Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1950

Search results for: skeletal class III malocclusion

1950 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati

Abstract:

Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
1949 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita

Abstract:

An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: cephalometric evaluation, class II division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1948 The Success Rate of Anterior Crowding Orthodontic Treatment Using Removable Appliances

Authors: Belly Yordan

Abstract:

Orthodontic treatment can be done by using the fix and removable orthodontic appliance. The success of treatment depends on the patient’s age, the type of malocclusion, treatment of space discrepancy, patient’s oral hygiene, operator skills, and patient cooperation. This case report was aimed to show the success of orthodontic treatment in patients with skeletal class I relationship, class I angle dental malocclusion with anterior crowding and rotation by using a removable appliance with modification. The removable appliance used is standard with removable plate components such as passive clasp (Adam’s hook clasp) accompanied with some active clasps (labial bow, some springs, etc.). A button is used as an additional tool or combined with other tools to correct tooth in rotated position. The results obtained by the success of treatments which is shown in pre and post-treatment photos, the overjet was reduced, the arch form became normal, the tooth malposition became normal, and rotation was corrected. Facial profile appearance of the patient is getting better, and the dental coordination also became better. This case report is to prove that treatment with the removable appliance is quite successful with the robust wearing of appropriate retainers.

Keywords: success rate, anterior crowding, orthodontic treatment, removable appliances

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1947 Prevalence of Malocclusion and Assessment of Orthodontic Treatment Needs in Malay Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia Patients

Authors: Mohamed H. Kosba, Heba A. Ibrahim, H. Rozita

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The life expectancy for transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients has increased dramatically with iron-chelation therapy and other modern management modalities. In these patients, the most dominant maxillofacial manifestations are protrusion of zygomatic bones and premaxilla due to the hyperplasia of bone marrow. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) among Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Orientation: This is a cross-sectional study consist of 43 Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 22 males, and 19 females with the mean age of 15.9 years old (SD 3.58). The subjects were selected randomly from patients attending Paediatrics and Internal Medicine Clinic at Hospital USM and Hospital Sultana Bahiyah. The subjects were assessed for malocclusion according to Angle’s classification, and orthodontic treatment needs using DAI. The results show that 22 of the subjects (51.1%) have class II malocclusion, 12 subjects (28%) have class І, while 9 subjects (20.9%) have class Ⅲ. The assessment of orthodontic treatment needs to reveal 22 cases (51.1%) fall in the normal/minor needs category, 12 subjects (28%) fall in the severe and very severe category, while 9 subjects (20.9%) fall in the definite category. Conclusion & Significance: Half of Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients have Class Ⅱmalocclusion. About 28% had malocclusion and required orthodontic treatment. This research shows that Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia may require orthodontic management; earlier intervention to reduce the complexity of the treatment later, suggesting functional appliance as a suitable treatment option for them, a twin block appliance together with headgear to restrict maxillary growth suggested for management. The current protocol implemented by the Malaysian Ministry of Health for the management of these patients seems to be sufficient since the result shows that about 28% require orthodontic treatment need, according to DAI.

Keywords: prevalence, DAI, thalassaemia, angle classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1946 A Cephalometric Superimposition of a Skeletal Class III Orthognathic Patient on Nasion-Sella Line

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira

Abstract:

The Nasion-Sella Line (NSL) has been used for several years as a reference line in longitudinal growth study. Therefore this line is considered to be stable not only to evaluate treatment outcome and to predict relapse possibility but also to manage prognosis. This is a radiographic superimposition of an adult male aged 19 years who complained of difficulty in aesthetic, talking and chewing. Patient has a midface hypoplasia profile (concave). He was diagnosed to have a severe Skeletal Class III with Class III malocclusion, increased lower vertical height, and an anterior open bite. A pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. A panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, a pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, a post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition using NSL as a reference line between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement and to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient also needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgical management included maxillary impaction and advancement of Le Fort I osteotomy. The evaluation using NSL as a reference was a very useful method in determining the outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: Nasion-Sella Line, midface hypoplasia, Le Fort 1, maxillary advancement

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1945 A Radiographic Superimposition in Orthognathic Surgery of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira

Abstract:

Patients requiring correction of severe Class III skeletal discrepancy historically has been among the most challenging treatments for orthodontists. Correction of an aesthetic and functional problem is crucially important. This is a case report of an adult male aged 18 years who complained of difficulty in chewing and speaking. Patient has a prominent profile with mandibular excess. The pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. The panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, the pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, the post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It includes the superimposition of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible. Superimposition is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement. It is also important to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgery included mandibular set back by bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Although the discrepancy was severe using this combination of treatment and the use of radiographic superimposition, an aesthetically pleasing and stable result was achieved.

Keywords: cephalometric, mandibular set back, orthognathic, superimposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1944 Orthodontic Treatment Using CAD/CAM System

Authors: Cristiane C. B. Alves, Livia Eisler, Gustavo Mota, Kurt Faltin Jr., Cristina L. F. Ortolani

Abstract:

The correct positioning of the brackets is essential for the success of orthodontic treatment. Indirect bracket placing technique has the main objective of eliminating the positioning errors, which commonly occur in the technique of direct system of brackets. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the exact positioning of the brackets is of extreme relevance for the success of the treatment. The present work shows a case report of an adult female patient who attended the clinic with the complaint of being in orthodontic treatment for more than 5 years without noticing any progress. As a result of the intra-oral clinical examination and documentation analysis, a class III malocclusion, an anterior open bite, and absence of all third molars and first upper and lower bilateral premolars were observed. For the treatment, the indirect bonding technique with self-ligating ceramic braces was applied. The preparation of the trays was done after the intraoral digital scanning and printing of models with a 3D printer. Brackets were positioned virtually, using a specialized software. After twelve months of treatment, correction of the malocclusion was observed, as well as the closing of the anterior open bite. It is concluded that the adequate and precise positioning of brackets is necessary for a successful treatment.

Keywords: anterior open-bite, CAD/CAM, orthodontics, malocclusion, angle class III

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1943 Correction of Skeletal Deformity by Surgical Approach – A Case Report

Authors: Davender Kumar, Virender Singh, Rekha Sharma

Abstract:

Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. In adult severe cases, the combined approach, orthodontic and orthognathic surgery, is always the treatment of choice, and the results obtained usually ensure a better esthetic, functional, and stable results Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting mandible retrusion along with class II skeletal deformity with 100% deep bite. Correction was achieved by anterior repositioning of mandible osteotomy along with orthodontic treatment. The patient's facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion.

Keywords: camouflage, skeletal, orthognathic, dental

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1942 Anxiety and Stress as a Function of Dental Disfigurement

Authors: Lata Rathi, N. R. Mrinal

Abstract:

Dental Disfigurement is a major problem for a person who is suffering from Malocclusion. Malocclusion, is a technical name given to crowded, irregular or protruded teeth. In the present investigation the Anxiety and Stress are studied with reference to Dental Disfigurement among Adolescents. The 8 SQ Questionnaire (Cattell,1976)was administered to 50 Male(age range 12-20 years) and 50 Female(age range 12-20 years) patients to investigate anxiety and stress with an equal number of normal’s having no dental disfigurement of teeth. Both the groups, experimental and control were matched on age and sex. It was found that experimental group, i. e. orthodontic patients (M=14.34,s= 4.99) have significantly greater anxiety than their normal counterparts (M=11.8,s= 4.20) F=15.04,p=<.01. The sex differences were not observed. However, with reference to stress it was observed that it was significantly greater in orthodontic patients (M=15.11,s= 4.93 )as compared to normal’s (M=12.83, s=4.87). The gender differences on stress were also observed. The females showed greater stress (M=15.06) as compared to males (M=12.88),F=11.55,p.<1. Overall Malocclusion was found to have significant effect on anxiety and stress.

Keywords: anxiety, malocclusion, orthodontic patients, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
1941 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

Abstract:

Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

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1940 Determination of Skeletal Age in Nigerian Children: Applicability of the Greulich and Pyle Atlas

Authors: Udoaka A. I., Didia B. C.

Abstract:

Background: The maturation of a child’s bones as it grows to adulthood can be viewed radiologically. The skeletal age (bone age) is the average age at which a particular stage of bone maturation is achieved. The Greulich and Pyle standard is the commonest method used to assess the skeletal age using the hand and wrist radiograph throughout the world. This atlas was compiled solely from Caucasian children and made use of the orderly sequence of carpal ossification to determine the skeletal age. Several authors have faulted this atlas for not being suitable for other races. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine if the Greulich and Pyle Atlas is applicable to Nigerian children when compared to their chronological ages. Methods: The total number of 78 normal radiographs of the hand and wrist of Nigerian children obtained from several hospitals were used for this study . These radiographs were compared with the atlas and their skeletal ages noted form the atlas. The child’s chronological age in each case was also recorded. Results: The result shows a mean increase of two months in the skeletal ages of the Nigerian children compared to the atlas. This difference, however, was not significant. The skeletal age (in months) was greater in 77% of the children than the expected age in the atlas. Conclusion: The mean skeletal age of Nigerian children, though more than the standard in the atlas, is not statistically significant; as a result the study finds the radiographic atlas of Greulich and Pyle atlas applicable to Nigerian children.

Keywords: Greulich and Pyle Atlas, radiograph, skeletal age

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1939 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1938 Evaluating Psychosocial Influence of Dental Aesthetics: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Mahjabeen Akbar

Abstract:

Dental aesthetics and its associated psychosocial influence have a significant impact on individuals. Correcting malocclusions is a key motivating factor for majority patients; however, psychosocial factors have been rarely incorporated in evaluating malocclusions. Therefore, it is necessary to study the psychosocial influence of malocclusion in patients. The study aimed to determine the psychosocial influence of dental aesthetics in dental students by the ‘Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire’ and self-rated Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). This was a quantitative study using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred twenty dental students (71 females and 49 males; mean age 24.5) were selected via purposive sampling from July to August 2019. Dental students with no former orthodontic treatment were requested to fill out the ‘Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire.’ Variables including; self-confidence/insecurity, social influence, psychological influence and self-perception of the need of an orthodontic treatment were evaluated by a sequence of statements, while dental aesthetics were evaluated by using the IOTN Aesthetic Component. To determine the significance, the Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized. The results show that all four variables measuring psychosocial impact indicated significant correlations with the perceived malocclusions with a p-value of less than 0.01. The results conclude there is a strong psychological and social influence of altered dental aesthetics on an individual. Moreover, the relationship between the IOTN-AC grading with the psychosocial wellbeing of an individual stands proven, indicating that the perception of altered dental aesthetics is as important as a factor in treatment need as the amount of malocclusion.

Keywords: dental aesthetics, malocclusion, psychosocial influence, dental students

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1937 Association between Bottle-Feeding Habit and Occlusal Disorders in Children 4-6 Years Old

Authors: Roberta S. Ilinsky, Livia Eisler, Gustavo Mota, Kurt Faltin Jr., Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of occlusal disorders associated with bottle feeding habits in children aged 4-6 years old. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 466 preschool children aged 4-6 years, attending state preschools in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents and caregivers answered a questionnaire about children’s oral habits, including bottle-feeding habit, and signed the Informed Consent form. The students underwent an oral examination to evaluate occlusal disorders. Data were analyzed by the SPSS 2.2 program (IBM, USA) and treated with non-parametric chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression with a significance level of p < 0.05. There was association between bottle-feeding and occlusal disorders (OR = 3.058, 95% CI = 1.561-5.991, PI < 0.001), with a higher significance for anterior open bite (OR = 2.855, 95% CI = 1.769-4.606, PI < 0.001) and canine class II (OR = 0.667, 95% CI = 0.449-0.990, PI < 0.045). There was no relationship between bottle-feeding habit and other occlusal disorders examined. It was possible to conclude that children who were bottle fed during childhood are more likely to develop occlusal disorders, especially anterior open bite and canine class II.

Keywords: anterior open-bite, bottle-feeding, habits, malocclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
1936 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1935 Linguistic Codes: Food as a Class Indicator

Authors: Elena Valeryevna Pozhidaeva

Abstract:

This linguistic case study is based on an interaction between the social position and foodways. In every culture there is a social hierarchical system in which there can be means to express and to identify the social status of a person. Food serves as a class indicator. The British being a verbal nation use the words as a preferred medium for signalling and recognising the social status. The linguistic analysis reflects a symbolic hierarchy determined by social groups in the UK. The linguistic class indicators of a British hierarchical system are detectable directly – in speech acts. They are articulated in every aspect of a national identity’s life from preferences of the food and the choice to call it to the names of the meals. The linguistic class indicators can as well be detected indirectly – through symbolic meaning or via the choice of the mealtime, its class (e.g the classes of tea or marmalade), the place to buy food (the class of the supermarket) and consume it (the places for eating out and the frequency of such practices). Under analysis of this study are not only food items and their names but also such categories as cutlery as a class indicator and the act of eating together as a practice of social significance and a class indicator. Current social changes and economic developments are considered and their influence on the class indicators appearance and transformation.

Keywords: linguistic, class, social indicator, English, food class

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1934 Variations in % Body Fat, the Amount of Skeletal Muscle and the Index of Physical Fitness in Relation to Sports Activity/Inactivity in Different Age Groups of the Adult Population in the Czech Republic

Authors: Hřebíčková Sylva, Grasgruber Pavel, Ondráček Jan, Cacek Jan, Kalina Tomáš

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.

Keywords: body composition, body fat, physical activity, skeletal muscle

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1933 From User's Requirements to UML Class Diagram

Authors: Zeineb Ben Azzouz, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa

Abstract:

The automated extraction of UML class diagram from natural language requirements is a highly challenging task. Many approaches, frameworks and tools have been presented in this field. Nonetheless, the experiments of these tools have shown that there is no approach that can work best all the time. In this context, we propose a new accurate approach to facilitate the automatic mapping from textual requirements to UML class diagram. Our new approach integrates the best properties of statistical Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to reduce ambiguity when analysing natural language requirements text. In addition, our approach follows the best practices defined by conceptual modelling experts to determine some patterns indispensable for the extraction of basic elements and concepts of the class diagram. Once the relevant information of class diagram is captured, a XMI document is generated and imported with a CASE tool to build the corresponding UML class diagram.

Keywords: class diagram, user’s requirements, XMI, software engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1932 Studying the Effects of Ruta Graveolens on Spontaneous Motor Activity, Skeletal Muscle Tone and Strychnine Induced Convulsions in Albino Mice and Rats

Authors: Shaban Saad, Syed Ahmed, Suher Aburawi, Isabel Fong

Abstract:

Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported that Ruta graveolens is used traditionally for epilepsy and some other illnesses. The acute and sub-acute effects of alcoholic extract residue were tested for possible anti-epileptic and skeletal muscle relaxation activity. The effect of extract on rat spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also investigated using open filed. We previously proved the anti convulsant activity of the plant against pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced convulsions. Therefore in this study strychnine was used to induce convulsions in order to explore the mechanism of anti-convulsant activity of the plant. The skeletal muscle relaxation activity of Ruta graveolens was studied using pull-up and rod hanging tests in rats. At concentration of 5%w/v the extract protected mice against strychnine induced myoclonic jerks and death. The pull-up and rod hanging tests pointed to a skeletal muscle relaxant activity at higher concentrations. Ruta graveolens extract also significantly decreased the number of squares visited by rats in open field apparatus at all tested concentrations (3.5-20%w/v). However, the significant decrease in number of rearings was only noticed at concentrations of (15 and 20%w/v). The results indicate that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions, decrease SMA and/or diminish skeletal muscle tone in animal models. This data and the previously generated data together point to a general depression trend of CNS produced by Ruta graveolens.

Keywords: Ruta graveolens, open field, skeletal muscle relaxation

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1931 Applications for Accounting of Inherited Object-Oriented Class Members

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

A class in an Object-Oriented (OO) system is the basic unit of design, and it encapsulates a set of attributes and methods. In OO systems, instead of redefining the attributes and methods that are included in other classes, a class can inherit these attributes and methods and only implement its unique attributes and methods, which results in reducing code redundancy and improving code testability and maintainability. Such mechanism is called Class Inheritance. However, some software engineering applications may require accounting for all the inherited class members (i.e., attributes and methods). This paper explains how to account for inherited class members and discusses the software engineering applications that require such consideration.

Keywords: class flattening, external quality attribute, inheritance, internal quality attribute, object-oriented design

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1930 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah

Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength

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1929 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma (Kaushik)

Abstract:

Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: longitudinal, physical training, skeletal diameters, step progression load

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1928 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak

Abstract:

Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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1927 Crossbite Unilateral Correction Using Transpalatal Arch with Extension Arm Modification

Authors: Hanifa Maryani Ahmad, Muslim Yusuf

Abstract:

Background: Unilateral crossbite can be defined as an abnormal transverse relationship between the upper and lower teeth where the mandibular buccal cusp occluding to the maxillary buccal cusp and which involves only one side of the arch. This report describes the treatment of an adolescent female with Class III malocclussion unilateral crossbite resulting from a mildly constricted maxillary arch. The patient had a Class III skeletal relationship, Class III molar relationships, unilateral crossbite on the left side, and deviated midlines. Objectives: The treatment objectives were to correct the abnormal transverse relationship, achieve proper dental inclination, and correct the unilateral crossbites to improve the facial profile. Case management: The treatment protocol was using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification to expand the maxillary arch. Following the levelling and aligning stage of treatment, using a vertical loop while mandibular arch was expanded after getting an end to end relationship on the anterior side. Results: Corrections of the unilateral crossbite were achieved in 4 months. The treatment is still on process because the canines relationship were not corrected. Conclusions: This report highlights a treatment using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification that can be used to expand the transverse width of an arch to correct the discrepancy. Even though the treatment processes were still ongoing, the correction of the unilateral crossbite have been achieved in 4 months by only using the transpalatal arch.

Keywords: crossbite unilateral, late growing, non-extraction, transpalatal arch

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1926 The Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal Muscle: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Christobel Gondwe, Yongtao Lu, Claudia Mazzà, Xinshan Li

Abstract:

Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the human body system and function by generating voluntary forces and facilitating body motion. However, The mechanical properties and behaviour of skeletal muscle are still not comprehensively known yet. As such, various robust engineering techniques have been applied to better elucidate the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle. It is considered that muscle mechanics are highly governed by the architecture of the fibre orientations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fibre orientations on the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle.In this study, a continuum mechanics approach–finite element (FE) analysis was applied to the left bicep femoris long head to determine the contractile mechanism of the muscle using Hill’s three-element model. The geometry of the muscle was segmented from the magnetic resonance images. The muscle was modelled as a quasi-incompressible hyperelastic (Mooney-Rivlin) material. Two types of fibre orientations were implemented: one with the idealised fibre arrangement, i.e. parallel single-direction fibres going from the muscle origin to insertion sites, and the other with curved fibre arrangement which is aligned with the muscle shape.The second fibre arrangement was implemented through the finite element method; non-uniform rational B-spline (FEM-NURBs) technique by means of user material (UMAT) subroutines. The stress-strain behaviour of the muscle was investigated under idealised exercise conditions, and will be further analysed under physiological conditions. The results of the two different FE models have been outputted and qualitatively compared.

Keywords: FEM-NURBS, finite element analysis, Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic, muscle architecture

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1925 Suitability of Class F Flyash for Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, J. N. Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study evaluates the properties of class F fly ash as a replacement of natural materials in civil engineering construction industry. The low-lime flash similar to class F is the prime variety generated in India, although it has significantly smaller volumes of high-lime fly ash as compared to class C. The chemical and physical characterization of the sample is carried out with the number of experimental approaches in order to investigate all relevant features present in the samples. For chemical analysis, elementary quantitative results from point analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to identify the element images of different fractions. The physical properties found very close to the range of common soils. Furthermore, the fly ash-based bricks were prepared by the same sample of class F fly ash and the results of compressive strength similar to that of Standard Clay Brick Grade 1 available in the local market of India.

Keywords: fly ash, class F, class C, chemical, physical, SEM, EDS

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1924 Degree of Approximation of Functions by Product Means

Authors: Hare Krishna Nigam

Abstract:

In this paper, for the first time, (E,q)(C,2) product summability method is introduced and two quite new results on degree of approximation of the function f belonging to Lip (alpha,r)class and W(L(r), xi(t)) class by (E,q)(C,2) product means of Fourier series, has been obtained.

Keywords: Degree of approximation, (E, q)(C, 2) means, Fourier series, Lebesgue integral, Lip (alpha, r)class, W(L(r), xi(t))class of functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1923 Mechanical Properties of Class F Fly Ash Blended Concrete Incorporation with Natural Admixture

Authors: T. S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja

Abstract:

This research work revealed that effect of Natural admixture (NAD) on Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class F Fly Ash(FA) blended concrete. Broiler hen egg white albumen and yellow yolk were used as Natural Admixture. Cement was replaced by Class F fly ash at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its mass and NAD was added to concrete at different replacement dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00% by its volume to water content and liquid to binder ratio was maintained at 0.5. For all replacement levels of FA and NAD, the mechanical properties viz unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of CC and Class F fly ash (FA) were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. From the results, it was concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage was considered as optimum dosage for both CC and class F fly ash blended concrete. The studies revealed that 35% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as optimum mix and 55% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as economical mix with 0.25% NAD dosage.

Keywords: Class F fly ash, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, natural admixture, splitting tensile strength, unit weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1922 Quantitative Analysis of Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Insulin Resistant C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

Authors: Masocorro Gawned, Stephen Myers, Guat Siew Chew

Abstract:

Nuclear Receptors (NR) are a super family of transcription factors that play a major role in lipid and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Recently, pharmacological evidence supports the view that stimulation of nuclear receptors alleviates Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The orphan nuclear receptors (ONR) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily whose ligands and physiological functions remain unknown. To date, no systematic studies have been carried out to screen for ONRs expressed in insulin resistant (IR) skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, in this study, we have established a model for IR by treating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells with insulin (10nM) for 48 hours. Western Blot analysis of phosphorylated AKT confirmed IR. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results highlighted key ONRs including NUR77 (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2) and NOR1 (NR4A3) which have been associated with fatty acid oxidation regulation and glucose homeostasis. Increased mRNA expression levels of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), REV-ERBα, NUR77, NURR1, NOR1, in insulin resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, indicated that these ONRs could potentially play a pivotal regulatory role of insulin secretion in lipid metabolism. Taken together, this study has successfully contributed to the complete analysis of ONR in IR, and has filled in an important void in the study and treatment of T2D.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, orphan nuclear receptors, transcription receptors, quantitative mRNA expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1921 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 406