Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 627

Search results for: synchronous generator

627 Development of an Analytical Model for a Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: T. Sahbani, M. Bouteraa, R. Wamkeue

Abstract:

Wind Turbine are considered to be one of the more efficient system of energy production nowadays, a reason that leads the main industrial companies in wind turbine construction and researchers in over the world to look for better performance and one of the ways for that is the use of the synchronous permanent magnet generator. In this context, this work is about developing an analytical model that could simulate different situation in which the synchronous generator may go through, and of course this model match perfectly with the numerical and experimental model. Downloads 472
626 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar

Abstract:

For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results. Downloads 174
625 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator. Downloads 68
624 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG. Downloads 355
623 Six-Phase Tooth-Coil Winding Starter-Generator Embedded in Aerospace Engine

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to solve the problem of increasing the electrification of aircraft engines by installing a synchronous generator at high pressure shaft. Technical solution of this problem by various research centers is discussed. A design solution of the problem was proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed cooling system, thermal analysis was carried out in ANSYS software. Downloads 178
622 Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement

Authors: J. Ritonja, R. Brezovnik, M. Petrun, B. Polajžer

Abstract:

Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators. Downloads 149
621 The Design, Control and Dynamic Performance of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Wind Power System

Authors: Olusegun Solomon

Abstract:

This paper describes the concept for the design and maximum power point tracking control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine system. Two design concepts are compared to outline the effect of magnet design on the performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous generator. An approximate model that includes the effect of core losses has been developed for the machine to simulate the dynamic performance of the wind energy system. An algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking control is included to describe the process for maximum power extraction. Downloads 138
620 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. These issue is extremely important in research and development(R&D) process for wind turbine applications. Downloads 570
619 The Analysis of Loss-of-Excitation Algorithm for Synchronous Generators

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the study in which the excitation system fault of synchronous generator is simulated. In a case of excitation system fault (loss of field), distance relay is used to prevent further damage. Loss-of-field relay calculates complex impedance using measured voltage and current at the generator terminals. In order to obtain phasors from sampled measured values, discrete Fourier transform is used. All simulations are conducted using Matlab and Simulink software package. The analysis is conducted on the two machine system which supplies equivalent load. While simulating loss of excitation on one generator in different conditions (at idle operation, weakly loaded, and fully loaded), diagrams of active power, reactive power, and measured impedance are analyzed and monitored. Moreover, in the simulations, the effect of generator load on relay tripping time is investigated. In conclusion, the performed tests confirm that the fault in the excitation system can be detected by measuring the impedance. Downloads 233
618 Synchronous Generator in Case Voltage Sags for Different Loads

Abstract:

This paper studies the effects of voltage sags, both symmetrical and unsymmetrical, on the three-phase Synchronous Machine (SM) when powering an isolate load or infinite bus bar. The vast majority of the electrical power generation systems in the world is consist of synchronous generators coupled to the electrical network though a transformer. Voltage sags on SM cause speed variations, current and torque peaks and hence may cause tripping and equipment damage. The consequences of voltage sags in the machine behavior depends on different factors such as its magnitude (or depth), duration , the parameters of the machine and also the size of load. In this study, we consider the machine feeds an infinite bus bar in the first and the isolate load using symmetric and asymmetric defaults to see the behavior of the machine in both case the simulation have been used on SIMULINK MATLAB. Downloads 513
617 A Review on Control of a Grid Connected Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine

Abstract:

Among all available wind energy conversion systems (WECS), the direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator integrated with power electronic interfaces is becoming popular due to its capability of extracting optimal energy capture, reduced mechanical stresses, no need to external excitation current, meaning less losses, and more compact size. Simple structure, low maintenance cost; and its decoupling control performance is much less sensitive to the parameter variations of the generator. This paper attempts to present a review of the control and optimization strategies of WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and overview the most recent research trends in this field. The main aims of this review include; the generalized overall WECS starting from turbines, generators, and control strategies including converters, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), ending with DC-link control. The optimization methods of the controller parameters necessary to guarantee the operation of the system efficiently and safely, especially when connected to the power grid are also presented. Downloads 157
616 Optimal Tuning of RST Controller Using PSO Optimization for Synchronous Generator Based Wind Turbine under Three-Phase Voltage Dips

Authors: K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, T. Allaoui, C. Gerard, M. Doumi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented an optimized RST controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic technique of the active and reactive power regulation of a grid connected wind turbine based on a wound field synchronous generator. This regulation is achieved below the synchronous speed, by means of a maximum power point tracking algorithm. The control of our system is tested under typical wind variations and parameters variation, fault grid condition by simulation. Some results are presented and discussed to prove simplicity and efficiency of the WRSG control for WECS. On the other hand, according to simulation results, variable speed driven WRSG is not significantly impacted in fault conditions. Downloads 374
615 Self-Tuning Power System Stabilizer Based on Recursive Least Square Identification and Linear Quadratic Regulator

Authors: J. Ritonja

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614 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors. Downloads 269
613 Permanent Magnet Generator – One Phase Regime Operation

Authors: Pawel Pistelok

Abstract:

The article presents the concept of an electromagnetic circuit of a 3-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet generator designed for a single phase operation. A cross section of electromagnetic circuit and a field-circuit model of generator used for computations are shown. The paper presents comparative analysis of simulation results obtained for two different versions of generator regarding construction of armature winding. In the first version of generator the voltages generated in each of three winding phases have different rms values (different number of turns in each of phases), three winding phases are connected in series and one phase load is connected to the two output terminals of generator. The second version of generator is very similar, i.e. three winding phases are connected in series and one phase load is powered by generator, but in this version the voltages generated in each of winding phases have exactly the same rms values (the same number of turns in each of phases). The time waveforms of voltages, currents and electromagnetic torques in the airgaps of two machine versions for rated power are shown. Downloads 620
612 Power Angle Control Strategy of Virtual Synchronous Machine: A Novel Approach to Control Virtual Synchronous Machine

Abstract:

Renewable energies such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic have gained significance as a result of global environmental pollution and energy crises. These sources of energy are converted into electrical energy and delivered to end-users through the utility system. As a result of the widespread use of power electronics-based grid-interfacing technologies to accommodate renewable sources of energy, the prevalence of converters has expanded as well. As a result, the power system's rotating inertia is decreasing, endangering the utility grid's stability. The use of Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) technology has been proposed to overcome the grid stability problem due to low rotating inertia. The grid-connected inverter used in VSM can be controlled to emulate inertia, which replicates the external features of a synchronous generator. As a result, the rotating inertia is increased to support the power system's stability. A power angle control strategy is proposed in this paper and its model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to study the effects of parameter disturbances on the active power and frequency for a VSM. The system consists of a synchronous generator, which is modeled in such a way that the frequency drops to an unacceptable region during transient conditions due to a lack of inertia when VSM is not used. Then, the suggested model incorporating VSM emulates rotating inertia, injecting a controllable amount of energy into the grid during frequency transients to enhance transient stability. Downloads 119
611 A Study on Analysis of Magnetic Field in Induction Generator for Small Francis Turbine Generator

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to verify validity of design by testing output of induction generator through finite element analysis before manufacture of induction generator designed. Characteristics in the operating domain of induction generator can be understood through analysis of magnetic field according to load (rotational speed) of induction generator. Characteristics of induction generator such as induced voltage, current, torque, magnetic flux density (magnetic flux saturation), and loss can be predicted by analysis of magnetic field. Downloads 563
610 Design of Electromagnetic Field of PMSG for VTOL Series-Hybrid UAV

Abstract:

Series hybrid UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle) that is proposed in this paper performs VTOL(Vertical take-off and landing) using the battery and generator, and it applies the series hybrid system with combination of the small engine and generator when cruising flight. This system can be described as the next-generation system that can dramatically increase the UAV flight times. Also, UAV systems require a large energy at the time of VTOL to be conducted for a short time. Therefore, this paper designs PMSG(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) having a high specific power considering VTOL through the FEA.

Keywords: PMSG, VTOL, UAV, high specific power density

609 Distributed Generation Connection to the Network: Obtaining Stability Using Transient Behavior

Abstract:

The growing use of DGs in distribution networks provide many advantages and also cause new problems which should be anticipated and be solved with appropriate solutions. One of the problems is transient voltage drop and short circuit in the electrical network, in the presence of distributed generation - which can lead to instability. The appearance of the short circuit will cause loss of generator synchronism, even though if it would be able to recover synchronizing mode after removing faulty generator, it will be stable. In order to increase system reliability and generator lifetime, some strategies should be planned to apply even in some situations which a fault prevent generators from separation. In this paper, one fault current limiter is installed due to prevent DGs separation from the grid when fault occurs. Furthermore, an innovative objective function is applied to determine the impedance optimal amount of fault current limiter in order to improve transient stability of distributed generation. Fault current limiter can prevent generator rotor's sudden acceleration after fault occurrence and thereby improve the network transient stability by reducing the current flow in a fast and effective manner. In fact, by applying created impedance by fault current limiter when a short circuit happens on the path of current injection DG to the fault location, the critical fault clearing time improve remarkably. Therefore, protective relay has more time to clear fault and isolate the fault zone without any instability. Finally, different transient scenarios of connection plan sustainability of small scale synchronous generators to the distribution network are presented. Downloads 131
608 Performance Analysis of a 6-Phase PMG Exciter with Rotating Thyristor-Controlled Rectification Topologies

Abstract:

The thyristor bridge rectifier is often used for control of excitation equipment for synchronous generators. However, on the rotating shaft of brushless exciters, the diode bridge rectifier is mostly used. The step response of a conventional brushless rotating excitation system is slow compared to static excitation systems. This paper investigates the performance of different thyristor-controlled rectification topologies applied on the shaft of a 6-phase PMG exciter connected to a synchronous generator. One of the important issues is the steady-state torque ripple produced by the thyristor bridges. Downloads 389
607 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator: Unsymmetrical Point Operation

Authors: P. Pistelok

Abstract:

The article presents the concept of an electromagnetic circuit generator with permanent magnets mounted on the surface rotor core designed for single phase work. Computation field-circuit model was shown. The spectrum of time course of voltages in the idle work was presented. The cross section with graphically presentation of magnetic induction in particular parts of electromagnetic circuits was presented. Distribution of magnetic induction at the rated load point for each phase were shown. The time course of voltages and currents for each phases for rated power were displayed. An analysis of laboratory results and measurement of load characteristics of the generator was discussed. The work deals with three electromagnetic circuits of generators with permanent magnet where output voltage characteristics versus rated power were expressed. Downloads 221
606 Effects of Magnetization Patterns on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Generator for Wave Energy Converter Applications

Authors: Sung-Won Seo, Jang-Young Choi

Abstract:

The rare earth magnets used in synchronous generators offer many advantages, including high efficiency, greatly reduced the size, and weight. The permanent magnet linear synchronous generator (PMLSG) allows for direct drive without the need for a mechanical device. Therefore, the PMLSG is well suited to translational applications, such as wave energy converters and free piston energy converters. This manuscript compares the effects of different magnetization patterns on the characteristics of double-sided PMLSGs in slotless stator structures. The Halbach array has a higher flux density in air-gap than the Vertical array, and the advantages of its performance and efficiency are widely known. To verify the advantage of Halbach array, we apply a finite element method (FEM) and analytical method. In general, a FEM and an analytical method are used in the electromagnetic analysis for determining model characteristics, and the FEM is preferable to magnetic field analysis. However, the FEM is often slow and inflexible. On the other hand, the analytical method requires little time and produces accurate analysis of the magnetic field. Therefore, the flux density in air-gap and the Back-EMF can be obtained by FEM. In addition, the results from the analytical method correspond well with the FEM results. The model of the Halbach array reveals less copper loss than the model of the Vertical array, because of the Halbach array’s high output power density. The model of the Vertical array is lower core loss than the model of Halbach array, because of the lower flux density in air-gap. Therefore, the current density in the Vertical model is higher for identical power output. The completed manuscript will include the magnetic field characteristics and structural features of both models, comparing various results, and specific comparative analysis will be presented for the determination of the best model for application in a wave energy converting system. Downloads 232
605 Real Time Implementation of Efficient DFIG-Variable Speed Wind Turbine Control

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In this paper, design and experimental study based on Direct Power Control (DPC) of DFIG is proposed for Stand-alone mode in Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System (VS-WECS). The proposed IDPC method based on robust IP (Integral-Proportional) controllers in order to control the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) by the means of the rotor current d-q axes components (Ird* and Irq*) of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) through AC-DC-AC converter. The implementation is realized using dSPACE dS1103 card under Sub and Super-synchronous operations (means < and > of the synchronous speed “1500 rpm”). Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed control using IP provides improved dynamic responses, and decoupled control of the wind turbine has driven DFIG with high performances (good reference tracking, short response time and low power error) despite for sudden variation of wind speed and rotor references currents. Downloads 62
604 Design of 100 kW Induction Generator for Wind Power Plant at Tamanjaya Village-Sukabumi

Abstract:

This paper present about induction generator design for 100kW power output capacity. Induction machine had been chosen because of the capability for energy conversion from electric energy to mechanical energy and vise-versa with operation on variable speed condition. Stator Controlled Induction Generator (SCIG) was applied as wind power plant in Desa Taman Jaya, Sukabumi, Indonesia. Generator was designed to generate power 100 kW with wind speed at 12 m/s and survival condition at speed 21 m/s. Downloads 433
603 An Algorithm for Preventing the Irregular Operation Modes of the Drive Synchronous Motor Providing the Ore Grinding

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The current scientific and engineering interest concerning the problems of preventing the emergency manifestations of drive synchronous motors, ensuring the ore grinding technological process has been justified. The analysis of the known works devoted to the abnormal operation modes of synchronous motors and possibilities of protection against them, has shown that their application is inexpedient for preventing the impermissible displays arising in the electrical drive synchronous motors ensuring the ore-grinding process. The main energy and technological factors affecting the technical condition of synchronous motors are evaluated. An algorithm for preventing the irregular operation modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor applied in the ore-grinding technological process has been developed and proposed for further application which gives an opportunity to provide smart solutions, ensuring the safe operation of the drive synchronous motor by a comprehensive consideration of the energy and technological factors. Downloads 64
602 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load. Downloads 69
601 Static Eccentricity Fault Diagnosis in Synchronous Reluctance Motor and Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel view of air gap magnetic field analysis of synchronous reluctance motor and permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor under static eccentricity to provide the precise fault diagnosis based on three-dimensional finite element method is presented. Analytical nature of this method makes it possible to simulate reliable and precise model by considering the end effects and axial fringing effects. The results of the three-dimensional finite element analysis of synchronous reluctance motor and permanent magnet synchronous reluctance motor such as flux linkage, flux density, and compression both of SynRM and PM-SynRM for various eccentric motor conditions are obtained and analyzed. These results present useful information regarding to the detection of static eccentricity. Downloads 225
600 Direct Drive Double Fed Wind Generator

Abstract:

An electric machine topology characterized by single tooth winding in both stator and rotor is presented. The proposed machine is capable of operating as a direct drive double fed wind generator (DDDF, D3F) because it requires no gearbox and only a reduced-size converter. A wind turbine drive built around a D3F generator is cheaper to manufacture, requires less maintenance, and has a higher energy yield than its conventional counterparts. The single tooth wound generator of a D3F turbine has superb volume utilization and lower stator I2R losses due to its extremely short-end windings. Both stator and rotor of a D3F generator can be manufactured in segments, which simplifies its assembly and transportation to the site, and makes production cheaper. Downloads 9
599 Task Space Synchronization Control of Multi-Robot Arms with Position Synchronous Method

Authors: Zijian Zhang, Yangyang Dong

Abstract:

Synchronization is of great importance to ensure the multi-arm robot to complete the task. Therefore, a synchronous controller is designed to coordinate task space motion of the multi-arm in the paper. The position error, the synchronous position error, and the coupling position error are all considered in the controller. Besides, an adaptive control method is used to adjust parameters of the controller to improve the effectiveness of coordinated control performance. Simulation in the Matlab shows the effectiveness of the method. At last, a robot experiment platform with two 7-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot arms has been established and the synchronous controller simplified to control dual-arm robot has been validated on the experimental set-up. Experiment results show the position error decreased 10% and the corresponding frequency is also greatly improved. Downloads 85
598 An Algorithm for Estimating the Stable Operation Conditions of the Synchronous Motor of the Ore Mill Electric Drive

Authors: M. Baghdasaryan, A. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor of the ore mill electric drive is proposed. The stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor are revealed, taking into account the estimation of the q angle change and the technological factors. The stability condition obtained allows to ensure the stable operation of the motor in the synchronous mode, taking into account the nonlinear character of the mill loading. The developed algorithm gives an opportunity to present the undesirable phenomena, arising in the electric drive system. The obtained stability condition can be successfully applied for the optimal control of the electromechanical system of the mill. Downloads 344