Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Sharad P. Jadhav

24 Fuzzy and Fuzzy-PI Controller for Rotor Speed of Gas Turbine

Authors: Mandar Ghodekar, Sharad Jadhav, Sangram Jadhav

Abstract:

Speed control of rotor during startup and under varying load conditions is one of the most difficult tasks of gas turbine operation. In this paper, power plant gas turbine (GE9001E) is considered for this purpose and fuzzy and fuzzy-PI rotor speed controllers are designed. The goal of the presented controllers is to keep the turbine rotor speed within predefined limits during startup condition as well as during operating condition. The fuzzy controller and fuzzy-PI controller are designed using Takagi-Sugeno method and Mamdani method, respectively. In applying the fuzzy-PI control to a gas-turbine plant, the tuning parameters (Kp and Ki) are modified online by fuzzy logic approach. Error and rate of change of error are inputs and change in fuel flow is output for both the controllers. Hence, rotor speed of gas turbine is controlled by modifying the fuel ƒflow. The identified linear ARX model of gas turbine is considered while designing the controllers. For simulations, demand power is taken as disturbance input. It is assumed that inlet guide vane (IGV) position is fixed. In addition, the constraint on the fuel flow is taken into account. The performance of the presented controllers is compared with each other as well as with H∞ robust and MPC controllers for the same operating conditions in simulations.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, Power Plant, fuzzy controller, fuzzy PI controller

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23 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar

Abstract:

This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, FEM analysis, metal spinning, simulation of metal spinning

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22 Design and Implementation of LabVIEW Based Relay Autotuning Controller for Level Setup

Authors: Manoj M. Sarode, Sharad P. Jadhav, Mukesh D. Patil, Pushparaj S. Suryawanshi

Abstract:

Even though the PID controller is widely used in industrial process, tuning of PID parameters are not easy. It is a time consuming and requires expert people. Another drawback of PID controller is that process dynamics might change over time. This can happen due to variation of the process load, normal wear and tear etc. To compensate for process behavior change over time, expert users are required to recalibrate the PID gains. Implementation of model based controllers usually needs a process model. Identification of process model is time consuming job and no guaranty of model accuracy. If the identified model is not accurate, performance of the controller may degrade. Model based controllers are quite expensive and the whole procedure for the implementation is sometimes tedious. To eliminate such issues Autotuning PID controller becomes vital element. Software based Relay Feedback Autotuning Controller proves to be efficient, upgradable and maintenance free controller. In Relay Feedback Autotune controller PID parameters can be achieved with a very short span of time. This paper presents the real time implementation of LabVIEW based Relay Feedback Autotuning PID controller. It is successfully developed and implemented to control level of a laboratory setup. Its performance is analyzed for different setpoints and found satisfactorily.

Keywords: labview, PID, controller, autotuning, liquid level control, recalibrate

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21 Mode of Suicide and Alcohol Use Pattern among Female Commercial Sex Workers

Authors: S. Madhusudhan, G. V. Vaniprabha, S. G. Jadhav

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of alcohol use, mode of suicide and extent of depression among 150 female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Bangalore, India. After going through a short detoxification programme of two weeks, Karma yoga principles of Shrimad Bhagavad Gita were used as a tool for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for a period of four weeks to maintain abstinence and help with their depression. A six month follow up indicated that they had maintained abstinence over that period and had not attempted suicide, either.

Keywords: Depression, Suicide, alcohol dependence, commercial sex workers

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20 Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Neetu Malik, Subrata Bandhu Ghosh

Abstract:

Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

Keywords: Density, water absorption, PCL, thermally exfoliated graphene oxide

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19 Optimization of Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Method for Bainitic Steel Machining

Authors: Vinay Patil, Swapnil Kekade, Ashish Supare, Vinayak Pawar, Shital Jadhav, Rajkumar Singh

Abstract:

In recent days, bainitic steel is used in automobile and non-automobile sectors due to its high strength. Bainitic steel is difficult to machine because of its high hardness, hence in this paper machinability of bainitic steel is studied by using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) approach. Convectional turning experiments were done by using L16 orthogonal array for three input parameters viz. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed. The Taguchi method is applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters with surface roughness (Ra), cutting force and tool wear rate. By using Taguchi analysis, optimized process parameters for best surface finish and minimum cutting forces were analyzed.

Keywords: Taguchi method, conventional turning, S/N ratio, bainitic steel machining

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18 An Integrated Approach to Find the Effect of Strain Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Randomly Oriented Short Glass Fiber Composite in Combination with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Arun Jalan

Abstract:

In this study tensile testing was performed on randomly oriented short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens which were prepared using hand lay-up method. Samples were tested over a wide range of strain rate/loading rate from 2mm/min to 40mm/min to see the effect on ultimate tensile strength of the composite. A multi layered 'back propagation artificial neural network of supervised learning type' was used to analyze and predict the tensile properties with strain rate and temperature as given input and output as UTS to predict. Various network structures were designed and investigated with varying parameters and network sizes, and an optimized network structure was proposed to predict the UTS of short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens with reasonably good accuracy.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Artificial Neural Network, strain rate, glass fiber composite

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17 Complex Decision Rules in the Form of Decision Trees

Authors: Avinash S. Jagtap, Sharad D. Gore, Rajendra G. Gurao

Abstract:

Decision rules become more and more complex as the number of conditions increase. As a consequence, the complexity of the decision rule also influences the time complexity of computer implementation of such a rule. Consider, for example, a decision that depends on four conditions A, B, C and D. For simplicity, suppose each of these four conditions is binary. Even then the decision rule will consist of 16 lines, where each line will be of the form: If A and B and C and D, then action 1. If A and B and C but not D, then action 2 and so on. While executing this decision rule, each of the four conditions will be checked every time until all the four conditions in a line are satisfied. The minimum number of logical comparisons is 4 whereas the maximum number is 64. This paper proposes to present a complex decision rule in the form of a decision tree. A decision tree divides the cases into branches every time a condition is checked. In the form of a decision tree, every branching eliminates half of the cases that do not satisfy the related conditions. As a result, every branch of the decision tree involves only four logical comparisons and hence is significantly simpler than the corresponding complex decision rule. The conclusion of this paper is that every complex decision rule can be represented as a decision tree and the decision tree is mathematically equivalent but computationally much simpler than the original complex decision rule

Keywords: Innovative, Strategic, Adaptive, operational, TACTICAL

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16 Application of Response Surface Methodology (Rsm) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N, Gayatri Jadhav

Abstract:

Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: response surface methodology, fluoride, banana peel, dosage

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15 Effect of Plasticizer Additives on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Composite: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis

Authors: R. Mohan, V. Jadhav, A. Ahmed, J. Rivas, A. Kelkar

Abstract:

Cementitious materials are an excellent example of a composite material with complex hierarchical features and random features that range from nanometer (nm) to millimeter (mm) scale. Multi-scale modeling of complex material systems requires starting from fundamental building blocks to capture the scale relevant features through associated computational models. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) modeling is employed to predict the effect of plasticizer additive on the mechanical properties of key hydrated cement constituent calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) at the molecular, nanometer scale level. Due to complexity, still unknown molecular configuration of CSH, a representative configuration widely accepted in the field of mineral Jennite is employed. The effectiveness of the Molecular Dynamics modeling to understand the predictive influence of material chemistry changes based on molecular/nanoscale models is demonstrated.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, Mechanical Properties, cement composite, plasticizer additives

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14 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav

Abstract:

Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: Environmental Concerns, recycle, chemical reclamation, clay content, waste foundry sand

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13 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: Purushottam Bhawre, P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal

Abstract:

The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, Geomagnetic Storm, TEC, sheath driven magnetic cloud

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12 Absence of Secured Bathing Spaces and Its Effect on Women: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Rural Odisha, India

Authors: Minaj Ranjita Singh, Meghna Mukherjee, Abhijeet Jadhav

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This is an exploratory qualitative study with an objective to understand the bathing practices followed by rural women and its consequences. Access to safe bathing spaces in rural India is a neglected issue due to which women are affected in various ways. Today, government policies are largely focused towards the building of toilets, but no importance has been given to the construction of bathrooms. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using in-depth interviews and focused group discussions with rural women in six villages of Odisha, India. The study was approved by an Institutional Research and Ethics Committee, and informed consent was taken from participants. For most of the participants, the access to water, bathing space and toilet was compromised posing various challenges in their daily lives. Women's daily schedule, hygiene practices, dignity, and health are greatly affected due to this lack. Since bathing in the open has been an ancient practice, the community's perception is benign towards the hardship of women. Lack of exposure to concealed bathing, necessary funds, and competing priorities are some of the household level factors which never let them think about having bathrooms and the lack of water supply, proper drainage system, subsidy or financial support are the governance and policy related factors which prevent their access to secured bathing spaces.

Keywords: Women, Rural, Women's Health, Qualitative, dignity, exploratory, bathrooms

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11 Management of Fungal Diseases of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Using Plant Extracts

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav, R. S. Saler

Abstract:

Onion is most Important Vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but the fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extract (Datura metel, Pongamia pinnata, Ipomoea palmata) at five different concentration Viz, 10,25,50,75 and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning techniquie. Detura metal gave 94.73% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentraton and 26.31% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium, and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Pongamia pinnata L. at 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and at 100% extract concentration 36.84% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was observed. Stemphylium vesicarium give good in inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporium. Ipomoea palmata in 10% extract concentration 92% growth and in 100% extract concentration 40% growth of Fusarium oxysporium was recorded. Fusarium oxysporium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and, Stemphylium vesicarium.

Keywords: pathogen, plant extract, onion, Allium cepa L

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10 Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav

Abstract:

Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: pathogen, Plant, extract, onion

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9 Formulation and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Based Hydrogel for Intranasal Drug Delivery

Authors: Pramod Jagtap, Kisan Jadhav, Neha Dand

Abstract:

Risperidone (RISP) is an antipsychotic agent and has low water solubility and nontargeted delivery results in numerous side effects. Hence, an attempt was made to develop SLNs hydrogel for intranasal delivery of RISP to achieve maximum bioavailability and reduction of side effects. RISP loaded SLNs composed of 1.65% (w/v) lipid mass were produced by high shear homogenization (HSH) coupled ultrasound (US) method using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) or Imwitor 900K (solid lipid). The particles were loaded with 0.2% (w/v) of the RISP & surface-tailored with a 2.02% (w/v) non-ionic surfactant Tween® 80. Optimization was done using 32 factorial design using Design Expert® software. The prepared SLNs dispersion incorporated into Polycarbophil AA1 hydrogel (0.5% w/v). The final gel formulation was evaluated for entrapment efficiency, particle size, rheological properties, X ray diffraction, in vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation using sheep nasal mucosa and histopathological studies for nasocilliary toxicity. The entrapment efficiency of optimized SLNs was found to be 76 ± 2 %, polydispersity index <0.3., particle size 278 ± 5 nm. This optimized batch was incorporated into hydrogel. The pH was found to be 6.4 ± 0.14. The rheological behaviour of hydrogel formulation revealed no thixotropic behaviour. In histopathology study, there was no nasocilliary toxicity observed in nasal mucosa after ex vivo permeation. X-ray diffraction data shows drug was in amorphous form. Ex vivo permeation study shows controlled release profile of drug.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, particle size, Risperidone, ex vivo

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8 A Study of Parental Acceptance: Avoidance Attitude and Adjustment of Urban and Rural Junior College Students

Authors: Ramesh K. Adsul, V. R. Shinde, S. S. Jadhav

Abstract:

The main aim of the present study was to explore the effect of various levels of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude on various areas of adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. It was hypothesized that 1. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental acceptance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 2. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental avoidance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 3. There would be no significant difference between urban and rural Junior College students on various areas of (home, health, social, and emotional) adjustment. The 847 students (427 boys and 420 girls) studying in 11th class of various Junior colleges in Sangli ,Satara and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra State, India were selected by random sampling method. Study was conducted by using two psychological tests namely 1. Family Relationship Inventory. 2.Bell’s Adjustment Inventory. One way ANOVA was employed to find out the effect of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude and adjustment in various areas of urban and rural junior college students. ‘t’ test was used to find out the difference between urban and rural students on various areas of adjustment. The results of the study indicate that (1) It is observed that three groups of parental acceptance attitude (PA) are significantly varied on home and social adjustment. It means that PA affects home and social adjustment of adolescents. High PA creates excellent adjustment and low PA creates poor adjustment in adolescents. (2) Study revealed that PV significantly affects adjustment of adolescents. High PV significantly creates poor adjustment in adolescents than average and low PV. (3) There is significant difference between urban and rural adolescents on adjustment. Urban adolescents have better adjustment than rural adolescents.

Keywords: parental acceptance, avoidance attitude, adjustment, urban-rural student

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7 Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs Using Biosericin

Authors: Namdeo Jadhav, Nitin Salunkhe

Abstract:

Currently, sericin is being treated as waste of sericulture industry, especially at reeling process. Looking at prospective physicochemical properties, an attempt has been made to explore pharmaceutical applications of sericin waste in fabrication of medicated solid dispersions. Solid dispersions (SDs) of poorly soluble drugs (Lornoxicam, Meloxicam & Felodipine) were prepared by spray drying, solvent evaporation, ball milling and physical kneading in mass ratio of drug: sericin (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5 and 1:3 w/w) and were investigated by solubility, ATR-FTIR, XRD and DSC, micromeritics and tablettability, surface morphology and in-vitro dissolution. It has been observed that sericin improves solubility of drugs by 8 to 10 times compared to pure drugs. The presence of hydrogen bonding between drugs and sericin was confirmed from the ATR-FTIR spectra. Amongst these methods, spray dried (1:2 w/w) SDs showed fully amorphous state representing molecularly distributed drug as confirmed from XRD and DSC study. Spray dried meloxicam SDs showed better compressibility and compactibility. The microphotograph of spray dried batches of lornoxicam (SDLX) and meloxicam SDs (SDMX) showed bowl shaped, and bowl plus spherical particles respectively, while spray dried felodipine SDs (SDFL) showed spherical shape. The SDLX, SDMX and SDFL (1:2 w/w) displayed better dissolution performance than other methods. Conclusively, hydrophilic matrix of sericin can be used to deliver poor water soluble drugs and its aerodynamic shape may show a great potential for various drug deliveries. If established as pharmaceutical excipient, sericin holds a potential to revolutionise economics of pharmaceutical industry, and sericulture farming, especially of Asian countries.

Keywords: solid dispersion, biosericin, poorly soluble drugs, solubility and dissolution improvement

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6 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender

Abstract:

Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: Resistance, MRSA, nanocarrier, biosafe, unimolecular-micelles

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5 Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sinha, Sharad Singh, Anukriti Sinha

Abstract:

Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers and Frictional Dampers in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significant improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems.

Keywords: viscous damping, supplemental damping, frictional damping, parallel coupling, response control, series coupling

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4 Studies on Pre-ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: V. R. Sanal Kumar, S. Ajith, S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar

Abstract:

In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the starting transient flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a 3D SST k-ω turbulence model. This code solves standard k-omega turbulence equations with shear flow corrections using a coupled second order implicit unsteady formulation. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create pre-ignition thrust oscillations due to flow unsteadiness and recirculation. Under these conditions the convective flux to the surface of the propellant will be enhanced, which will create reattachment point far downstream of the transition region and it will create a situation for secondary ignition and formation of multiple-flame fronts. As a result the effective time required for the complete burning surface area to be ignited comes down drastically giving rise to a high pressurization rate (dp/dt) in the second phase of starting transient. This in effect could lead to starting thrust oscillations and eventually a hard start of the solid rocket motor. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations will be diminished rapidly and will reach the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the thrust oscillations and unexpected thrust spike often observed in solid rockets with non-uniform ports are presumably contributed due to the joint effects of the geometry dependent driving forces, transient burning and the chamber gas dynamics forces. We also concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or pressure/thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, thrust transient

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3 Academic Identities in Transition

Authors: Caroline Selai, Sushrut Jadhav

Abstract:

Background: University College London (UCL), the first secular university in England to admit students regardless of their religion and gender, has nearly 29,000 students of which approximately 30% are international students. The UCL Cultural Consultation Service (CCS) for staff and students is a unique service that provides assistance to staff and students experiencing challenges in their teaching, enabling, support work or studies which they believe may have a cultural component. The service provides one-to-one and group consultations, lectures, seminars, ‘grand rounds’, interactive workshops and bespoke interventions. Data: This paper presents a content analysis of CCS referrals over the last 36 months. We focus on the experience of international students, many of whom experience not only a challenge to their academic identity but also a profound challenge to their personal cultural identity. We also present 3 vignettes to illustrate how students interpret, accept, contest and resist changes in their cultural and academic identity. Discussion: This paper highlights (i) how students from collectivist cultures attempt to assimilate within an individualistic, highly competitive western university that is bound by its own institutional norms; (ii) problems in negotiating challenges at the interface of culture and gender (iii) the impact of culturally different hierarchies of power, discrimination and authority and (iv) the significance of earlier traumatic and kinship conflicts. Many international students’ social identities are shaped by their cultural and family scripts. A large number have been taught that their teachers are to be revered and their teachings unchallenged. This is at odds with quintessential goal of the western university to encourage healthy scepticism and hone students’ critical thinking skills. Conclusions: Pupil-teacher ‘cultural transference’ and shifts in cultural academic identities of students underscore critical aspects of developmental and learning challenges for students. Staff-student cultural conflict requires a broader, systemic analysis of students, staff and the wider organisation. Our findings challenge Eurocentric psychodynamic concepts such as the nature of parent-child relationship in Western Europe. We argue for a broader, more inclusive approach to develop both effective pedagogic skills in euro-american academic institutions and culturally- appropriate psychodynamic theory to underpin counselling international students.

Keywords: Cultural identity, academic identity, cultural transference, cultural consultation in higher education, cultural formulation

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2 Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug (Fenofibrate)

Authors: Nitin Jadhav, Pradeep R. Vavia

Abstract:

Poor water soluble drugs are difficult to promote for oral drug delivery as they demonstrate poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility and dissolution in GIT fluid. Nowadays lipid based formulations especially self microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is found as the most effective technique. With all the impressive advantages, the need of high amount of surfactant (50% - 80%) is the major drawback of SMEDDS. High concentration of synthetic surfactant is known for irritation in GIT and also interference with the function of intestinal transporters causes changes in drug absorption. Surfactant may also reduce drug activity and subsequently bioavailability due to the enhanced entrapment of drug in micelles. In chronic treatment these issues are very conspicuous due to the long exposure. In addition the liquid self microemulsifying system also suffers from stability issues. Recently one novel approach of solid stabilized micro and nano emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has very admirable properties such as high stability, absence or very less concentration of surfactant and easily converts into the dry form. So here we are exploring pickering dry emulsion system for dissolution enhancement of anti-lipemic, extremely poorly water soluble drug (Fenofibrate). Oil moiety for emulsion preparation was selected mainly on the basis of higher solubility of drug. Captex 300 was showed higher solubility for fenofibrate, hence selected as oil for emulsion. With Silica (solid stabilizer); Span 20 was selected to improve the wetting property of it. Emulsion formed by Silica and Span20 as stabilizer at the ratio 2.5:1 (silica: span 20) was found very stable at the particle size 410 nm. The prepared emulsion was further preceded for spray drying and formed microcapsule evaluated for in-vitro dissolution study, in-vivo pharmacodynamic study and characterized for DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, optical microscopy etc. The in vitro study exhibits significant dissolution enhancement of formulation (85 % in 45 minutes) as compared to plain drug (14 % in 45 minutes). In-vivo study (Triton based hyperlipidaemia model) exhibits significant reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol with formulation as compared to plain drug indicating increasing in fenofibrate bioavailability. DSC and XRD study exhibit loss of crystallinity of drug in microcapsule form. FTIR study exhibit chemical stability of fenofibrate. SEM and optical microscopy study exhibit spherical structure of globule coated with solid particles.

Keywords: Stability, surfactant, silica, captex 300, fenofibrate, pickering dry emulsion, span20

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1 Evaluation of Magnificent Event of India with Special Reference to Maha Kumbha Mela (Fair) 2013-A Congregation of Millions

Authors: Sharad Kumar Kulshreshtha

Abstract:

India is a great land of cultural and traditional diversity. Its spectrums create a unique ambiance in all over the country. Specially, fairs and festivals are ancient phenomena in Indian culture. In India, there are thousands of such religious, spiritual, cultural fairs organized on auspicious occasions. These fairs reflect the effective and efficient role of social governance and responsibility of Indian society. In this context a mega event known as ‘Kumbha Mela’ literally mean ‘Kumbha Fair’ which is organize after every twelve years at (Prayaag) Allahabad an ancient city of India, now is in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Kumbh Mela is one of the largest human congregations on the Earth. The Kumbha Mela that is held here is considered to be the largest and holiest city among the four cities where Kubha fair organize. According to the Hindu religious scripture a dip for possessing the holy confluence, known as Triveni Sangam, which is a meeting point of the three sacred rivers of India i.e., –Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati (mythical). During the Kumbha fair the River Ganges is believed to turn to nectar, bringing great blessing to everyone who bathes in it. Other activities include religious discussions, devotional singings and mass feedings pilgrims and poor. The venue for Kumbh Mela (fair) depends on the position Sun, Moon, and Jupiter which holds in that period in different zodiac signs. More than 120 Millions (12 Crore) people visited in the Kumbha Fair-2013 in Allahabad. A temporary tented city was set up for the pilgrims over an area of 2 hectares of the land along the river of Ganges. As many as 5 power substations, temporary police stations, hospitals, bus terminals, stalls were set up for providing various facilities to the visitors and thousands of volunteers participated for assistance of this event. All efforts made by fair administration to provide facility to visitors, such security and sanitation, medical care and frequent water and power supply. The efficient and timely arrangement at the Kumbha Mela attracted the attention of many government and institutions. The Harvard University of USA conducted research to find out how it was made possible. This paper will focuses on effective and efficient planning and preparation of Kumbha Fair which includes facilitation process, role of various coordinating agencies. risk management crisis management strategies Prevention, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery (PPRR Approach), emergency response plan (ERP), safety and security issues, various environmental aspects along with health hazards and hygiene crowd management, evacuation, monitoring, control and evaluation.

Keywords: Risk management, India, Crowd Management, event planning and facility arrangement

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