Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: chloride-free coagulant

40 Application of Nonlinear Model to Optimize the Coagulant Dose in Drinking Water Treatment

Authors: M. Derraz, M.Farhaoui


In the water treatment processes, the determination of the optimal dose of the coagulant is an issue of particular concern. Coagulant dosing is correlated to raw water quality which depends on some parameters (turbidity, ph, temperature, conductivity…). The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with a tool that enables to predict and replace, sometimes, the manual method (jar testing) used in this plant to predict the optimum coagulant dose. The model is constructed using actual process data for a water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, aluminum sulfate, model, coagulant dose

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39 Effectiveness of Jackfruit Seed Starch as Coagulant Aid in Landfill Leachate Treatment

Authors: Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Noor Aina Mohamad Zuki, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri


Currently, aluminium sulphate (alum), ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) are the most common coagulants being used for leachate coagulation-flocculation treatment. However, the impact of these residual’s coagulants have sparked huge concern ceaselessly. Therefore, development of natural coagulant as an alternative coagulant for treatment process has been given full attentions. In this attempt jackfruit seed starch (JSS) was produce by extraction method. The removal efficiency was determined using jar test method. The removal of organic matter and ammonia were compared between JSS used in powder form and diluted form in leachate. The yield of starch from the extraction method was 33.17 % with light brown in colour. The removal of turbidity was the highest at pH 8 for both diluted and powdered JSS with 38% and 8.7% of removal. While for colour removal the diluted JSS showed 18.19% of removal compared to powdered JSS. The diluted JSS also showed the highest removal of suspended solid with 3.5% compared to powdered JSS with 2.8%. Instead of coagulant, JSS as coagulant aid has succeed to reduce the dosage of PAC from 900 mg/L to 528 mg/L by maintaining colour and turbidity removal up to 94% and 92 % respectively. The JSS coagulant also has decreased the negative charge of the leachate nearly to the neutral charge (0.209 mv). The result proved that JSS was more effective to be used as coagulant aid landfill leachate treatment.

Keywords: landfill leachate, natural coagulant, jackfruit seed starch, coagulant

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38 The Clarification of Palm Oil Wastewater Treatment by Coagulant Composite from Palm Oil Ash

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumol Soparatana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Worapong Pattayawan, Atiporn Jinprayoon, Saroj Klangkongsap, Supinya Sutthima


In this work focus on clarification in palm oil wastewater treatment by using coagulant composite from palm oil ash. The design of this study was carried out by two steps; first, synthesis of new coagulant composite from palm oil ash which was fused by using Al source combined with Fe source and form to the crystal by the hydrothermal crystallization process. The characterization of coagulant composite from palm oil ash was analyzed by advanced instruments, and The pattern was analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), chemical composition by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRFS) and morphology characterized by SEM. The second step, the clarification wastewater treatment efficiency of synthetic coagulant composite, was evaluated by coagulation/flocculation process based on the COD, turbidity, phosphate and color removal of wastewater from palm oil factory by varying the coagulant dosage (1-8 %w/v) with no adjusted pH and commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and poly aluminum chloride) which adjusted the pH (6). The results found that the maximum removal of 6% w/v of synthetic coagulant from palm oil ash can remove COD, turbidity, phosphate and color was 88.44%, 93.32%, 93.32% and 93.32%, respectively. The experiments were compared using 6% w/v of commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and Polyaluminum Chloride) can remove COD of 74.29%, 71.43% and 57.14%, respectively.

Keywords: coagulation, coagulant, wastewater treatment, waste utilization, palm oil ash

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37 Municipal Leachate Treatment by Using Polyaluminium Chloride as a Coagulant

Authors: Syeda Azeem Unnisa


The present study was undertaken at Jawaharnagar Solid Waste Municipal Dumpsite, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Telangana State, India in 2017 which generates 90,000 litres of leachate per day. The main objective of the leachate treatment was to remove organic compounds like color, suspended solids, ammonia and COD by coagulation-flocculation using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as coagulant which has higher coagulant efficiency and relative low cost compared to the conventional coagulants. Jar test apparatus was used to conduct experiments for pH 7, rapid mixing speed 150 rpm for 3 minute, slow mixing speed 30 rpm for 20 minute and the settling time of 30 minute for different dosage of PAC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/L). The highest percentage of removal of suspended solids, color, COD and ammonical nitrogen are 97%, 96%, 60% and 37% with PAC optimum dose of 2.0 g/l. The results indicate that the PAC was effective in leachate treatment which is very much suitable for high toxicity of waste and economically feasible for Indian conditions. The treated water can be utilized for other purpose apart from drinking.

Keywords: coagulant, leachate, polyaluminium chloride, treatment

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36 Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Green Chlorine-Free Coagulants

Authors: Huihui Zhang, Zhongzhi Zhang


Coagulation/flocculation is regarded a simple and effective wastewater treatment technology. Chlorine-containing coagulants may release chloride ions into the wastewater, causing corrosion. A green chlorine-free coagulant of polyaluminum ferric silicate (PSAF) was prepared by the copolymerization method to treat oily refractory wastewaters. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) achieved 97.4% and 93.0% at a dosage of 700 mg/L, respectively. After PSAF coagulation, the chloride ion concentration was also almost the same as that in the raw wastewater. Thus, the chlorine-free coagulant is highly efficient and does not introduce additional chloride ions into the wastewater, avoiding corrosion.

Keywords: coagulation, chloride-free coagulant, oily refractory wastewater, coagulation performance

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35 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang


Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: boron removal, chemical coagulation, aluminum, electro-coagulation

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34 Improvement of Ground Water Quality Index Using Citrus limetta

Authors: Rupas Kumar M., Saravana Kumar M., Amarendra Kumar S., Likhita Komal V., Sree Deepthi M.


The demand for water is increasing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization and increase in population. Due to freshwater scarcity, Groundwater became the necessary source of potable water to major parts of the world. This problem of freshwater scarcity and groundwater dependency is very severe particularly in developing countries and overpopulated regions like India. The present study aimed at evaluating the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI), which represents overall quality of water at certain location and time based on water quality parameters. To evaluate the GWQI, sixteen water quality parameters have been considered viz. colour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese and fluorides. The groundwater samples are collected from Kadapa City in Andhra Pradesh, India and subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly from higher values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, and fluorides. in the present study, citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder has used as a coagulant and GWQI values are recorded in different concentrations to improve GWQI. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to determine the effect of coagulant dosage, mixing speed and stirring time on GWQI. The research found the maximum percentage improvement in GWQI values are obtained when the coagulant dosage is 100ppm, mixing speed is 100 rpm and stirring time is 10 mins. Alum is also used as a coagulant aid and the optimal ratio of citrus limetta and alum is identified as 3:2 which resulted in best GWQI value. The present study proposes Citrus limetta peel powder as a potential natural coagulant to treat Groundwater and to improve GWQI.

Keywords: alum, Citrus limetta, ground water quality index, physicochemical analysis

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33 Extracellular Polymeric Substances Study in an MBR System for Fouling Control

Authors: Dimitra C. Banti, Gesthimani Liona, Petros Samaras, Manasis Mitrakas


Municipal and industrial wastewaters are often treated biologically, by the activated sludge process (ASP). The ASP not only requires large aeration and sedimentation tanks, but also generates large quantities of excess sludge. An alternative technology is the membrane bioreactor (MBR), which replaces two stages of the conventional ASP—clarification and settlement—with a single, integrated biotreatment and clarification step. The advantages offered by the MBR over conventional treatment include reduced footprint and sludge production through maintaining a high biomass concentration in the bioreactor. Notwithstanding these advantages, the widespread application of the MBR process is constrained by membrane fouling. Fouling leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary and resulting to increased operating costs. In general, membrane fouling results from the interaction between the membrane material and the components in the activated sludge liquor. The latter includes substrate components, cells, cell debris and microbial metabolites, such as Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) and Sludge Microbial Products (SMPs). The challenge for effective MBR operation is to minimize the rate of Transmembrane Pressure (TMP) increase. This can be achieved by several ways, one of which is the addition of specific additives, that enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds, which are responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate. In this project the effectiveness of a non-commercial composite coagulant was studied as an agent for fouling control in a lab scale MBR system consisting in two aerated tanks. A flat sheet membrane module with 0.40 um pore size was submerged into the second tank. The system was fed by50 L/d of municipal wastewater collected from the effluent of the primary sedimentation basin. The TMP increase rate, which is directly related to fouling growth, was monitored by a PLC system. EPS, MLSS and MLVSS measurements were performed in samples of mixed liquor; in addition, influent and effluent samples were collected for the determination of physicochemical characteristics (COD, BOD5, NO3-N, NH4-N, Total N and PO4-P). The coagulant was added in concentrations 2, 5 and 10mg/L during a period of 2 weeks and the results were compared with the control system (without coagulant addition). EPS fractions were extracted by a three stages physical-thermal treatment allowing the identification of Soluble EPS (SEPS) or SMP, Loosely Bound EPS (LBEPS) and Tightly Bound EPS (TBEPS). Proteins and carbohydrates concentrations were measured in EPS fractions by the modified Lowry method and Dubois method, respectively. Addition of 2 mg/L coagulant concentration did not affect SEPS proteins in comparison with control process and their values varied between 32 to 38mg/g VSS. However a coagulant dosage of 5mg/L resulted in a slight increase of SEPS proteins at 35-40 mg/g VSS while 10mg/L coagulant further increased SEPS to 44-48mg/g VSS. Similar results were obtained for SEPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates values without coagulant addition were similar to the corresponding values measured for 2mg/L coagulant; the addition of mg/L coagulant resulted to a slight increase of carbohydrates SEPS to 6-7mg/g VSS while a dose of 10 mg/L further increased carbohydrates content to 9-10mg/g VSS. Total LBEPS and TBEPS, consisted of proteins and carbohydrates of LBEPS and TBEPS respectively, presented similar variations by the addition of the coagulant. Total LBEPS at 2mg/L dose were almost equal to 17mg/g VSS, and their values increased to 22 and 29 mg/g VSS during the addition of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L of coagulant respectively. Total TBEPS were almost 37 mg/g VSS at a coagulant dose of 2 mg/L and increased to 42 and 51 mg/g VSS at 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L doses, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that coagulant addition could potentially affect microorganisms activities, excreting EPS in greater amounts. Nevertheless, EPS increase, mainly SEPS increase, resulted to a higher membrane fouling rate, as justified by the corresponding TMP increase rate. However, the addition of the coagulant, although affected the EPS content in the reactor mixed liquor, did not change the filtration process: an effluent of high quality was produced, with COD values as low as 20-30 mg/L.

Keywords: extracellular polymeric substances, MBR, membrane fouling, EPS

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32 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage the sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20 and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96% and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge, turbidity removal

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31 Finding the Reaction Constant between Humic Acid and Aluminum Ion by Fluorescence Quenching Effect

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chen Zhao Feng, Ruey Fang Yu, Lin Jia Jun, Lin Ji Ye, Chen Yuan Wei


Humic acid was used as the removal target for evaluating the coagulation efficiency in this study. When the coagulant ions mix with a humic acid solution, a Fluorescence quenching effect may be observed conditionally. This effect can be described by Stern-Volmer linear equation which can be used for quantifying the quenching value (Kq) of the Fluorescence quenching effect. In addition, a Complex-Formation Titration (CFT) theory was conducted and the result was used to explain the electron-neutralization capability of the coagulant (AlCl₃) at different pH. The results indicated that when pH of the ACl₃ solution was between 6 and 8, fluorescence quenching effect obviously occurred. The maximum Kq value was found to be 102,524 at pH 6. It means that the higher the Kq value is, the better complex reaction between a humic acid and aluminum salts will be. Through the Kq value study, the optimum pH can be quantified when the humic acid solution is coagulated with aluminum ions.

Keywords: humic acid, fluorescence quenching effect, complex reaction, titration

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30 Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Polialuminum Chloride to Treat Palm Oil Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Authors: M. Nasrullah, Siti Norsita, Lakhveer Singh, A. W. Zulrisam, Mimi Sakinah


The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and hydrogen peroxide on COD removal by electrocoagulation. The current density was varied between 30-80 mA cm−2, polyaluminum chloride (1-3 g L-1) as coagulant aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. It has been shown that 86.67% of COD was removed by the iron electrode in 180 min while 81.11% of COD was removed by the aluminum electrode in 210 min which indicate that iron was more effective than aluminum. As much as 88.25% COD was removed by using 80 mA cm−2 as compared to 72.86% by using 30 mA cm−2 in 240 min. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The highest removal efficiency of 95.08% was achieved by adding 2% of H2O2 in addition of 3 g L−1 PAC. The general results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30-80 mAcm-2 depending on the concentration of H2O2 and coagulant aid.

Keywords: electrocaogulation, palm oil mill effluent, hydrogen peroxide, polialuminum chloride, chemical oxygen demand

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29 The Effect of Fly Ash in Dewatering of Marble Processing Wastewaters

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen


In the thermal power plants established to meet the energy need, lignite with low calorie and high ash content is used. Burning of these coals results in wastes such as fly ash, slag and flue gas. This constitutes a significant economic and environmental problems. However, fly ash can find evaluation opportunities in various sectors. In this study, the effectiveness of fly ash on suspended solid removal from marble processing wastewater containing high concentration of suspended solids was examined. Experiments were carried out for two different suspensions, marble and travertine. In the experiments, FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and anionic polymer A130 were used also to compare with fly ash. Coagulant/flocculant type/dosage, mixing time/speed and pH were the experimental parameters. The performances in the experimental studies were assessed with the change in the interface height during sedimentation resultant and turbidity values of treated water. The highest sedimentation efficiency was achieved with anionic flocculant. However, it was determined that fly ash can be used instead of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 in the travertine plant as a coagulant.

Keywords: dewatering, flocculant, fly ash, marble plant wastewater

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28 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

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27 Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N., Gayatri Jadhav


Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: Fluoride, Response Surface Methodology, Dosage, banana peel

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26 Waste Water Treatment by Moringa oleifera Seed Powder in Historical Jalmahal Lake Located in Semi-Arid Monsoon Zone of India

Authors: Pomila Sharma


The rapid urbanization in India was not accompanied by the establishment of waste water treatment facility at similar and same pace. The inland fresh water ecosystem is increasingly subjected to great stress from various human activities. Jalmahal Lake is located in Jaipur city of Rajasthan state; the lake was constructed about 400 years ago and surrounded by hills. The lake was approximately 139 hectare in full spread and has catchment area of 23.5 sq. kilometer. Out of the total catchment area approximate 40% falls inside dense urban area of Jaipur city. During the showers, the treated and untreated waste waters and runoff waters get mixed and enter the lake through the various influx channels, and the lake water quality gets affected by the inflow of waste water. The main objective of this work was to use the Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater in lake. Moringa oleifera is a tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain high-quality edible oil 40% by weight and water soluble, non-toxic protein that act as an effective coagulant for the removal of organic matter in water and waste water treatment. Laboratory Jar test procedure had been used for coagulation studies; an experiment runs using lake water. Water extracts/powder of Moringa seed applied to treat polluted water of lake. In present study various doses of Moringa oleifera seed coagulant viz. 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/L were taken and checked for the efficiency dose on treated and untreated polluted water. Turbidity and color removal is one of the important steps in a waste water treatment processes. The results indicate significant reduction in turbidity and color. Standard plate count was significantly reduced fecal coliform levels too. All parameters were reduced with the increased dose of Moringa oleifera. It was clear from the study Moringa oleifera seed was shown to be a potential bio-coagulant, for treatment of sewage laden polluted water in the lake.

Keywords: coagulant, Moringa oleifera, plate count, turbidity, wastewater

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25 A Comparative Study of Simple and Pre-polymerized Fe Coagulants for Surface Water Treatment

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Giorgos Stratidis, Manassis Mitrakas, Anastasios Zouboulis


This study investigates the use of original and pre-polymerized iron (Fe) reagents compared to the commonly applied polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant for surface water treatment. Applicable coagulants included both ferric chloride (FeCl₃) and ferric sulfate (Fe₂(SO₄)₃) and their pre-polymerized Fe reagents, such as polyferric sulfate (PFS) and polyferric chloride (PFCl). The efficiency of coagulants was evaluated by the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and suspended solids (SS), which were determined in terms of reducing the UV absorption at 254 nm and turbidity, respectively. The residual metal concentration (Fe and Al) was also measured. Coagulants were added at five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/L) and three pH values (7.0, 7.3 and 7.6). Experiments were conducted in a jar-test device, with two types of synthetic surface water (i.e., of high and low organic strength) which consisted of humic acid (HA) and kaolin at different concentrations (5 mg/L and 50 mg/L). After the coagulation/flocculation process, clean water was separated with filters of pore size 0.45 μm. Filtration was also conducted before the addition of coagulants in order to compare the ‘net’ effect of the coagulation/flocculation process on the examined parameters (UV at 254 nm, turbidity, and residual metal concentration). Results showed that the use of PACl resulted in the highest removal of humics for both types of surface water. For the surface water of high organic strength (humic acid-kaolin, 50 mg/L-50 mg/L), the highest removal of humics was observed at the highest coagulant dosage of 5 mg/L and at pH=7. On the contrary, turbidity was not significantly affected by the coagulant dosage. However, the use of PACl decreased turbidity the most, especially when the surface water of high organic strength was employed. As expected, the application of coagulation/flocculation prior to filtration improved NOM removal but slightly affected turbidity. Finally, the residual Fe concentration (0.01-0.1 mg/L) was much lower than the residual Al concentration (0.1-0.25 mg/L).

Keywords: coagulation/flocculation, iron and aluminum coagulants, metal salts, pre-polymerized coagulants, surface water treatment

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24 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad


Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

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23 Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed in Removing Colloids from Turbid Wastewater

Authors: Zemmouri Hassiba, Lounici Hakim, Mameri Nabil


Dried crushed seeds of Moringa oleifera contain an effective soluble protein; a natural cationic polyelectrolyte which causes coagulation. The present study aims to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera seed extract as natural coagulant in clarification of secondary wastewater treatment highly charged in colloidal. A series of Jar tests was undertaken using raw wastewater providing from secondary decanter of Reghaia municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) located in East of Algiers, Algeria. Coagulation flocculation performance of Moringa oleifera was evaluated through supernatant residual turbidity. Various influence parameters namely Moringa oleifera dosage and pH have been considered. Tests on Reghaia wastewater, having 129 NTU of initial turbidity, showed a removal of 69.45% of residual turbidity with only 1.5 mg/l of Moringa oleifera. This sufficient removal capability encourages the use of this bioflocculant for treatment of turbid waters. Based on this result, the coagulant seed extract of Moringa oleifera is better suited to clarify municipal wastewater by removing turbidity. Indeed, Moringa oleifera which is a natural resource available locally (South of Algeria) coupled to the non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, may be a very interesting alternative to the conventional coagulants used so far.

Keywords: coagulation flocculation, colloids, moringa oleifera, secondary wastewater

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22 Groundwater Treatment of Thailand's Mae Moh Lignite Mine

Authors: A. Laksanayothin, W. Ariyawong


Mae Moh Lignite Mine is the largest open-pit mine in Thailand. The mine serves coal to the power plant about 16 million tons per year. This amount of coal can produce electricity accounting for about 10% of Nation’s electric power generation. The mining area of Mae Moh Mine is about 28 km2. At present, the deepest area of the pit is about 280 m from ground level (+40 m. MSL) and in the future the depth of the pit can reach 520 m from ground level (-200 m.MSL). As the size of the pit is quite large, the stability of the pit is seriously important. Furthermore, the preliminary drilling and extended drilling in year 1989-1996 had found high pressure aquifer under the pit. As a result, the pressure of the underground water has to be released in order to control mine pit stability. The study by the consulting experts later found that 3-5 million m3 per year of the underground water is needed to be de-watered for the safety of mining. However, the quality of this discharged water should meet the standard. Therefore, the ground water treatment facility has been implemented, aiming to reduce the amount of naturally contaminated Arsenic (As) in discharged water lower than the standard limit of 10 ppb. The treatment system consists of coagulation and filtration process. The main components include rapid mixing tanks, slow mixing tanks, sedimentation tank, thickener tank and sludge drying bed. The treatment process uses 40% FeCl3 as a coagulant. The FeCl3 will adsorb with As(V), forming floc particles and separating from the water as precipitate. After that, the sludge is dried in the sand bed and then be disposed in the secured land fill. Since 2011, the treatment plant of 12,000 m3/day has been efficiently operated. The average removal efficiency of the process is about 95%.

Keywords: arsenic, coagulant, ferric chloride, groundwater, lignite, coal mine

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21 Hybrid Solutions in Physicochemical Processes for the Removal of Turbidity in Andean Reservoirs

Authors: María Cárdenas Gaudry, Gonzalo Ramces Fano Miranda


Sediment removal is very important in the purification of water, not only for reasons of visual perception but also because of its association with odor and taste problems. The Cuchoquesera reservoir, which is in the Andean region of Ayacucho (Peru) at an altitude of 3,740 meters above sea level, visually presents suspended particles and organic impurities indicating that it contains water of dubious quality to deduce that it is suitable for direct consumption of human beings. In order to quantitatively know the degree of impurities, water quality monitoring was carried out from February to August 2018, in which four sampling stations were established in the reservoir. The selected measured parameters were electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, color, turbidity, and sludge volume. The indicators of the studied parameters exceed the permissible limits except for electrical conductivity (190 μS/cm) and total dissolved solids (255 mg/L). In this investigation, the best combination and the optimal doses of reagents were determined that allowed the removal of sediments from the waters of the Cuchoquesera reservoir, through the physicochemical process of coagulation-flocculation. In order to improve this process during the rainy season, six combinations of reagents were evaluated, made up of three coagulants (ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, and aluminum sulfate) and two natural flocculants: prickly pear powder (Opuntia ficus-indica) and tara gum (Caesalpinia spinoza). For each combination of reagents, jar tests were developed following the central composite experimental design (CCED), where the design factors were the doses of coagulant and flocculant and the initial turbidity. The results of the jar tests were adjusted to mathematical models, obtaining that to treat the water from the Cuchoquesera reservoir, with a turbidity of 150 UTN and a color of 137 U Pt-Co, 27.9 mg/L of the coagulant aluminum sulfate with 3 mg/L of the natural tara gum flocculant to produce a purified water quality of 1.7 UTN of turbidity and 3.2 U Pt-Co of apparent color. The estimated cost of the dose of coagulant and flocculant found was 0.22 USD/m³. This is how “grey-green” technologies can be used as a combination in nature-based solutions in water treatment, in this case, to achieve potability, making it more sustainable, especially economically, if green technology is available at the site of application of the nature-based hybrid solution. This research is a demonstration of the compatibility of natural coagulants/flocculants with other treatment technologies in the integrated/hybrid treatment process, such as the possibility of hybridizing natural coagulants with other types of coagulants.

Keywords: prickly pear powder, tara gum, nature-based solutions, aluminum sulfate, jar test, turbidity, coagulation, flocculation

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20 Properties Soft Cheese as Diversification of Dangke: A Natural Cheese of South Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Ratmawati Malaka, Effendi Abustam, Kusumandari Indah Prahesti, Sudirman Baco


Dangke is natural cheese from Enrekang South Sulawesi, Indonesia produced through aglutination buffalo milk, cow, goat or sheep using the sap of papaya (Carica papaya). Dangke has been widely known in South Sulawesi but this soft cheese product diversification by using passion fruit juice as milk clotting agents has not been used. Passion fruit juice has a high acidity with a pH of around 4 - 4.5 and has a proteolytic enzyme, so that it can be used to agglutinate milk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature Dangke using passion fruit juice as coagulate milk. Dangke made by 10 lt of raw milk by heating at a temperature of 73oC with coagulant passion fruit juice (7.5% and 10%), and added 1% salt. Curd clot and then be formed using a coconut shell, is then pressed until the cheese is compact. The cheese is then observed for 28 days ripening at a temperature of about 5 ° C. Dangke then studied to violence, pH, fat levels and microstructure. Hardness is determined using CD-shear Force, pH is measured using a pH meter Hanna, and fat concentrations were analyzed with methods of proximate. Microstructure viewed using a light microscope with magnification 1000 x. The results showed that the levels of clotting material very significant influence on hardness, pH, and lipid levels. Maturation increase the hardness but lower the pH, the level of fat soft cheese with an average Dangke respectively 21.4% and 30.5% on 7.5% addition of passion fruit juice and 10%. Dangke violence is increasing with the increasing maturation time (1.38 to 3.73 kg / cm), but Dangke pH was decreased by the increase in storage maturation (5.34 to 4.1). Microktrukture cheeses coagulated with 10% of the passion fruit are very firmer and compact with a full globular fat of 7.5%. But the sensory properties of the soft cheese similar in both treatment. The manufacturing process with the addition of coagulant passion fruit juice on making Dangke affect hardness, pH, fat content and microstructure during storage at 5 ° C for 1 d - 28 d.

Keywords: dangke, passion fruits, microstructure, cheese

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19 Study of the Biochemical Properties of the Protease Coagulant Milk Extracted from Sunflower Cake: Manufacturing Test of Cheeses Uncooked Dough Press and Analysis of Sensory Properties

Authors: Kahlouche Amal, Touzene F. Zohra, Betatache Fatihaet Nouani Abdelouahab


The development of the world production of the cheese these last decades, as well as agents' greater request cheap coagulants, accentuated the search for new surrogates of the rennet. What about the interest to explore the vegetable biodiversity, the source well cheap of many naturals metabolites that the scientists today praise it (thistle, latex of fig tree, Cardoon, seeds of melon). Indeed, a big interest is concerned the search for surrogates of vegetable origin. The objective of the study is to show the possibility of extracting a protease coagulant the milk from the cake of Sunflower, available raw material and the potential source of surrogates of rennet. so, the determination of the proteolytic activity of raw extracts, the purification, the elimination of the pigments of tint of the enzymatic preparations, a better knowledge of the coagulative properties through study of the effect of certain factors (temperature, pH, concentration in CaCl2) are so many factors which contribute to value milk particularly those produced by the small ruminants of the Algerian dairy exploitations. Otherwise, extracts coagulants of vegetable origin allowed today to value traditional, in addition, although the extract coagulants of vegetable origin made it possible today to develop traditional cheeses whose Iberian peninsula is the promoter, but the test of 'pressed paste not cooked' cheese manufacturing led to the semi-scale pilot; and that, by using the enzymatic extract of sunflower (Helianthus annus) which gave satisfactory results as well to the level of outputs as on the sensory level,which, statistically,did not give any significant difference between studied cheeses. These results confirm the possibility of use of this coagulase as a substitute of rennet commercial on an industrial scale.

Keywords: characterization, cheese, Rennet, sunflower

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18 Interference of Polymers Addition in Wastewaters Microbial Survey: Case Study of Viral Retention in Sludges

Authors: Doriane Delafosse, Dominique Fontvieille


Background: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generally display significant efficacy in virus retention yet, are sometimes highly variable, partly in relation to large fluctuating loads at the head of the plant and partly because of episodic dysfunctions in some treatment processes. The problem is especially sensitive when human enteric viruses, such as human Noroviruses Genogroup I or Adenoviruses, are in concern: their release downstream WWTP, in environments often interconnected to recreational areas, may be very harmful to human communities even at low concentrations. It points out the importance of WWTP permanent monitoring from which their internal treatment processes could be adjusted. One way to adjust primary treatments is to add coagulants and flocculants to sewage ahead settling tanks to improve decantation. In this work, sludge produced by three coagulants (two organics, one mineral), four flocculants (three cationic, one anionic), and their combinations were studied for their efficacy in human enteric virus retention. Sewage samples were coming from a WWTP in the vicinity of the laboratory. All experiments were performed three times and in triplicates in laboratory pilots, using Murine Norovirus (MNV-1), a surrogate of human Norovirus, as an internal control (spiking). Viruses were quantified by (RT-)qPCR after nucleic acid extraction from both treated water and sediment. Results: Low values of sludge virus retention (from 4 to 8% of the initial sewage concentration) were observed with each cationic organic flocculant added to wastewater and no coagulant. The largest part of the virus load was detected in the treated water (48 to 90%). However, it was not counterbalancing the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). The results pertained to two types of cationic flocculants, branched and linear, and in the last case, to two percentages of cations. Results were quite similar to the association of a linear cationic organic coagulant and an anionic flocculant, though suggesting that differences between water and sludges would sometimes be related to virus size or virus origins (autochthonous/allochthonous). FeCl₃, as a mineral coagulant associated with an anionic flocculant, significantly increased both auto- and allochthonous virus retention in the sediments (15 to 34%). Accordingly, virus load in treated water was lower (14 to 48%) but with a total that still does not reach the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). It also appeared that the virus retrieval in a bare 0.1M NaCl suspension varied rather strongly according to the FeCl₃ concentration, suggesting an inhibiting effect on the molecular analysis used to detect the virus. Finally, no viruses were detected in both phases (sediment and water) with the combination branched cationic coagulant-linear anionic flocculant, which was later demonstrated as an effect, here also, of polymers on the virus detection-molecular analysis. Conclusions: The combination of FeCl₃-anionic flocculant gave its highest performance to the decantation-based virus removal process. However, large unbalanced values in spiking experiments were observed, suggesting that polymers cast additional obstacles to both elution buffer and lysis buffer on their way to reach the virus. The situation was probably even worse with autochthonous viruses already embedded into sewage's particulate matter. Polymers and FeCl₃ also appeared to interfere in some steps of molecular analyses. More attention should be paid to such impediments wherever chemical additives are considered to be used to enhance WWTP processes. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the ABIOLAB laboratory (Montbonnot Saint-Martin, France) and by the ASPOSAN association. Field experiments were possible thanks to the Grand Chambéry WWTP authorities (Chambéry, France).

Keywords: flocculants-coagulants, polymers, enteric viruses, wastewater sedimentation treatment plant

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17 Kinetic Aspect Investigation of Chitosan / Nanohydroxyapatite / Na ₂CO₃ Gel System

Authors: P. S. D. Perera, S. U. Adikary


The gelation behavior of Chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite sol in the presence of a crosslinking agent Na ₂CO₃ was investigated experimentally. In this case, the gelation time(tgel) was determined by the rheological measurements of the final mixture. The tgel has been determined from dynamic viscosity slope experiments. We found that chitosan/nHA sol with 1% nano-hydroxyapatite and 1.6% Na2CO3 required coagulant performance. Hence Na ₂CO₃ and nanohydroxyapatite concentrations remain constant over the experiment. The order of reaction was first order with respect to chitosan and rate constant of the gel system was 9.0 x 10-4 s-1, respectively, depending on the temperature of the system. The gelation temperature was carried out at 37 ⁰C.

Keywords: kinetics, gelation, sol-gel system, chitosan/ nHA/ Na ₂CO₃ composite

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16 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar


A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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15 Potential of Water Purification of Turbid Surface Water Sources in Remote Arid and Semi-Arid Rural Areas of Rajasthan by Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) Tree Seeds

Authors: Pomila Sharma


Rajasthan is among regions with greatest climate sensitivity and lowest adaptive capabilities. In many parts of the Rajasthan surface water which can be highly turbid and contaminated with fecal coliform bacteria is used for drinking purposes. The majority rely almost exclusively upon traditional sources of highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water for their domestic water needs. In many parts of rural areas of Rajasthan, it is still difficult to obtain clean water, especially remote habitations with no groundwater due to quality issues or depletion and limited feasibility to connect with surface water schemes due to low density of population in these areas to justify large infrastructure investment. The most viable sources are rain water harvesting, community managed open wells, private wells, ponds and small-scale irrigation reservoirs have often been the main traditional sources of rural drinking water. Turbidity is conventionally removed by treating the water with expensive chemicals. This study has to investigate the use of crushed seeds from the tree Moringa oleifera (drumstick) as a natural alternative to conventional coagulant chemicals. The use of Moringa oleifera seed powder can produce potable water of higher quality than the original source. Moringa oleifera a native species of northern India, the tree is now grown extensively throughout the tropics and found in many countries of Africa, Asia & South America. The seeds of tree contains significant quantities of low molecular weight, water soluble proteins which carries the positive charge when the crushed seeds are added to water. This protein binds in raw water with negatively charged turbid water with bacteria, clay, algae, etc. Under proper mixing, these particles make flocks, which may be left to settle by gravity or be removed by filtration. Using Moringa oleifera as a replacement coagulation in such surface sources of arid and semi-arid areas can meet the need for water purification in remote places of Rajasthan state of India. The present study accesses to find out laboratory based investigation of the effect of seeds of Moringa tree on its coagulation effectiveness (purification) using turbid water samples of surface source of the Rajasthan state. In this study, moringa seed powder showed that filtering with seed powder may diminish water pollution and bacterial counts. Results showed Moringa oleifera seeds coagulate 90-95% of turbidity and color efficiently leading to an aesthetically clear supernatant & reduced about 85-90% of bacterial load reduction in samples.

Keywords: bacterial load, coagulant, turbidity, water purification

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14 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan


The most important process of the water treatment plant process is the coagulation using alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL), and the value of usage per day is a hundred thousand baht. Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL are the most important factors to be prescribed. Water production is economical and valuable. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for prediction chemical dose used to coagulation such as alum and PACL, which input data consists of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of Bangkhen water treatment plant (BKWTP) Metropolitan Waterworks Authority. The data collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 cover changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN is divided into three groups training set, test set, and validation set, which the best model performance with a coefficient of determination and mean absolute error of alum are 0.73, 3.18, and PACL is 0.59, 3.21 respectively.

Keywords: soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network

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13 Laboratory and Numerical Hydraulic Modelling of Annular Pipe Electrocoagulation Reactors

Authors: Alejandra Martin-Dominguez, Javier Canto-Rios, Velitchko Tzatchkov


Electrocoagulation is a water treatment technology that consists of generating coagulant species in situ by electrolytic oxidation of sacrificial anode materials triggered by electric current. It removes suspended solids, heavy metals, emulsified oils, bacteria, colloidal solids and particles, soluble inorganic pollutants and other contaminants from water, offering an alternative to the use of metal salts or polymers and polyelectrolyte addition for breaking stable emulsions and suspensions. The method essentially consists of passing the water being treated through pairs of consumable conductive metal plates in parallel, which act as monopolar electrodes, commonly known as ‘sacrificial electrodes’. Physicochemical, electrochemical and hydraulic processes are involved in the efficiency of this type of treatment. While the physicochemical and electrochemical aspects of the technology have been extensively studied, little is known about the influence of the hydraulics. However, the hydraulic process is fundamental for the reactions that take place at the electrode boundary layers and for the coagulant mixing. Electrocoagulation reactors can be open (with free water surface) and closed (pressurized). Independently of the type of rector, hydraulic head loss is an important factor for its design. The present work focuses on the study of the total hydraulic head loss and flow velocity and pressure distribution in electrocoagulation reactors with single or multiple concentric annular cross sections. An analysis of the head loss produced by hydraulic wall shear friction and accessories (minor head losses) is presented, and compared to the head loss measured on a semi-pilot scale laboratory model for different flow rates through the reactor. The tests included laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. The observed head loss was compared also to the head loss predicted by several known conceptual theoretical and empirical equations, specific for flow in concentric annular pipes. Four single concentric annular cross section and one multiple concentric annular cross section reactor configuration were studied. The theoretical head loss resulted higher than the observed in the laboratory model in some of the tests, and lower in others of them, depending also on the assumed value for the wall roughness. Most of the theoretical models assume that the fluid elements in all annular sections have the same velocity, and that flow is steady, uniform and one-dimensional, with the same pressure and velocity profiles in all reactor sections. To check the validity of such assumptions, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the concentric annular pipe reactor was implemented using the ANSYS Fluent software, demonstrating that pressure and flow velocity distribution inside the reactor actually is not uniform. Based on the analysis, the equations that predict better the head loss in single and multiple annular sections were obtained. Other factors that may impact the head loss, such as the generation of coagulants and gases during the electrochemical reaction, the accumulation of hydroxides inside the reactor, and the change of the electrode material with time, are also discussed. The results can be used as tools for design and scale-up of electrocoagulation reactors, to be integrated into new or existing water treatment plants.

Keywords: electrocoagulation reactors, hydraulic head loss, concentric annular pipes, computational fluid dynamics model

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12 Coagulation-Flocculation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

Authors: A. H. Jagaba, Musa Babayo, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Sule Abubakar, I. M. Lawal, Isa Zubairu, M. A. Nasara


Wastewater containing heavy metals is of extreme importance globally because of its potential threat to both the aquatic ecosystem and the soil environment. Heavy metal is hazardous even at low concentration and thereby causing various forms of diseases. One method which has been tested and found to be effective for heavy metals removal is coagulation-flocculation. For the coagulation process of POME obtained from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor (PPNJ), Oil Palm Mill Company located in Kahang area of Kluang, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia, diffèrent coagulants would be used to absorb and then separate the metals from wastewater. The determination of heavy metals concentration in POME was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Results of the study showed that alum coagulant was successful in effectively reducing Cu, Cd, and Mn from 0.840 mg/l, 0.00509 mg/l and 8.191 mg/l to as low as 0.107 mg/l, 0.000270 mg/l and 0.612 mg/l respectively. All were obtained at a dose of 1000 mg/l. 1000 mg/l dose of ferric chloride reduced Pb concentration from 0.0248 mg/l to 0.00151 mg/l. Chitosan was best at reducing Fe and Zn from 62.91 mg/l and 3.616 mg/l to 6.003 mg/l and 0.595 mg/l all at a dose of 400 mg/l.

Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, heavy metals, Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

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11 Hollowfiber Poly Lactid Co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA)-Collagen Coated by Chitosan as a Candidate of Small Diameter Vascular Graft

Authors: Dita Mayasari, Zahrina Mardina, Riki Siswanto, Agresta Ifada, Ova Oktavina, Prihartini Widiyanti


Heart failure is a serious major health problem with high number of mortality per year. Bypass is one of the solutions that has often been taken. Natural vascular graft (xenograft) as the substitute in bypass is inconvenient due to ethic problems and the risk of infection transmission caused by the usage of another species transgenic vascular. Nowadays, synthetic materials have been fabricated from polymers. The aim of this research is to make a synthetic vascular graft with great physical strength, high biocompatibility, and good affordability. The method of this research was mixing PLGA and collagen by magnetic stirrer. This composite were shaped by spinneret with water as coagulant. Then it was coated by chitosan with 3 variations of weight (1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams) to increase hemo and cytocompatibility, proliferation, and cell attachment in order for the vascular graft candidates to be more biocompatible. Mechanical strength for each variation was 5,306 MPa (chitosan 1 gram), 3,433 MPa (chitosan 2 grams) and 3,745 MPa (chitosan 3 grams). All the tensile values were higher than human vascular tensile strength. Toxicity test showed that the living cells in all variations were more than 60% in number, thus the vascular graft is not toxic.

Keywords: chitosan, collagen, PLGA, spinneret

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