authors: G. Bharath, K. S. Reddy, Vivek Tandon, M. Amaranatha Reddy


This paper presents the details of a study conducted to evaluate the interaction between recycled binder and fresh binder in Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) mixes. When RAP is mixed with virgin aggregates in the presence of fresh binder there will be partial blending in a hot mix asphalt mixture. A recent approach used by some researchers for studying the degree of blending of RAP binder with virgin binder has been adopted in this study. Dense Bituminous Macadam mix of Ministry of Road Transport of India with a nominal maximum aggregate size of 19 mm was studied. Two proportions of RAP-20% and 35% and two types of virgin binders – viscosity grade VG10 and VG30 were considered. Design binder contents were determined for all the four types of mixes (two RAP contents and two virgin binders) as per Marshall mix design procedure. The degree of blending of RAP and virgin binders was evaluated in terms of the complex modulus of the binder. Laboratory test results showed that with an increase in RAP content, the degree of blending decreases. Better blending was observed for softer grade binder (VG10).

Keywords: blending, complex modulus, recycled asphalt pavement, virgin binder

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5565 Compounding and Blending in English and Hausa Languages

Authors: Maryam Maimota


Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used and new words are formed and reformed in order to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire human life. This research study seeks to examine and compare some of the word formation processes and how they are used in forming new words in English and Hausa languages. The study focuses its main attention on blending and compounding as word formation processes and how the processes are used adequately in the formation of words in both English and Hausa languages. The research aims to find out, how compounding and blending are used, as processes of word formation in these two languages. And also, to investigate the word formation processes involved in compounding and blending in these languages, and the nature of words that are formed. Therefore, the research tries to find the answers to the following research questions; What types of compound and blended forms are found and how they are formed in the English and Hausa languages? How these compounded and blended forms functioned in both English and Hausa languages in different context such as in phrases and sentences structures? Findings of the study reveal that, there exist new kind of words formed in Hausa and English language under blending, which previous findings did not either reveal or explain in detail. Similarly, there are a lot of similarities found in the way these blends and compounds forms in the two languages, however, the data available shows that, blends in the Hausa language are more, when compared to the blends in English. The data of this study will be gathered based on discourse found in newspaper, articles, novels, and written literature of the Hausa and English languages.

Keywords: blending, compounding, morphology, word formation

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5564 Use Process Ring-Opening Polymerization to Melt Processing of Cellulose Nanowhisker from Coconut Husk Fibers-Filled Polylactide-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Imam Wierawansyah Eltara, Iftitah, Agus Ismail


In the present work, cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) extracted from coconut husk fibers, were incorporated in polylactide (PLA)-based composites. Prior to the blending, PLA chains were chemically grafted on the surface of CNW to enhance the compatibilization between CNW and the hydrophobic polyester matrix. Ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide was initiated from the hydroxyl groups available at the CNW surface to yield CNW-g-PLA nanohybrids. PLA-based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending to ensure a green concept of the study thereby limiting the use of organic solvents. The influence of PLA-grafted cellulose nanoparticles on the mechanical and thermal properties of the ensuing nanocomposites was deeply investigated. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical and thermal analysis (DMTA), respectively. In theory, evidenced that the chemical grafting of CNW enhances their compatibility with the polymeric matrix and thus improves the final properties of the nanocomposites. Large modification of the crystalline properties such as the crystallization half-time was evidenced according to the nature of the PLA matrix and the content of nanofillers.

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, nanocomposites, coconut husk fiber, ring opening polymerization

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5563 Reactive Blending of Thermoplastic Starch, Ethylene-1-Butene Rubber, and Chitosan

Authors: Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Toshiaki Ougizawa


Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared by melt-blending of cassava starch with glycerol (70/30 wt%/wt%) at 130 ◦C for 10 min. Chitosan (CTS) was used as a compatibilizer. TPS/CTS blend was melt-blended with maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-1-butene rubber (EB-MAH) in the composition of 80/20 respectively. Addition of CTS in TPS/EB-MAH blend decreased particles size of EB-MAH rubber to 1µm in TPS matrix. Mechanical properties, solubility, swelling property, morphology, and water contact angle of TPS/EB-MAH blend were improved by CTS incorporation. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (-NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of EB-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved morphology and properties of the TPS/EB-MAH/CTS blend.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, rubber, reactive blending, chitosan

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5562 Estimation of Grinding Force and Material Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite

Authors: Lakshminarayanan, Vijayaraghavan, Krishnamurthy


The ever-increasing demand for high efficiency in automotive and aerospace applications requires new materials to suit to high temperature applications. The Ceramic Matrix Composites nowadays find its applications for high strength and high temperature environments. In this paper, Al2O3 and Sic ceramic materials are taken in particulate form as matrix and reinforcement respectively. They are blended together in Ball Milling and compacted in Cold Compaction Machine by powder metallurgy technique. Scanning Electron Microscope images are taken for the samples in order to find out proper blending of powders. Micro harness testing is also carried out for the samples in Vickers Micro Hardness Testing Equipment. Surface grinding of the samples is also carried out in Surface Grinding Machine in order to find out grinding force estimates. The surface roughness of the grounded samples is also taken in Surface Profilometer. These are yielding promising results.

Keywords: ceramic matrix composite, cold compaction, material characterization, particulate and surface grinding

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5561 Impact of Material Chemistry and Morphology on Attrition Behavior of Excipients during Blending

Authors: Sri Sharath Kulkarni, Pauline Janssen, Alberto Berardi, Bastiaan Dickhoff, Sander van Gessel


Blending is a common process in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms where the high shear is used to obtain a homogenous dosage. The shear required can lead to uncontrolled attrition of excipients and affect API’s. This has an impact on the performance of the formulation as this can alter the structure of the mixture. Therefore, it is important to understand the driving mechanisms for attrition. The aim of this study was to increase the fundamental understanding of the attrition behavior of excipients. Attrition behavior of the excipients was evaluated using a high shear blender (Procept Form-8, Zele, Belgium). Twelve pure excipients are tested, with morphologies varying from crystalline (sieved), granulated to spray dried (round to fibrous). Furthermore, materials include lactose, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), di-calcium phosphate (DCP), and mannitol. The rotational speed of the blender was set at 1370 rpm to have the highest shear with a Froude (Fr) number 9. Varying blending times of 2-10 min were used. Subsequently, after blending, the excipients were analyzed for changes in particle size distribution (PSD). This was determined (n = 3) by dry laser diffraction (Helos/KR, Sympatec, Germany). Attrition was found to be a surface phenomenon which occurs in the first minutes of the high shear blending process. An increase of blending time above 2 mins showed no change in particle size distribution. Material chemistry was identified as a key driver for differences in the attrition behavior between different excipients. This is mainly related to the proneness to fragmentation, which is known to be higher for materials such as DCP and mannitol compared to lactose and MCC. Secondly, morphology also was identified as a driver of the degree of attrition. Granular products consisting of irregular surfaces showed the highest reduction in particle size. This is due to the weak solid bonds created between the primary particles during the granulation process. Granular DCP and mannitol show a reduction of 80-90% in x10(µm) compared to a 20-30% drop for granular lactose (monohydrate and anhydrous). Apart from the granular lactose, all the remaining morphologies of lactose (spray dried-round, sieved-tomahawk, milled) show little change in particle size. Similar observations have been made for spray-dried fibrous MCC. All these morphologies have little irregular or sharp surfaces and thereby are less prone to fragmentation. Therefore, products containing brittle materials such as mannitol and DCP are more prone to fragmentation when exposed to shear. Granular products with irregular surfaces lead to an increase in attrition. While spherical, crystalline, or fibrous morphologies show reduced impact during high shear blending. These changes in size will affect the functionality attributes of the formulation, such as flow, API homogeneity, tableting, formation of dust, etc. Hence it is important for formulators to fully understand the excipients to make the right choices.

Keywords: attrition, blending, continuous manufacturing, excipients, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, shear

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5560 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study

Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter


This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.

Keywords: asphaltene, crude oil, compatibility, oil blends, resin, SARA

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5559 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi


Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

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5558 A Coupled Stiffened Skin-Rib Fully Gradient Based Optimization Approach for a Wing Box Made of Blended Composite Materials

Authors: F. Farzan Nasab, H. J. M. Geijselaers, I. Baran, A. De Boer


A method is introduced for the coupled skin-rib optimization of a wing box where mass minimization is the objective and local buckling is the constraint. The structure is made of composite materials where continuity of plies in multiple adjacent panels (blending) has to be satisfied. Blending guarantees the manufacturability of the structure; however, it is a highly challenging constraint to treat and has been under debate in recent research in the same area. To fulfill design guidelines with respect to symmetry, balance, contiguity, disorientation and percentage rule of the layup, a reference for the stacking sequences (stacking sequence table or SST) is generated first. Then, an innovative fully gradient-based optimization approach in relation to a specific SST is introduced to obtain the optimum thickness distribution all over the structure while blending is fulfilled. The proposed optimization approach aims to turn the discrete optimization problem associated with the integer number of plies into a continuous one. As a result of a wing box deflection, a rib is subjected to load values which vary nonlinearly with the amount of deflection. The bending stiffness of a skin affects the wing box deflection and thus affects the load applied to a rib. This indicates the necessity of a coupled skin-rib optimization approach for a more realistic optimized design. The proposed method is examined with the optimization of the layup of a composite stiffened skin and rib of a wing torsion box subjected to in-plane normal and shear loads. Results show that the method can successfully prescribe a valid design with a significantly cheap computation cost.

Keywords: blending, buckling optimization, composite panels, wing torsion box

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5557 Optimization of the Fabrication Process for Particleboards Made from Oil Palm Fronds Blended with Empty Fruit Bunch Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat-Fadzil, Zulkafli Hassan, Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh


The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimum fabrication process variables to produce particleboards from oil palm fronds (OPF) particles and empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). Response surface methodology was employed to analyse the effect of hot press temperature (150–190°C); press time (3–7 minutes) and EFB blending ratio (0–40%) on particleboards modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling. A Box-Behnken experimental design was carried out to develop statistical models used for the optimisation of the fabrication process variables. All factors were found to be statistically significant on particleboards properties. The statistical analysis indicated that all models showed significant fit with experimental results. The optimum particleboards properties were obtained at optimal fabrication process condition; press temperature; 186°C, press time; 5.7 min and EFB / OPF ratio; 30.4%. Incorporating of oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch to produce particleboards has improved the particleboards properties. The OPF–EFB particleboards fabricated at optimized conditions have satisfied the ANSI A208.1–1999 specification for general purpose particleboards.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch fiber, oil palm fronds, particleboards, response surface methodology

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5556 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee


An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

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5555 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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5554 The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of SCM440 Steel

Authors: C. Han, H. Kim, S. Park


The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life of SCM440 steel. Two groups of specimens were made from SCM440 steel with and without surface polished after forging process and resulted in different values of surface roughness. The difference of the surface roughness between two groups was clearly distinguished even to the naked eye. Surface roughness of both groups of the specimens was quantitatively measured by a roughness measuring device, Talysurf series2 (Taylor-Hobson Co., USA). Average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were obtained by scanning 45 mm with a speed of 0.25 mm/s. Fatigue tests were conducted using a three-point bending method with a cyclic sinusoidal profile of 5 Hz, stress ratio of R = 0.1 and reference life for fatigue limit of 1 × 106 cycles. Ra and Rmax without surface polished were 10.497 ± 1.721 μm and 87.936 ± 16.210 μm, respectively while those values with surface polished were much smaller (ongoing measurements). Fatigue lives of the surface-polished specimens achieved approximately 1 × 106 cycles under the maximum stress of 900 MPa, which was 10 times longer than those of the surface-untreated specimens with an average roughness of 10.082 μm. The results showed that an increase in surface roughness values led to a decrease in fatigue lives.

Keywords: surface roughness, fatigue test, fatigue life, SCM440 steel

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5553 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič


For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

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5552 Comparative Study of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphological of Nano-CaCO3 and Nanoclay Reinforced HDPE Nanocomposites

Authors: Harun Sepet, Necmettin Tarakcioglu


The present study investigated the impact strength and fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites by using Charpy impact test. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were prepared by the melt blending method using a compounder system, which consists of industrial banbury mixer, single screw extruder and granule cutting in industrial-scale. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were molded using an injection-molding machine as plates, and then impact samples were cut by using punching die from the nanocomposite plates. As a result of impact experiments, nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites were determined to have lower impact energy level than neat HDPE. Also, the impact strength of HDPE further decreased by addition nanoclay compared to nano-CaCO3. The occurred fracture areas with the impact were detected by SEM examination. It is understood that fracture surface morphology changes when nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay ratio increases. The fracture surface changes were examined to determine the fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites.

Keywords: charpy, HDPE, industrial scale nano-CaCO3, nanoclay, nanocomposite

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5551 The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

Authors: Szymon Wojciechowski, Damian Przestacki, Tadeusz Chwalczuk


The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).

Keywords: Inconel 718, laser assisted machining, surface integrity, turning

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5550 Active Food Packaging Films Based on Functionalized Graphene/Polymer Composites

Authors: Ahmad Ghanem, Mohamad Yasin, Mona Abdel Rehim, Fabrice Gouanve, Eliane Espuche


Biodegradable polymers are of great interest, especially for biomedical and packaging applications. Current research efforts are focused on the development of biopolymers with the purpose of reducing the plastic pollution induced by the widely used in biodegradable polyolefins. The main challenge is focused on the elaboration of biopolymers having properties competitive to those of polyolefins. On the other hand, graphene oxide (GO), a graphene derivative, is characterized by the presence of several functional groups on the surface such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and epoxide. This feature enables modification of GO surface with different modifiers to obtain versatile surface properties and overcome the problem of graphene sheets aggregations during inclusion in a polymer matrix. In this context, poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) as promising biopolyester is modified through blending with different ratios of functionalized (GO) to improve its barrier properties. Modification of GO has been carried out using different hyperbranched polymeric structures in order to increase miscibility of the nanosheets in the hosting polymeric matrix. Films have been prepared from the modified PBS and their mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties were investigated. The results reveal enhancement in the thermal and mechanical properties beside observed improvement of the barrier properties for the films prepared from the modified PBS. This improvement is related to the strong dependence on tortuosity effects of dispersion, exfoliation levels of fillers into the polymer matrix and interactions between the fillers and the polymer matrix.

Keywords: gas barrier properties, graphene oxide, food packaging, transport properties

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5549 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli


Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

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5548 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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5547 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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5546 Performance and Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel of Waste Cooking Oils

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Onkar Singh, Naveen Kumar, Amar Deep


The waste cooking oil is taken as feedstock for biodiesel production. For this research, waste cooking oil is collected from many hotels and restaurants, and then biodiesel is prepared for experimentation purpose. The prepared biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel in the proportion of 10%, 20%, and 30% to perform tests on a diesel engine. The experimental analysis is carried out at different load conditions to analyze the impact of the blending ratio on the performance and emission parameters. When the blending proportion of biodiesel is increased, then the highest pressure reduces due to the fall in the calorific value of the blended mixture. Experimental analysis shows a promising decrease in nitrogen oxides (NOx). A mixture of 20% biodiesel and mineral diesel is the best negotiation, mixing ratio, and beyond that, a remarkable reduction in the outcome of the performance has been observed.

Keywords: alternative sources, diesel engine, emissions, performance

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5545 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari


We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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5544 Co-Hydrothermal Gasification of Microalgae Biomass and Solid Biofuel for Biogas Production

Authors: Daniel Fozer


Limiting global warming to 1.5°C to the pre-industrial levels urges the application of efficient and sustainable carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. Microalgae based biorefineries offer scalable solutions for the biofixation of CO2, where the produced biomass can be transformed into value added products by applying thermochemical processes. In this paper we report on the utilization of hydrochar as a blending component in hydrothermal gasification (HTG) process. The effects of blending ratio and hydrochar quality were investigated on the biogas yield and and composition. It is found that co-gasifying the hydrochar and the algae biomass can increase significantly the total gas yield and influence the biogas (H2, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H4, C2H6) composition. It is determined that the carbon conversion ratio, hydrogen and methane selectivity can be increased by influencing the fuel ratio of hydrochar via hydrothermal carbonization. In conclusion, it is found that increasing the synergy between hydrothermal technologies result in elevated conversion efficiency.

Keywords: biogas, CDR, Co-HTG, hydrochar, microalgae

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5543 Simulation of Optimal Runoff Hydrograph Using Ensemble of Radar Rainfall and Blending of Runoffs Model

Authors: Myungjin Lee, Daegun Han, Jongsung Kim, Soojun Kim, Hung Soo Kim


Recently, the localized heavy rainfall and typhoons are frequently occurred due to the climate change and the damage is becoming bigger. Therefore, we may need a more accurate prediction of the rainfall and runoff. However, the gauge rainfall has the limited accuracy in space. Radar rainfall is better than gauge rainfall for the explanation of the spatial variability of rainfall but it is mostly underestimated with the uncertainty involved. Therefore, the ensemble of radar rainfall was simulated using error structure to overcome the uncertainty and gauge rainfall. The simulated ensemble was used as the input data of the rainfall-runoff models for obtaining the ensemble of runoff hydrographs. The previous studies discussed about the accuracy of the rainfall-runoff model. Even if the same input data such as rainfall is used for the runoff analysis using the models in the same basin, the models can have different results because of the uncertainty involved in the models. Therefore, we used two models of the SSARR model which is the lumped model, and the Vflo model which is a distributed model and tried to simulate the optimum runoff considering the uncertainty of each rainfall-runoff model. The study basin is located in Han river basin and we obtained one integrated runoff hydrograph which is an optimum runoff hydrograph using the blending methods such as Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Simple Model Average (SMA), Mean Square Error (MSE). From this study, we could confirm the accuracy of rainfall and rainfall-runoff model using ensemble scenario and various rainfall-runoff model and we can use this result to study flood control measure due to climate change. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA) grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Grant 18AWMP-B083066-05).

Keywords: radar rainfall ensemble, rainfall-runoff models, blending method, optimum runoff hydrograph

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