Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Andy Keane

48 Multiresolution Mesh Blending for Surface Detail Reconstruction

Authors: Honorio Salmeron Valdivieso, Andy Keane, David Toal

Abstract:

In the area of mechanical reverse engineering, processes often encounter difficulties capturing small, highly localized surface information. This could be the case if a physical turbine was 3D scanned for lifecycle management or robust design purposes, with interest on eroded areas or scratched coating. The limitation partly is due to insufficient automated frameworks for handling -localized - surface information during the reverse engineering pipeline. We have developed a tool for blending surface patches with arbitrary irregularities into a base body (e.g. a CAD solid). The approach aims to transfer small surface features while preserving their shape and relative placement by using a multi-resolution scheme and rigid deformations. Automating this process enables the inclusion of outsourced surface information in CAD models, including samples prepared in mesh handling software, or raw scan information discarded in the early stages of reverse engineering reconstruction.

Keywords: application lifecycle management, multiresolution deformation, reverse engineering, robust design, surface blending

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
47 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester

Abstract:

In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, Rule Based Architecture, Aircraft Design, Decision Support System

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
46 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: flow column, electrocoagulation, dissolved oxygen, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
45 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Andy Shaw, Al Shamma'A Ahmed

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, microwave, plasma reactor, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
44 AINA: Disney Animation Information as Educational Resources

Authors: Piedad Garrido, Fernando Repulles, Andy Bloor, Julio A. Sanguesa, Jesus Gallardo, Vicente Torres, Jesus Tramullas

Abstract:

With the emergence and development of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Higher Education is experiencing rapid changes, not only in its teaching strategies but also in student’s learning skills. However, we have noticed that students often have difficulty when seeking innovative, useful, and interesting learning resources for their work. This is due to the lack of supervision in the selection of good query tools. This paper presents AINA, an Information Retrieval (IR) computer system aimed at providing motivating and stimulating content to both students and teachers working on different areas and at different educational levels. In particular, our proposal consists of an open virtual resource environment oriented to the vast universe of Disney comics and cartoons. Our test suite includes Disney’s long and shorts films, and we have performed some activities based on the Just In Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology. More specifically, it has been tested by groups of university and secondary school students.

Keywords: information retrieval, animation, educational resources, JiTT

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
43 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James

Abstract:

With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: biomedicine, cosmology, personal training, photo-elicitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
42 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
41 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang

Abstract:

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
40 The Constitution of Kenya, 2010, and the Feminist Legal Theory

Authors: Tecla Rita Karendi, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

Although before and at the advent of colonial administration, several women such as Mekatilili wa Menza and Muthoni Nyanjiru took up leadership positions in resisting the colonial administration. Kenya is generally considered a patriarchal society. Many women who tried to take up positions of leadership in postcolonial Kenya, such as the Nobel Prize winner Wangari Maathai, were branded as prostitutes or generally immoral women. However, the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, has since made a huge impact not only in the area of affirmative action but also in various aspects of the feminist legal theory such as the constitutional requirement that no more than two-thirds of the members of the elective or appointive bodies should be of the same gender. This favours women who are often sidelined in elective posts such as parliament or county assemblies and state-appointed posts in the parastatals and commissions. The constitution also recognizes the right to abortion, which was outrightly outlawed in the independence constitution. Certain practices adverse to women’s health, such as wife inheritance, female genital mutilation, and property rights, are either outlawed or framed to recognized women’s rights. The education of the girl-child is also now considered a priority, unlike in the past. Despite these developments, a lot remains to be done.

Keywords: feminist legal theory, constitution of Kenya, 2010, affirmative action, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
39 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

Abstract:

Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft, Saudi Arabia, spatial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
38 Fiction and Reality in Animation: Taking Final Flight of the Osiris as an Example

Authors: Syong-Yang Chung, Xin-An Chen

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the less well-known animation “Final Flight of the Osiris”, consisting of an initial exploration of the film color, storyline, and the simulacrum meanings of the roles, which leads to a further exploration of the light-shadow contrast and the psychological images presented by the screen colors and the characters. The research is based on literature review, and all data was compiled for the analysis of the visual vocabulary evolution of the characters. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the animation and the historical background of that time came first, including The Wachowskis’ and Andy Jones’ impact towards the cinematographic version and the animation version of “The Matrix”. Through literature review, the film color, the meaning and the relevant points were clarified. It was found in this research that “Final Flight of the Osiris” separates the realistic and virtual spaces by the changing the color tones; the "self" of the audience gradually dissolves into the "virtual" in the simulacra world, and the "Animatrix" has become a virtual field for the audience to understand itself about "existence" and "self".

Keywords: the matrix, the final flight of Osiris, Wachowski brothers, simulacres

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
37 The Impacts of Local Decision Making on Customisation Process Speed across Distributed Boundaries

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Qahtani, Gary. B. Wills, Andy. M. Gravell

Abstract:

Communicating and managing customers’ requirements in software development projects play a vital role in the software development process. While it is difficult to do so locally, it is even more difficult to communicate these requirements over distributed boundaries and to convey them to multiple distribution customers. This paper discusses the communication of multiple distribution customers’ requirements in the context of customised software products. The main purpose is to understand the challenges of communicating and managing customisation requirements across distributed boundaries. We propose a model for Communicating Customisation Requirements of Multi-Clients in a Distributed Domain (CCRD). Thereafter, we evaluate that model by presenting the findings of a case study conducted with a company with customisation projects for 18 distributed customers. Then, we compare the outputs of the real case process and the outputs of the CCRD model using simulation methods. Our conjecture is that the CCRD model can reduce the challenge of communication requirements over distributed organisational boundaries, and the delay in decision making and in the entire customisation process time.

Keywords: customisation software products, global software engineering, local decision making, requirement engineering, simulation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
36 Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in Some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria

Authors: Andy Obinna Ibeje

Abstract:

In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content; Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords: erodibility, indices, soil, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
35 Automated Classification of Hypoxia from Fetal Heart Rate Using Advanced Data Models of Intrapartum Cardiotocography

Authors: Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Paul Fergus, Andy Shaw

Abstract:

Uterine contractions produced during labour have the potential to damage the foetus by diminishing the maternal blood flow to the placenta. In order to observe this phenomenon labour and delivery are routinely monitored using cardiotocography monitors. An obstetrician usually makes the diagnosis of foetus hypoxia by interpreting cardiotocography recordings. However, cardiotocography capture and interpretation is time-consuming and subjective, often lead to misclassification that causes damage to the foetus and unnecessary caesarean section. Both of these have a high impact on the foetus and the cost to the national healthcare services. Automatic detection of foetal heart rate may be an objective solution to help to reduce unnecessary medical interventions, as reported in several studies. This paper aim is to provide a system for better identification and interpretation of abnormalities of the fetal heart rate using RStudio. An open dataset of 552 Intrapartum recordings has been filtered with 0.034 Hz filters in an attempt to remove noise while keeping as much of the discriminative data as possible. Features were chosen following an extensive literature review, which concluded with FIGO features such as acceleration, deceleration, mean, variance and standard derivation. The five features were extracted from 552 recordings. Using these features, recordings will be classified either normal or abnormal. If the recording is abnormal, it has got more chances of hypoxia.

Keywords: cardiotocography, foetus, intrapartum, hypoxia

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
34 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

Abstract:

Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Africa Solar Potential, policy, photovoltaic, technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
33 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
32 Understanding Climate Change with Chinese Elderly: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Climate Change in East China

Authors: Pelin Kinay, Andy P. Morse, Elmer V. Villanueva, Karyn Morrissey, Philip L Staddon, Shanzheng Zhang, Jingjing Liu

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluate the climate change and health related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the elderly population (60 years plus) in Hefei and Suzhou cities of China (n=300). This cross-sectional study includes 150 participants in each city. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and climate change perceptions were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. When asked about the potential impacts of climate change over 79% of participants stated that climate change affected their lifestyle. Participants were most concerned about storms (51.7%), food shortage (33.3%) and drought (26%). The main health risks cited included water contamination (32%), air pollution related diseases (38.3%) and lung disease (43%). Finally, a majority (68.3%) did not report receiving government assistance on climate change issues. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data in order to understand the links between socio-demographical factors and KAP of the participants. These findings provide insights for potential adaptation strategies targeting the elderly. It is recommended that government should take responsibility in creating awareness strategies to improve the coping capacity of elderly in China to climate change and its health impacts and develop climate change adaptation strategies.

Keywords: China, climate change, elderly, KAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
31 Re-Os Application to Petroleum System: Implications from the Geochronology and Oil-Source Correlation of Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Authors: Junjie Liu, David Selby, Mark Obermajer, Andy Mort

Abstract:

The inaugural application of Re-Os dating, which is based on the beta decay of 187Re to 187Os with a long half-life of 41.577 ± 0.12 Byr and initially used for sulphide minerals and organic rich rocks, to petroleum systems was performed on bitumen of the Polaris Mississippi Valley Type Pb-Zn deposit, Canada. To further our understanding of the Re-Os system and its application to petroleum systems, here we present a study on Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The Late Devonian Duvernay Formation organic-rich shales are the only source of the petroleum system. The Duvernay shales reached maturation only during the Laramide Orogeny (80 – 35 Ma) and the generated oil migrated short distances into the interfingering Leduc reefs and overlying Nisku carbonates with no or little secondary alteration post oil-generation. Although very low in Re and Os, the asphaltenes of Duvernay-sourced Leduc and Nisku oils define a Laramide Re-Os age. In addition, the initial Os isotope compositions of the oil samples are similar to that of the Os isotope composition of the Duvernay Formation at the time of oil generation, but are very different to other oil-prone intervals of the basin, showing the ability of the Os isotope composition as an inorganic oil-source correlation tool. In summary, the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to record the timing of oil generation and trace the source of an oil is confirmed in the Re-Os study of Duvernay Petroleum System.

Keywords: Duvernay petroleum system, oil generation, oil-source correlation, Re-Os

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
30 Legal Feminism, Modernity and Their Impact on Some African Countries

Authors: Umulisa Linda, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

The origin of legal feminism can be attributed to an attempt to provide a safe space for women such as voting, parental, and inheritance rights, among others. It was also a rebellion against male supremacy. However, with the development of technology and especially in the era of the internet, it appears that both legal feminism and the modernism are losing their luster. While these movements had their origin either in the United States of America or western Europe, their impacts have been felt as far as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, different countries have different levels of penetration of these movements. This study, therefore, had its focus on how legal feminism and modernism have influenced legal developments in Kenya and Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative approach with the respondents being asked about their feelings and perceptions on how the two movements had affected legal developments in their countries. In order to gauge the opinion of different categories of people such as the youth, middle-aged and the elderly people as well as being gender-sensitive, the study adopted a purpose method of sampling. The questionnaires and the focus group discussions were employed as the main tools for data gathering. From the questionnaires, the focus group discussions, and the data analysis that followed, the study concluded that both legal feminism and modernity had penetrated the legal systems of both Kenya and Rwanda so deeply. The study further found that the proponents of the two movements were mostly urban based and educated women. The men were generally opposed to the movements.

Keywords: legal development, legal feminsim, modernism, voting, parental and inheritance rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
29 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, flow column, electrocoagulation, aluminium electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
28 A Case Study on Evaluating and Selecting Soil /Pipeline Interaction Analysis Software for the Oil and Gas Industry

Authors: Abdinasir Mohamed, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Steven Yeomans, Matthew Frost, Andy Connell

Abstract:

The evaluation and selection of appropriate software solutions to meet with an organisation’s inherent business requirements can be a problematic software engineering process that if done incorrectly can have a significant, costly and adverse effect on the business and its processes. The aim of this paper is to show the process and evaluation criteria followed to select the right engineering solution for the identified business requirement. The research adopted an action research method within an organisation in the oil and gas industry, which required a solution suitable for conducting stress analysis for soil-pipeline interaction analysis (SPIA). Through the use of the presented software selection and evaluation approach, to capture and measure key requirements, it was possible to determine a suitable software for the organisation. This paper investigates methodologies for selecting software packages, software evaluation techniques, and software evaluation criteria in evaluating software packages before providing an explanation of the developed methodology adopted. The key findings of the study are: (1) that there is a need to create a framework for software selection methodologies, (2) there are no universal selection criteria in the engineering industry, and (3) there is a need to validate the findings by creating an application based on the evaluation technique and evaluation criteria for selecting software packages for the engineering industry. The findings of the study are offered to support organisations in the oil and gas sector improve software selection methodologies for SPIA.

Keywords: software evaluation, end user programs, soil pipeline analysis, software selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
27 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
26 Radio Frequency Identification Device Based Emergency Department Critical Care Billing: A Framework for Actionable Intelligence

Authors: Shivaram P. Arunachalam, Mustafa Y. Sir, Andy Boggust, David M. Nestler, Thomas R. Hellmich, Kalyan S. Pasupathy

Abstract:

Emergency departments (EDs) provide urgent care to patients throughout the day in a complex and chaotic environment. Real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasingly being utilized in healthcare settings, and have shown to improve safety, reduce cost, and increase patient satisfaction. Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) data in an ED has been shown to compute variables such as patient-provider contact time, which is associated with patient outcomes such as 30-day hospitalization. These variables can provide avenues for improving ED operational efficiency. A major challenge with ED financial operations is under-coding of critical care services due to physicians’ difficulty reporting accurate times for critical care provided under Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 99291 and 99292. In this work, the authors propose a framework to optimize ED critical care billing using RFID data. RFID estimated physician-patient contact times could accurately quantify direct critical care services which will help model a data-driven approach for ED critical care billing. This paper will describe the framework and provide insights into opportunities to prevent under coding as well as over coding to avoid insurance audits. Future work will focus on data analytics to demonstrate the feasibility of the framework described.

Keywords: critical care billing, CPT codes, emergency department, RFID

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
25 Augmented Reality Software for Improving Microvascular Breast Reconstructive Surgery

Authors: Kyla A. Gabriel, Alan C. Jesky, Luke A. Arntz, Angela M. Totoro, Andy Tang

Abstract:

About 1 in 8 American women will develop breast cancer and may undergo breast reconstruction surgery after the surgical removal of their breasts. In the microvascular reconstructive procedure, surgeons must find a specific blood vessel, the deep inferior epigastric artery, using a computed tomography (CT) scan. The problem with only using a CT scan for this procedure is that the surgeon is unable to see the vessel in a three-dimensional (3D) space. Furthermore, mapping this blood vessel during surgical procedures increases the intraoperative time. The main objective is to use augmented reality (AR) software to map the blood vessel’s location on the patient in real space. This gives the surgeon an accurate idea of where the artery is specifically in the patient and may improve the surgical precision. The methodology includes creating software in MATLAB that can convert CT scan data into 3D rendered images. These images are then projected into real space using the Microsoft HoloLens 2 AR headset. The 3D image will only map the desired blood vessels using image processing in the software, which includes binarizing, structuring, and eroding certain parts of the images. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) laminated sheets covering three unique SQRC codes are used to help the headset place the 3D projection correctly onto the patient. This paper presents a method to improve surgical accuracy in microvascular breast reconstructive surgery through AR, which may produce a significant impact on healthcare by reducing surgical time and increasing surgical precision.

Keywords: augmented reality, biomedical imaging, surgery, software

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24 The Illustrated Affair of Art and Fashion

Authors: Prabhdip Brar

Abstract:

Art and Fashion are coupled by a common bridge which is ‘Creativity.’ For centuries, art has influenced fashion and has been inspirational for modern-day national as well as international designers. Italian artists during the renaissance period were highly influenced by art. 20th and 21st-century artists have often found themselves the muses of major fashion houses. Many times artists and designers like Andy Warhol, Damien Hirst and Dior, Prada, respectively, have collaborated and successfully created prints, textiles and silhouettes that have dazzled the art and fashion world. This paper nudges deeper and discourses the statement pieces of remarkable designers that have been influenced by art and adorned by international celebrities. Indian designer Manish Arora has been able to design a remarkable position for himself in the international fashion world. His clothes are avant-garde and favored the choice of celebrities like Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. The in-depth discussion of how Manish Arora’s collaboration with Berlin-based artist Amrie Hoffstater has led to a construction that is a real feast for the eyes. The latest collaboration despite being in the pandemic, is between Sabyasachi(India) and Bergdorfs Goodman(New York. It boasts of the traditional Colonial Indian sensibility juxtaposed with the eclectic western American mix for the new age wearer. A Qualitative and exploratory Research design is steered towards both art and fashion as they reflect the social, economic and political changes. Social issues are highlighted through these platforms. Secondary data has been used for this paper to explain how designers have bridged the way for how one could wear fashion as a piece of art in and of itself. Conclusively this paper's findings reach the perfect marriage between Art & Fashion. A live and active project in terms of Interdisciplinary Learning.

Keywords: art, artist, collaboration, designer, fashion, relationship

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23 Analysing Trends in Rice Cropping Intensity and Seasonality across the Philippines Using 14 Years of Moderate Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

Authors: Bhogendra Mishra, Andy Nelson, Mirco Boschetti, Lorenzo Busetto, Alice Laborte

Abstract:

Rice is grown on over 100 million hectares in almost every country of Asia. It is the most important staple crop for food security and has high economic and cultural importance in Asian societies. The combination of genetic diversity and management options, coupled with the large geographic extent means that there is a large variation in seasonality (when it is grown) and cropping intensity (how often it is grown per year on the same plot of land), even over relatively small distances. Seasonality and intensity can and do change over time depending on climatic, environmental and economic factors. Detecting where and when these changes happen can provide information to better understand trends in regional and even global rice production. Remote sensing offers a unique opportunity to estimate these trends. We apply the recently published PhenoRice algorithm to 14 years of moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS) data (utilizing 250m resolution 16 day composites from Terra and Aqua) to estimate seasonality and cropping intensity per year and changes over time. We compare the results to the surveyed data collected by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The study results in a unique and validated dataset on the extent and change of extent, the seasonality and change in seasonality and the cropping intensity and change in cropping intensity between 2003 and 2016 for the Philippines. Observed trends and their implications for food security and trade policies are also discussed.

Keywords: rice, cropping intensity, moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS), phenology, seasonality

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22 Causes of Pokir in the Budgeting Process: Case Study in the Province of Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Tri Nopiyanto, Rahardhyani Dwiannisa, Arief Ismaryanto

Abstract:

One main issue for a certain region in order to achieve development is if the government that consists of the executive, legislative and judicial board are able to work together. However, there are certain conditions that these boards are the sources of conflict, especially between the executive and legislative board. One of the example of the conflict is between the Local Government and Legislative Board (DPRD) in the Province of Jakarta in 2015. The cause of this conflict is because of the occurrence of pokir (pokok pikiran or ideas of budgeting). Pokir is driven by a budgeting plan that is arranged by DPRD that is supposed to be sourced from the aspiration of the people and delivered 5 months before the legalization of Local Government Budget (APBD), but the current condition in Jakarta is that pokir is a project by DPRD members itself and delivered just 3 days before the legalization in order to facilitate the interests of the members of the legislative. This paper discusses how pokir happens and what factors caused it. This paper uses political budgeting theory by Andy Norton and Diane Elson to analyze the issue. The method used in this paper is qualitative to collect the data and solve the problem of this research. The methods involved are in depth interview, experimental questionnaire, and literature studies. Results of this research are that Pokir occurs because of the distribution of power among DPRD members, between parties, executive, and legislative board. Beside that, Pokir also occurs because of the lack of the people’s participation in budgeting process and monitoring. Other than that, this paper also found that pokir also happens because of the budgeting system that is not able to provide a clean budgeting process, so it enables the creation of certain slots to add pokir into the budgets. Pokir also affects the development of Jakarta that goes through stagnation. This research recommends the implementation of e-budgeting to prevent the occurrence of pokir itself in the Province of Jakarta.

Keywords: legislative and executive board, Jakarta, political budgeting, Pokir

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21 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason

Abstract:

Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

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20 Clinical Audit on the Introduction of Apremilast into Ireland

Authors: F. O’Dowd, G. Murphy, M. Roche, E. Shudell, F. Keane, M. O’Kane

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Intoduction: Apremilast (Otezla®) is an oral phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor indicated for treatment of adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who have contraindications to have failed or intolerant of standard systemic therapy and/or phototherapy; and adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. Apremilast influences intracellular regulation of inflammatory mediators. Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating apremilast in 1426 patients with moderate to severe plague psoriasis (ESTEEM 1 and 2) demonstrated that the commonest adverse reactions (AE’s) leading to discontinuation were nausea (1.6%), diarrhoea (1.0%), and headaches (0.8%). The overall proportion of subjects discontinuing due to adverse reactions was 6.1%. At week 16 these trials demonstrated significant more apremilast-treated patients (33.1%) achieved the primary end point PASI-75 than placebo (5.3%). We began prescribing apremilast in July 2015. Aim: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of apremilast in an Irish teaching hospital psoriasis population. Methods: A proforma documenting clinical evaluation parameters, prior treatment experience and AE’s; was completed prospectively on all patients commenced on apremilast since July 2015 – July 2017. Data was collected at week 0,6,12,24,36 and week 52 with 20/71 patients having passed week 52. Efficacy was assessed using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). AE’s documented included GI effects, infections, changes in weight and mood. Retrospective chart review and telephone review was utilised for missing data. Results: A total of 71 adult subjects (38 male, 33 female; age range 23-57), with moderate to severe psoriasis, were evaluated. Prior treatment: 37/71 (52%) were systemic/biologic/phototherapy naïve; 14/71 (20%) has prior phototherapy alone;20/71 (28%) had previous systemic/biologic exposure; 12/71 (17%) had both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. PASI responses: mean baseline PASI was 10.1 and DLQI was 15.Week 6: N=71, n=15 (21%) achieved PASI 75. Week 12: N= 48, n=6 (13%) achieved a PASI 100%; n=16 (34.5%) achieved a PASI 75. Week 24: N=40, n=10 (25%) achieved a PASI 100; n=15 (37.5%) achieved a PASI 75. Week 52: N= 20, n=4 (20%) achieved a PASI 100; n= 16 (80%) achieved a PASI 75. (N= number of pts having passed the time point indicated, n= number of pts (out of N) achieving PASI or DLQI responses at that time). DLQI responses: week 24: N= 40, n=30 (75%) achieved a DLQI score of 0; n=5 (12.5%) achieved a DLQI score of 1; n=1 (2.5%) achieved a DLQI score of 10 (due to lack of efficacy). Adverse Events: The proportion of patients that discontinued treatment due to AE’s was n=7 (9.8%). One patient experienced nausea alleviated by dose reduction; another developed significant dysgeusia for certain foods, both continued therapy. Two patients lost 2-3 kg. Conclusion: Initial Irish patient experience of Apremilast appears comparable to that observed in trials with good efficacy and tolerability.

Keywords: Apremilast, introduction, Ireland, clinical audit

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19 The Efficacy of Video Education to Improve Treatment or Illness-Related Knowledge in Patients with a Long-Term Physical Health Condition: A Systematic Review

Authors: Megan Glyde, Louise Dye, David Keane, Ed Sutherland

Abstract:

Background: Typically patient education is provided either verbally, in the form of written material, or with a multimedia-based tool such as videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or via the internet. By providing patients with effective educational tools, this can help to meet their information needs and subsequently empower these patients and allow them to participate within medical-decision making. Video education may have some distinct advantages compared to other modalities. For instance, whilst eHealth is emerging as a promising modality of patient education, an individual’s ability to access, read, and navigate through websites or online modules varies dramatically in relation to health literacy levels. Literacy levels may also limit patients’ ability to understand written education, whereas video education can be watched passively by patients and does not require high literacy skills. Other benefits of video education include that the same information is provided consistently to each patient, it can be a cost-effective method after the initial cost of producing the video, patients can choose to watch the videos by themselves or in the presence of others, and they can pause and re-watch videos to suit their needs. Health information videos are not only viewed by patients in formal educational sessions, but are increasingly being viewed on websites such as YouTube. Whilst there is a lot of anecdotal and sometimes misleading information on YouTube, videos from government organisations and professional associations contain trustworthy and high-quality information and could enable YouTube to become a powerful information dissemination platform for patients and carers. This systematic review will examine the efficacy of video education to improve treatment or illness-related knowledge in patients with various long-term conditions, in comparison to other modalities of education. Methods: Only studies which match the following criteria will be included: participants will have a long-term physical health condition, video education will aim to improve treatment or illness related knowledge and will be tested in isolation, and the study must be a randomised controlled trial. Knowledge will be the primary outcome measure, with modality preference, anxiety, and behaviour change as secondary measures. The searches have been conducted in the following databases: OVID Medline, OVID PsycInfo, OVID Embase, CENTRAL and ProQuest, and hand searching for relevant published and unpublished studies has also been carried out. Screening and data extraction will be conducted independently by 2 researchers. Included studies will be assessed for their risk of bias in accordance with Cochrane guidelines, and heterogeneity will also be assessed before deciding whether a meta-analysis is appropriate or not. Results and Conclusions: Appropriate synthesis of the studies in relation to each outcome measure will be reported, along with the conclusions and implications.

Keywords: long-term condition, patient education, systematic review, video

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