Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 801

Search results for: fracture mechanics

801 The Study on Mechanical Properties of Graphene Using Molecular Mechanics

Authors: I-Ling Chang, Jer-An Chen


The elastic properties and fracture of two-dimensional graphene were calculated purely from the atomic bonding (stretching and bending) based on molecular mechanics method. Considering the representative unit cell of graphene under various loading conditions, the deformations of carbon bonds and the variations of the interlayer distance could be realized numerically under the geometry constraints and minimum energy assumption. In elastic region, it was found that graphene was in-plane isotropic. Meanwhile, the in-plane deformation of the representative unit cell is not uniform along armchair direction due to the discrete and non-uniform distributions of the atoms. The fracture of graphene could be predicted using fracture criteria based on the critical bond length, over which the bond would break. It was noticed that the fracture behavior were directional dependent, which was consistent with molecular dynamics simulation results.

Keywords: energy minimization, fracture, graphene, molecular mechanics

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800 Prediction of Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive jointing aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.

Keywords: fracture, adhesive joint, debonding, APDL, LEFM

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799 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li


The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

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798 Probabilistic Fracture Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Subjected to Pressurized Thermal Shock

Authors: Jianguo Chen, Fenggang Zang, Yu Yang, Liangang Zheng


Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is an important security barrier in nuclear power plant. Crack like defects may be produced on RPV during the whole operation lifetime due to the harsh operation condition and irradiation embrittlement. During the severe loss of coolant accident, thermal shock happened as the injection of emergency cooling water into RPV, which results in re-pressurization of the vessel and very high tension stress on the vessel wall, this event called Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS). Crack on the vessel wall may propagate even penetrate the vessel, so the safety of the RPV would undergo great challenge. Many assumptions in structure integrity evaluation make the result of deterministic fracture mechanics very conservative, which affect the operation lifetime of the plant. Actually, many parameters in the evaluation process, such as fracture toughness and nil-ductility transition temperature, have statistical distribution characteristics. So it is necessary to assess the structural integrity of RPV subjected to PTS event by means of Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM). Structure integrity evaluation methods of RPV subjected to PTS event are summarized firstly, then evaluation method based on probabilistic fracture mechanics are presented by considering the probabilistic characteristics of material and structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis example is carried out at last. The results show that the probability of crack penetrates through wall increases gradually with the growth of fast neutron irradiation flux. The results give advice for reactor life extension.

Keywords: fracture toughness, integrity evaluation, pressurized thermal shock, probabilistic fracture mechanics, reactor pressure vessel

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797 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar


So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: crack, FRP, shear, strengthening

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796 Fracture Energy Corresponding to the Puncture/Cutting of Nitrile Rubber by Pointed Blades

Authors: Ennouri Triki, Toan Vu-Khanh


Resistance to combined puncture/cutting by pointed blades is an important property of gloves materials. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach derived from the fracture mechanics theory to calculate the fracture energy associated to the puncture/cutting of nitrile rubber. The proposed approach is also based on the application of a sample pre-strained during the puncture/cutting test in order to remove the contribution of friction. It was validated with two different pointed blade angles of 22.5° and 35°. Results show that the applied total fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting is controlled by three energies, one is the fracture energy or the intrinsic strength of the material, the other reflects the friction energy between a pointed blade and the material. For an applied pre-strain energy (or tearing energy) of high value, the friction energy is completely removed. Without friction, the total fracture energy is constant. In that case, the fracture contribution of the tearing energy is marginal. Growth of the crack is thus completely caused by the puncture/cutting by a pointed blade. Finally, results suggest that the value of the fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting by pointed blades is obtained at a frictional contribution of zero.

Keywords: elastomer, energy, fracture, friction, pointed blades

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795 Bonding Characteristics Between FRP and Concrete Substrates

Authors: Houssam A. Toutanji, Meng Han


This study focuses on the development of a fracture mechanics based-model that predicts the debonding behavior of FRP strengthened RC beams. In this study, a database includes 351 concrete prisms bonded with FRP plates tested in single and double shear were prepared. The existing fracture-mechanics-based models are applied to this database. Unfortunately the properties of adhesive layer, especially a soft adhesive layer, used on the specimens in the existing studies were not always able to found. Thus, the new model’s proposal was based on fifteen newly conducted pullout tests and twenty four data selected from two independent existing studies with the application of a soft adhesive layers and the availability of adhesive properties.

Keywords: carbon fiber composite materials, interface response, fracture characteristics, maximum shear stress, ultimate transferable load

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794 Optimization of the Numerical Fracture Mechanics

Authors: H. Hentati, R. Abdelmoula, Li Jia, A. Maalej


In this work, we present numerical simulations of the quasi-static crack propagation based on the variation approach. We perform numerical simulations of a piece of brittle material without initial crack. An alternate minimization algorithm is used. Based on these numerical results, we determine the influence of numerical parameters on the location of crack. We show the importance of trying to optimize the time of numerical computation and we present the first attempt to develop a simple numerical method to optimize this time.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, optimization, variation approach, mechanic

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793 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

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792 An Unusual Fracture Pattern: Fracture of the Distal Radius (Colles') along with Fracture of the Ipsilateral Scaphoid & Capitate Bones

Authors: Srikanta Tagore Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Mandal, Dibakar Roy


The association of a capitate fracture with a scaphoid fracture has been termed as the naviculocapitate syndrome. The existence of some nondisplaced fractures of scaphoid and capitate with or without the fracture of lunate or radius suggests that there is a spectrum of these injuries, and this confuses the terminology. With our case; we report an unusual variety of this naviculocapitate syndrome with distal radial Colles fracture in addition to the nondisplaced fractures of the scaphoid, capitate and the dorsal lip of radial fracture. When we looked at the literature there is no another Colles fracture reported together with undisplaced scapho-capitate syndrome. The coronal and sagittal images that obtained from the MDCT (Multidetector computed tomography) is useful and effective imaging modality to diagnose complex wrist fractures with more details that are not detected in X-rays.

Keywords: scaphoid, capitate, Colles’ fracture, syndrome, MDCT, unusual

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791 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad


Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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790 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


Fracture Mechanics is used to predict debonding propagation in adhesive joint between aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate and their results are compared. It was seen that generally the cases with stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]s have much shorter lives than cases with [0/90]2s. It was also seen that in cases with λ=0 the ends of the debonding front propagates forward more than its middle, while in cases with λ=0.5 or λ=1 it is vice versa. Moreover, regardless of value of λ, the difference between the debonding propagations of the ends and the middle of the debonding front is very close in cases λ=0.5 and λ=1. Another main conclusion was the non-dimensionalized debonding front profile is almost independent of sequence type or the applied load value.

Keywords: fatigue, debonding, Paris law, APDL, adhesive

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789 Fracture Dislocation of Upper Sacrum in an Adolescent: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran


Although sacral fractures in children are rare due to the fact that the occurrence of pelvic fracture is not common in childhood. Sacral fractures present a high risk of neurological damage. This kind of fracture is often missed because the routine pelvic X-rays imaging scarcely show this fracture. Also, the treatment is controversial, and it ranges from fine reduction to conservative treatments without any try to reduce the dislocation. In this article, a case of fracture dislocation of S1 and S2 along with a suggested diagnostic test and treatment based on similar cases are presented. The case investigates a 14-year-old boy who entered the hospital one week after a car accident that knocked him to the ground in crawling position and a rack fell down on his body. Pain and tenderness in the sacral region and a fracture in the left leg were notable--we detected incomplete bilateral palsy of L5, S1 and S2 roots. In radiographs of the spine fracture dislocation of S1, the sacral fracture was seen. The treatment included a skeletal traction with a halo over the patient’s head and two femoral pins. After one week, another surgery was performed in order to stabilize and reduce the fracture, and we employed a posterior approach with CD and a pedicular screw. After two years of follow-up, the fracture is completely cured without any loss of reduction.

Keywords: adolescent, fracture in adolescent, fracture dislocation, sacrum

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788 Investigation of Damage in Glass Subjected to Static Indentation Using Continuum Damage Mechanics

Authors: J. Ismail, F. Zaïri, M. Naït-Abdelaziz, Z. Azari


In this work, a combined approach of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and fracture mechanics is applied to model a glass plate behavior under static indentation. A spherical indenter is used and a CDM based constitutive model with an anisotropic damage tensor was selected and implemented into a finite element code to study the damage of glass. Various regions with critical damage values were predicted in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. In these regions, the directions of crack propagation, including both cracks initiating on the surface as well as in the bulk, were predicted using the strain energy density factor.

Keywords: finite element modeling, continuum damage mechanics, indentation, cracks

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787 Socio-Economic Problems in Treatment of Non-Union Both Bones Fracture of the Leg: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia


Treatment of fracture both bones of leg following trauma is done intially at nearby primary health care center.primary management for shock,pain,control of bleeding,plaster application. These are treated for primay fixation of fracture, debridment of wound. Then, they were refered to tertiary care where they were again and planned for further treatment. This leads to loss of lot of time, money, job, etc.

Keywords: fracture both bones leg, non-union, ilizarov, cost

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786 Estimation of Reservoirs Fracture Network Properties Using an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim, Tariq Shehab


The main objective of this study is to develop a subsurface fracture map of naturally fractured reservoirs by overcoming the limitations associated with different data sources in characterising fracture properties. Some of these limitations are overcome by employing a nested neuro-stochastic technique to establish inter-relationship between different data, as conventional well logs, borehole images (FMI), core description, seismic attributes, and etc. and then characterise fracture properties in terms of fracture density and fractal dimension for each data source. Fracture density is an important property of a system of fracture network as it is a measure of the cumulative area of all the fractures in a unit volume of a fracture network system and Fractal dimension is also used to characterize self-similar objects such as fractures. At the wellbore locations, fracture density and fractal dimension can only be estimated for limited sections where FMI data are available. Therefore, artificial intelligence technique is applied to approximate the quantities at locations along the wellbore, where the hard data is not available. It should be noted that Artificial intelligence techniques have proven their effectiveness in this domain of applications.

Keywords: naturally fractured reservoirs, artificial intelligence, fracture intensity, fractal dimension

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785 Development of an Image-Based Biomechanical Model for Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk

Authors: Masoud Nasiri Sarvi, Yunhua Luo


Low-trauma hip fracture, usually caused by fall from standing height, has become a main source of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. Factors affecting hip fracture include sex, race, age, body weight, height, body mass distribution, etc., and thus, hip fracture risk in fall differs widely from subject to subject. It is therefore necessary to develop a subject-specific biomechanical model to predict hip fracture risk. The objective of this study is to develop a two-level, image-based, subject-specific biomechanical model consisting of a whole-body dynamics model and a proximal-femur finite element (FE) model for more accurately assessing the risk of hip fracture in lateral falls. Required information for constructing the model is extracted from a whole-body and a hip DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) image of the subject. The proposed model considers all parameters subject-specifically, which will provide a fast, accurate, and non-expensive method for predicting hip fracture risk.

Keywords: bone mineral density, hip fracture risk, impact force, sideways falls

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784 Finite Element Analysis of Debonding Propagation in FM73 Joint under Static Loading

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive joining aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore, 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.

Keywords: adhesive joint, debonding, fracture, LEFM, APDL

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783 Actual Fracture Length Determination Using a Technique for Shale Fracturing Data Analysis in Real Time

Authors: M. Wigwe, M. Y Soloman, E. Pirayesh, R. Eghorieta, N. Stegent


The moving reference point (MRP) technique has been used in the analyses of the first three stages of two fracturing jobs. The results obtained verify the proposition that a hydraulic fracture in shale grows in spurts rather than in a continuous pattern as originally interpreted by Nolte-Smith technique. Rather than a continuous Mode I fracture that is followed by Mode II, III or IV fractures, these fracture modes could alternate throughout the pumping period. It is also shown that the Nolte-Smith time parameter plot can be very helpful in identifying the presence of natural fractures that have been intersected by the hydraulic fracture. In addition, with the aid of a fracture length-time plot generated from any fracture simulation that matches the data, the distance from the wellbore to the natural fractures, which also translates to the actual fracture length for the stage, can be determined. An algorithm for this technique is developed. This procedure was used for the first 9 minutes of the simulated frac job data. It was observed that after 7mins, the actual fracture length is about 150ft, instead of 250ft predicted by the simulator output. This difference gets larger as the analysis proceeds.

Keywords: shale, fracturing, reservoir, simulation, frac-length, moving-reference-point

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782 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing with Targeted Delivery of Tocotrienol in Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Isa Naina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Norazlina Mohamed


Studies have shown that oral tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E, promoted fracture healing of osteoporotic bone. In this study, tocotrienol was combined with a polymer carrier (PLGA), and injected to the fracture site. The slow and constant release of tocotrienol particles would promote fracture healing of post-menopausal osteoporosis rat model. Fracture healing was assessed using micro-CT. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated and the left tibiae were fractured and fixed with plate and screws. The fractures were created at the upper third of the left tibiae. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomised-control (OVxC) and PLGA-incorporated tocotrienol treatment (OVx + TT) groups. After 4 weeks, the OVx + TT group showed significantly better callus fracture healing than the OVxC group. In conclusion, tocotrienol-incorporated PLGA was able to promote fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: osteoporosis, micro-CT, tocotrienol, PLGA, fracture

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781 Failure Criterion for Mixed Mode Fracture of Cracked Wood Specimens

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi


Investigation of fracture of wood components can prevent from catastrophic failures. Created fracture process zone (FPZ) in crack tip vicinity has important effect on failure of cracked composite materials. In this paper, a failure criterion for fracture investigation of cracked wood specimens under mixed mode I/II loading is presented. This criterion is based on maximum strain energy release rate and material nonlinearity in the vicinity of crack tip due to presence of microcracks. Verification of results with available experimental data proves the coincidence of the proposed criterion with the nature of fracture of wood. To simplify the estimation of nonlinear properties of FPZ, a damage factor is also introduced for engineering and application purposes.

Keywords: fracture criterion, mixed mode loading, damage zone, micro cracks

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780 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla


We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: debonding, fracture mechanics, peel test, thin film adhesion

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779 Research on the Feasibility of Evaluating Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixture Using Fracture Energy

Authors: Tao Yang, Yongli Zhao


Low-temperature cracking is one of the major challenges for asphalt pavement in the cold region. Fracture energy could determine from various test methods, which is a commonly used parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixture. However, the feasibility of evaluating the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture using fracture energy is not investigated comprehensively. This paper aims to verify whether fracture energy is an appropriate parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance. To achieve this goal, this paper compared the test results of thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) and semi-circular bending test (SCB) of asphalt mixture with different types of aggregate, TSRST and indirect tensile test (IDT) of asphalt mixture with different additives, and single-edge notched beam test (SENB) and TSRST of asphalt mixture with different asphalt. Finally, the correlation between in-suit cracking performance and fracture energy was surveyed. The experimental results showed the evaluation result of critical cracking temperature and fracture energy are not always consistent; the in-suit cracking performance is also not correlated well with fracture energy. These results indicated that it is not feasible to evaluate low-temperature performance by fracture energy. Then, the composition of fracture energy of TSRST, SCB, disk-shaped compact tension test (DCT), three-point bending test (3PB) and IDT was analyzed. The result showed: the area of thermal stress versus temperature curve is the multiple of fracture energy and could be used to represent fracture energy of TSRST, as the multiple is nearly equal among different asphalt mixtures for a specific specimen; the fracture energy, determined from TSRST, SCB, DCT, 3PB, SENB and IDT, is mainly the surface energy that forms the fracture face; fracture energy is inappropriate to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture, as the relaxation/viscous performance is not considered; if the fracture energy was used, it is recommended to combine this parameter with an index characterizing the relaxation or creep performance of asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, cold region, critical cracking temperature, fracture energy, low-temperature cracking

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778 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan


Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

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777 Discrete Crack Modeling of Side Face FRP-Strengthened Concrete Beam

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Mohammad Hemen Jannaty, Alaleh Kamgar


Shear strengthening can be carried out in concrete structures by external fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). In the present investigation, a new fracture mechanics model is developed to model side face of strengthened concrete beam by external FRP. Discrete crack is simulated by a spring element with softening behavior ahead of the crack tip to model the cohesive zone in concrete. A truss element is used, parallel to the spring element, to simulate the energy dissipation rate by the FRP. The strain energy release rate is calculated directly by using a virtual crack closure technique and then, the crack propagation criterion is presented. The results are found acceptable when compared to previous experimental results and ABAQUS software data. It is observed that the length of the fracture process zone (FPZ) increases with the application of FRP in side face at the same load in comparison with that of the control beam.

Keywords: FPZ, fracture, FRP, shear

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776 Extracting the Failure Criterion to Evaluate the Strength of Cracked Drills under Torque Caused by Drilling

Authors: A. Falsafi, M. Dadkhah, S. Shahidi


The destruction and defeat of drill pipes and drill rigs in oil wells often combined with a combination of shear modulus II and III. In such a situation, the strength and load bearing capacity of the drill are evaluated based on the principles of fracture mechanics and crack growth criteria. In this paper, using the three-dimensional stress equations around the Turkish frontier, the relations of the tense-tense criterion (MTS) are extracted for the loading of the combined II and III modulus. It is shown that in crisp deflection under loading of combination II and III, the level of fracture is characterized by two different angles: the longitudinal angle of deflection θ and the angle of the deflection of the alpha. Based on the relationships obtained from the MTS criterion, the failure criteria, the longitudinal angle of the theta failure and the lateral angle of the failure of the alpha are presented. Also, the role of Poisson's coefficient on these parameters is investigated in these graphs.

Keywords: most tangential tension criterion, longitudinal angle of failure, side angle of fracture, drills crack

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775 Micromechanical Analysis of Interface Properties Effects on Transverse Tensile Response of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Authors: M. Naderi, N. Iyyer, K. Goel, N. Phan


A micromechanical analysis of the influence of fiber-matrix interface fracture properties on the transverse tensile response of fiber-reinforced composite is investigated. Augmented finite element method (AFEM) is used to provide high-fidelity damage initiation and propagation along the micromechanical analysis. Effects of fiber volume fraction and fiber shapes are also studies in representative volume elements (RVE) to capture the stochastic behavior of the composite under loading. In addition, defects and voids influence on the composite response are investigated in micromechanical analysis. The results reveal that the response of RVE with constant interface properties overestimates the composite transverse strength. It is also seen that the damage initiation and propagation locations are controlled by the distributions of fracture properties, fibers’ shapes, and defects.

Keywords: cohesive model, fracture, computational mechanics, micromechanics

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774 The Effect of Crack Size, Orientation and Number on the Elastic Modulus of a Cracked Body

Authors: Mark T. Hanson, Alan T. Varughese


Osteoporosis is a disease affecting bone quality which in turn can increase the risk of low energy fractures. Treatment of osteoporosis using Bisphosphonates has the beneficial effect of increasing bone mass while at the same time has been linked to the formation of atypical femoral fractures. This has led to the increased study of micro-fractures in bones of patients using Bisphosphonate treatment. One of the mechanics related issues which have been identified in this regard is the loss in stiffness of bones containing one or many micro-fractures. Different theories have been put forth using fracture mechanics to determine the effect of crack presence on elastic properties such as modulus. However, validation of these results in a deterministic way has not been forthcoming. The present analysis seeks to provide this deterministic evaluation of fracture’s effect on the elastic modulus. In particular, the effect of crack size, crack orientation and crack number on elastic modulus is investigated. In particular, the Finite Element method is used to explicitly determine the elastic modulus reduction caused by the presence of cracks in a representative volume element. Single cracks of various lengths and orientations are examined as well as cases of multiple cracks. Cracks in tension as well as under shear stress are considered. Although the focus is predominantly two-dimensional, some three-dimensional results are also presented. The results obtained show the explicit reduction in modulus caused by the parameters of crack size, orientation and number noted above. The present results allow the interpretation of the various theories which currently exist in the literature.

Keywords: cracks, elastic, fracture, modulus

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773 Numerical Investigation for Ductile Fracture of an Aluminium Alloy 6061 T-6: Assessment of Critical J-Integral

Authors: R. Bensaada, M. Almansba, M. Ould Ouali, R. Ferhoum, N. E. Hannachi


The aim of this work is to simulate the ductile fracture of SEN specimens in aluminium alloy. The assessment of fracture toughness is performed with the calculation of Jc (the critical value of J-Integral) through the resistance curves. The study is done using finite element code calculation ABAQUSTM including an elastic plastic with damage model of material’s behaviour. The procedure involves specimens of four different thicknesses and four ligament sizes for every thickness. The material of study is an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for which the necessary parameters to complete the study are given. We found the same results for the same specimen’s thickness and for different ligament sizes when the fracture criterion is evaluated.

Keywords: j-integral, critical-j, damage, fracture toughness

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772 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid


In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

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