Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3985

Search results for: refractive index sensor

3985 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen


In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
3984 Refractometric Optical Sensing by Using Photonics Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: Gong Zhang, Hong Cai, Bin Dong, Jifang Tao, Aiqun Liu, Dim-Lee Kwong, Yuandong Gu


An on-chip refractive index sensor with high sensitivity and large measurement range is demonstrated in this paper. The sensing structures are based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, built on the SOI substrate. The wavelength sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be 3129 nm/RIU. Meanwhile, according to the interference pattern period changes, the measured period sensitivities are 2.9 nm/RIU (TE mode) and 4.21 nm/RIU (TM mode), respectively. As such, the wavelength shift and the period shift can be used for fine index change detection and larger index change detection, respectively. Therefore, the sensor design provides an approach for large index change measurement with high sensitivity.

Keywords: Mach-Zehnder interferometer, nanotechnology, refractive index sensing, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3983 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede


The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
3982 Characterization of CuO Incorporated CMOS Dielectric for Fast Switching System

Authors: Nissar Mohammad Karim, Norhayati Soin


To ensure fast switching in high-K incorporated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, the results on the basis of d (NBTI) by incorporating SiO2 dielectric with aged samples of CuO sol-gels have been reported. Precursor ageing has been carried out for 4 days. The minimum obtained refractive index is 1.0099 which was found after 3 hours of adhesive UV curing. Obtaining a low refractive index exhibits a low dielectric constant and hence a faster system.

Keywords: refractive index, Sol-Gel, precursor aging, aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
3981 Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Ge Film

Authors: Lingmao Xu, Hui Zhou


Ge film is widely used in infrared optical systems. Because of the special requirements of space application, it is usually used in low temperature. The refractive index of Ge film is always changed with the temperature which has a great effect on the manufacture of high precision infrared optical film. Specimens of Ge single film were deposited at ZnSe substrates by EB-PVD method. During temperature range 80K ~ 300K, the transmittance of Ge single film within 2 ~ 15 μm were measured every 20K by PerkinElmer FTIR cryogenic testing system. By the full spectrum inversion method fitting, the relationship between refractive index and wavelength within 2 ~ 12μm at different temperatures was received. It can be seen the relationship consistent with the formula Cauchy, which can be fitted. Then the relationship between refractive index of the Ge film and temperature/wavelength was obtained by fitting method based on formula Cauchy. Finally, the designed value obtained by the formula and the measured spectrum were compared to verify the accuracy of the formula.

Keywords: infrared optical film, low temperature, thermal refractive coefficient, Ge film

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3980 Characterizing of CuO Incorporated CMOS Dielectric for Fast Switching System

Authors: Nissar Mohammad Karim, Norhayati Soin


To ensure fast switching in high-K incorporated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, the results on the basis of d (NBTI) by incorporating SiO2 dielectric with aged samples of CuO sol-gels have been reported. Precursor ageing has been carried out for 4 days. The minimum obtained refractive index is 1.0099 which was found after 3 hours of adhesive UV curing. Obtaining a low refractive index exhibits a low dielectric constant and hence a faster system.

Keywords: refractive index, sol-gel, precursor ageing, metallurgical and materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
3979 Terahertz Glucose Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Pillar Array

Authors: S. S. Sree Sanker, K. N. Madhusoodanan


Optical biosensors are dominant alternative for traditional analytical methods, because of their small size, simple design and high sensitivity. Photonic sensing method is one of the recent advancing technology for biosensors. It measures the change in refractive index which is induced by the difference in molecular interactions due to the change in concentration of the analyte. Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide, which is a metabolic source in many of the organisms. The terahertz waves occupies the space between infrared and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz waves are expected to be applied to various types of sensors for detecting harmful substances in blood, cancer cells in skin and micro bacteria in vegetables. We have designed glucose sensors using silicon based 1D and 2D photonic crystal pillar arrays in terahertz frequency range. 1D photonic crystal has rectangular pillars with height 100 µm, length 1600 µm and width 50 µm. The array period of the crystal is 500 µm. 2D photonic crystal has 5×5 cylindrical pillar array with an array period of 75 µm. Height and diameter of the pillar array are 160 µm and 100 µm respectively. Two samples considered in the work are blood and glucose solution, which are labelled as sample 1 and sample 2 respectively. The proposed sensor detects the concentration of glucose in the samples from 0 to 100 mg/dL. For this, the crystal was irradiated with 0.3 to 3 THz waves. By analyzing the obtained S parameter, the refractive index of the crystal corresponding to the particular concentration of glucose was measured using the parameter retrieval method. Refractive indices of the two crystals decreased gradually with the increase in concentration of glucose in the sample. For 1D photonic crystals, a gradual decrease in refractive index was observed at 1 THz. 2D photonic crystal showed this behavior at 2 THz. The proposed sensor was simulated using CST Microwave studio. This will enable us to develop a model which can be used to characterize a glucose sensor. The present study is expected to contribute to blood glucose monitoring.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, glucose sensor, photonic crystal, terahertz waves

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3978 Effect of Control Lasers Polarization on Absorption Coefficient and Refractive Index of a W-Type 4- Level Cylindrical Quantum Dot in the Presence Of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (ETI)

Authors: Marziehossadat Moezzi


In this paper, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) with a parabolic confinement potential. We study the effect of control lasers polarization on absorption coefficient, refractive index and also on the generation of the double transparency windows in this system. Considering an effective mass method, the time-independent Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the energy structure of the QD. Also, we study the effect of structural characteristics of the QD on refraction and absorption of the QD in the presence of EIT.

Keywords: electromagnetically induced transparency, cylindrical quantum dot, absorption coefficient, refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
3977 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh


Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
3976 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita


In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
3975 Non-Adiabatic Silica Microfibre Sensor for BOD/COD Ratio Measurement

Authors: S. S. Chong, A. R. Abdul Aziz, S. W. Harun, H. Arof


A miniaturized non-adiabatic silica microfiber is proposed for biological oxygen demand (BOD) ratio chemical oxygen demand (COD) sensing for the first time. BOD and COD are two main parameters to justify quality of wastewater. A ratio, BOD:COD can usually be established between the two analytical methods once COD and BOD value has been gathered. This ratio plays a vital role to determine appropriate strategy in wastewater treatment. A non-adiabatic microfiber sensor was formed by tapering the SMF to generate evanescent field where sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. Because difference ratio BOD and COD contain in solution, this may induced changes of effective refractive index between microfiber and sensing medium. Attenuation wavelength shift to right with 0.5 nm and 3.5 nm while BOD:COD equal to 0.09 and 0.18 respectively. Significance difference wavelength shift may relate with the biodegradability of analyte. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to determine the BOD:COD. Further research and investigation should be proceeded to enhance sensitivity and precision of the sensor for several of wastewater online monitoring.

Keywords: non-adiabatic fiber sensor, environmental sensing, biodegradability, evanescent field

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
3974 Frequency of Refractive Errors in Squinting Eyes of Children from 4 to 16 Years Presenting at Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Maryum Nawaz


Purpose: To determine the frequency of refractive errors in squinting eyes of children from 4 to 16 years presenting at tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done. Place and Duration: The study was conducted in Pediatric Ophthalmology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Materials and Methods: The sample size was 146 keeping 41.45%5 proportion of refractive errors in children with squinting eyes, 95% confidence interval and 8% margin of error under WHO sample size calculations. Non-probability consecutive sampling was done. Result: Mean age was 8.57±2.66 years. Male were 89 (61.0%) and female were 57 (39.0%). Refractive error was present in 56 (38.4%) and was not present in 90 (61.6%) of patients. There was no association of gender, age, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment with the refractive errors. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of refractive errors in a patient with strabismus. There is no association of age, gender, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment in the occurrence of refractive errors. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of these.

Keywords: strabismus, refractive error, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
3973 Large Core Silica Few-Mode Optical Fibers with Reduced Differential Mode Delay and Enhanced Mode Effective Area over 'C'-Band

Authors: Anton V. Bourdine, Vladimir A. Burdin, Oleg R. Delmukhametov


This work presents a fast and simple method for the design of large core silica optical fibers with differential mode delay (DMD) management. Some results are reported concerned with refractive index profile optimization for 42 µm core 16-LP-mode optical fiber for next-generation optical networks. Here special refractive index profile form provides total DMD reducing over all mode staff under desired enhanced mode effective area. Method for the simulation of 'real manufactured' few-mode optical fiber (FMF) core geometry differing from the desired optimized structure by core non-symmetrical ellipticity and refractive index profile deviation including local fluctuations is proposed. Results of the following analysis of optimized FMF with inserted geometry distortions performed by earlier on developed modification of rigorous mixed finite-element method showed strong DMD degradation that requires additional higher-order mode management. In addition, this work also presents a method for design mode division multiplexer channel precision spatial positioning scheme at FMF core end that provides one of the potentiality solutions of described DMD degradation problem concerned with 'distorted' core geometry due to features of optical fiber manufacturing techniques.

Keywords: differential mode delay, few-mode optical fibers, nonlinear Shannon limit, optical fiber non-circularity, ‘real manufactured’ optical fiber core geometry simulation, refractive index profile optimization

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3972 Efficiently Silicon Metasurfaces at Visible Light

Authors: Juntao Li


The metasurfaces for beam deflecting with gradient silicon posts in the square lattices were fabricated on the thin film crystal silicon with quartz substrate. By using the crystals silicon with high refractive index and high transmission to control the phase over 2π coverage, we demonstrated the polarization independent beam deflecting at wavelength of 532nm with 45% transmission in experiment and 70% in simulation into the desired angle. This simulation efficiency is almost close to the TiO2 metasurfaces but has higher refractive index and lower aspect ratio to reduce fabrication complexity. The result can extend the application of silicon metalsurfaces from 700 nm to 500 nm hence open a new way to use metasurfaces efficiently in visible light regime.

Keywords: metasurfaces, crystal silicon, light deflection, visible light

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
3971 Optical Diagnostics of Corona Discharge by Laser Interferometry

Authors: N. Bendimerad, M. Lemerini, A. Guen


In this work, we propose to determine the density of neutral particles of an electric discharge peak - Plan types performed in air at atmospheric pressure by applying a technique based on laser interferometry. The experimental methods used so far as the shadowgraph or stereoscopy, give rather qualitative results with regard to the determination of the neutral density. The neutral rotational temperature has been subject of several studies but direct measurements of kinetic temperature are rare. The aim of our work is to determine quantitatively and experimentally depopulation with a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. This purely optical appearance of the discharge is important when looking to know the refractive index of any gas for any physicochemical applications.

Keywords: laser source, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, refractive index, corona discharge

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3970 Effect of Temperature on the Binary Mixture of Imidazolium Ionic Liquid with Pyrrolidin-2-One: Volumetric and Ultrasonic Study

Authors: T. Srinivasa Krishna, K. Narendra, K. Thomas, S. S. Raju, B. Munibhadrayya


The densities, speeds of sound and refractive index of the binary mixture of ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Imide]) and Pyrrolidin-2-one(PY) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T= (298.15 -323.15)K. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, partial molar volumes, and isentropic partial molar compressibility were calculated from the values of the experimental density and speed of sound. From the experimental data excess thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal pressure coefficient of excess molar enthalpy at 298.15K were calculated. The results were analyzed and were discussed from the point of view of structural changes. Excess properties were calculated and correlated by the Redlich–Kister and the Legendre polynomial equation and binary coefficients were obtained. Values of excess partial volumes at infinite dilution for the binary system at different temperatures were calculated from the adjustable parameters obtained from Legendre polynomial and Redlich–Kister smoothing equation. Deviation in refractive indices ΔnD and deviation in molar refraction, ΔRm were calculated from the measured refractive index values. Equations of state and several mixing rules were used to predict refractive indices of the binary mixtures and compared with the experimental values by means of the standard deviation and found to be in excellent agreement. By using Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory, the above thermodynamic mixing functions have been calculated and the results obtained from this theory were compared with experimental results.

Keywords: density, refractive index, speeds of sound, Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3969 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi


Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission

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3968 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani


A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

Procedia PDF Downloads 592
3967 Variation of Refractive Errors among Right and Left Eyes in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: F. B. Masok, S. S Songdeg, R. R. Dawam


Vision is an important process for learning and communication as man depends greatly on vision to sense his environment. Prevalence and variation of refractive errors conducted between December 2010 and May 2011 in Jos, revealed that 735 (77.50%) out 950 subjects examined for refractive error had various refractive errors. Myopia was observed in 373 (49.79%) of the subjects, the error in the right eyes was 263 (55.60%) while the error in the left was 210(44.39%). The mean myopic error was found to be -1.54± 3.32. Hyperopia was observed in 385 (40.53%) of the sampled population comprising 203(52.73%) of the right eyes and 182(47.27%). The mean hyperopic error was found to be +1.74± 3.13. Astigmatism accounted for 359 (38.84%) of the subjects, out of which 193(53.76%) were in the right eyes while 168(46.79%) were in the left eyes. Presbyopia was found in 404(42.53%) of the subjects, of this figure, 164(40.59%) were in the right eyes while 240(59.41%) were in left eyes. The number of right eyes and left eyes with refractive errors was observed in some age groups to increase with age and later had its peak within 60 – 69 age groups. This pattern of refractive errors could be attributed to exposure to various forms of light particularly the ultraviolet rays (e.g rays from television and computer screen). There was no remarkable differences between the mean Myopic error and mean Hyperopic error in the right eyes and in the left eyes which suggest the right eye and the left eye are similar.

Keywords: left eye, refractive errors, right eye, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3966 Understanding the Impact of Li- bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide Doping on Spiro-OMeTAD Properties and Perovskite Solar Cell Performance

Authors: Martin C. Eze, Gao Min


Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI) dopant is beneficial in improving the properties of 2,2′,7,7′-Tetrakis (N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spiro-bifluorene (Spiro-OMETAD) transport layer used in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Properties such as electrical conductivity, band energy mismatch, and refractive index of Spiro-OMETAD layers are believed to play key roles in PSCs performance but only the dependence of electrical conductivity on Li-TFSI doping has been extensively studied. In this work, the effect of Li-TFSI doping level on highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, electrical conductivity, and refractive index of Spiro-OMETAD film and PSC performance was demonstrated. The Spiro-OMETAD films were spin-coated at 4000 rpm for 30 seconds from solutions containing 73.4 mM of Spiro-OMeTAD, 23.6 mM of 4-tert-butylpyridine, 7.6 mM of tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine) cobalt(III) tri[bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide] (FK209) dopant and Li-TFSI dopant varying from 37 to 62 mM in 1 ml of chlorobenzene. From ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), ellipsometry, and 4-probe studies, the results show that films deposition from Spiro-OMETAD solution doped with 40 mM of Li-TFSI shows the highest electrical conductivity of 6.35×10-6 S/cm, the refractive index of 1.87 at 632.32 nm, HOMO energy of -5.22 eV and the lowest HOMO energy mismatch of 0.21 eV compared to HOMO energy of perovskite layer. The PSCs fabricated show the best power conversion efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor of 17.10 %, 1.1 V, and 70.12%, respectively, for devices based on Spiro-OMETAD solution doped with 40 mM of Li-TFSI. This study demonstrates that the optimum Spiro-OMETAD/ Li-TFSI doping ratio of 1.84 is the optimum doping level for Spiro-OMETAD layer preparation.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, homo energy mismatch, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, power conversion efficiency, refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3965 Comparative Analysis of Oil Extracts from Cotton and Watermelon Seeds

Authors: S. A. Jumare, A. O. Tijani, M. F. Siraj, B. V. Babatunde


This research investigated the comparative analysis of oil extracted from cotton and watermelon seeds using solvent extraction process. Normal ethyl-ether was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the physiochemical properties of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined include specific gravity, refractive index, colour, odour, taste and pH. The value obtained for cottonseed oil are saponification value (187mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.64mgKOH/g), iodine value (95.2g/100), peroxide value (9.33meq/kg), acid value (11.22mg/KOH/g), pH value (4.62), refractive index (1.46), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a bland odour, a reddish brown colour and a mild taste. The values obtained for watermelon seed oil are saponification value (83.3mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (6.58mg/KOH/g), iodine value (122.6g/100), peroxide value (5.3meq/kg), acid value (3.74mgKOH/g), pH value (6.3), refractive index (1.47), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a nutty flavour, a golden yellow colour and a mild taste. From the result obtained, it shows that cottonseed oil has high acid value which shows the stability of the oil and its stability to rancidity. Consequently, watermelon seed oil is order wise.

Keywords: extraction, solvent, cotton seeds, watermelon seeds

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3964 Established Novel Approach for Chemical Oxygen Demand Concentrations Measurement Based Mach-Zehner Interferometer Sensor

Authors: Su Sin Chong, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Hamzah Arof


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) plays a vital role determination of an appropriate strategy for wastewater treatment including the control of the quality of an effluent. In this study, a new sensing method was introduced for the first time and developed to investigate chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a Mach-Zehner Interferometer (MZI)-based dye sensor. The sensor is constructed by bridging two single mode fibres (SMF1 and SMF2) with a short section (~20 mm) of multimode fibre (MMF) and was formed by tapering the MMF to generate evanescent field which is sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. When the COD concentration increase takes effect will induce changes in output intensity and effective refractive index between the microfiber and the sensing medium. The adequacy of decisions based on COD values relies on the quality of the measurements. Therefore, the dual output response can be applied to the analytical procedure enhance measurement quality. This work presents a detailed assessment of the determination of COD values in synthetic wastewaters. Detailed models of the measurement performance, including sensitivity, reversibility, stability, and uncertainty were successfully validated by proficiency tests where supported on sound and objective criteria. Comparison of the standard method with the new proposed method was also conducted. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to investigate the COD value.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, environmental sensing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor, online monitoring

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3963 Refractive Index, Excess Molar Volume and Viscometric Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of Morpholine with Cumene at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, and 308.15 K

Authors: B. K. Gill, Himani Sharma, V. K. Rattan


Experimental data of refractive index, excess molar volume and viscosity of binary mixture of morpholine with cumene over the whole composition range at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K and normal atmospheric pressure have been measured. The experimental data were used to compute the density, deviation in molar refraction, deviation in viscosity and excess Gibbs free energy of activation as a function of composition. The experimental viscosity data have been correlated with empirical equations like Grunberg- Nissan, Herric correlation and three body McAllister’s equation. The excess thermodynamic properties were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the binary mixtures are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

Keywords: cumene, excess Gibbs free energy, excess molar volume, morpholine

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3962 Real-Time Monitoring of Drinking Water Quality Using Advanced Devices

Authors: Amani Abdallah, Isam Shahrour


The quality of drinking water is a major concern of public health. The control of this quality is generally performed in the laboratory, which requires a long time. This type of control is not adapted for accidental pollution from sudden events, which can have serious consequences on population health. Therefore, it is of major interest to develop real-time innovative solutions for the detection of accidental contamination in drinking water systems This paper presents researches conducted within the SunRise Demonstrator for ‘Smart and Sustainable Cities’ with a particular focus on the supervision of the water quality. This work aims at (i) implementing a smart water system in a large water network (Campus of the University Lille1) including innovative equipment for real-time detection of abnormal events, such as those related to the contamination of drinking water and (ii) develop a numerical modeling of the contamination diffusion in the water distribution system. The first step included verification of the water quality sensors and their effectiveness on a network prototype of 50m length. This part included the evaluation of the efficiency of these sensors in the detection both bacterial and chemical contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line optical sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in refractive index induced by injected loads of chemical (cadmium, mercury) and biological contaminations (Escherichia coli). All injected substances were detected by the sensor; the magnitude of the response depends on the type of contaminant introduced and it is proportional to the injected substance concentration.

Keywords: distribution system, drinking water, refraction index, sensor, real-time

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3961 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Nour El Houda Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui


In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: physical properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

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3960 Effective Medium Approximations for Modeling Ellipsometric Responses from Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) Tribofilms Formed on Sliding Surfaces

Authors: Maria Miranda-Medina, Sara Salopek, Andras Vernes, Martin Jech


Sliding lubricated surfaces induce the formation of tribofilms that reduce friction, wear and prevent large-scale damage of contact parts. Engine oils and lubricants use antiwear and antioxidant additives such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) from where protective tribofilms are formed by degradation. The ZDDP tribofilms are described as a two-layer structure composed of inorganic polymer material. On the top surface, the long chain polyphosphate is a zinc phosphate and in the bulk, the short chain polyphosphate is a mixed Fe/Zn phosphate with a gradient concentration. The polyphosphate chains are partially adherent to steel surface through a sulfide and work as anti-wear pads. In this contribution, ZDDP tribofilms formed on gray cast iron surfaces are studied. The tribofilms were generated in a reciprocating sliding tribometer with a piston ring-cylinder liner configuration. Fully formulated oil of SAE grade 5W-30 was used as lubricant during two tests at 40Hz and 50Hz. For the estimation of the tribofilm thicknesses, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used due to its high accuracy and non-destructive nature. Ellipsometry works under an optical principle where the change in polarisation of light reflected by the surface, is associated with the refractive index of the surface material or to the thickness of the layer deposited on top. Ellipsometrical responses derived from tribofilms are modelled by effective medium approximation (EMA), which includes the refractive index of involved materials, homogeneity of the film and thickness. The materials composition was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, where the presence of ZDDP, O and C was confirmed. From EMA models it was concluded that tribofilms formed at 40 Hz are thicker and more homogeneous than the ones formed at 50 Hz. In addition, the refractive index of each material is mixed to derive an effective refractive index that describes the optical composition of the tribofilm and exhibits a maximum response in the UV range, being a characteristic of glassy semitransparent films.

Keywords: effective medium approximation, reciprocating sliding tribometer, spectroscopic ellipsometry, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
3959 Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing

Authors: Ehssan M. R. Nassef


De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.

Keywords: dewaxing, solvent dewaxing, pour point, lubricating oil production, wax

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
3958 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya


The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: photonic crystal fibers, gold, silver, surface plasmon, biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3957 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed


The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
3956 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha


This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 393