Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1675

Search results for: magnetic photonic crystal

1675 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
1674 A Comparative Study of Linearly Graded and without Graded Photonic Crystal Structure

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Angad Singh Kushwaha, Amritanshu Pandey, S. K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much attention due to its electromagnetic properties and potential applications. In PCs, there is certain range of wavelength where electromagnetic waves are not allowed to pass are called photonic band gap (PBG). A localized defect mode will appear within PBG, due to change in the interference behavior of light, when we create a defect in the periodic structure. We can also create different types of defect structures by inserting or removing a layer from the periodic layered structure in two and three-dimensional PCs. We can design microcavity, waveguide, and perfect mirror by creating a point defect, line defect, and palanar defect in two and three- dimensional PC structure. One-dimensional and two-dimensional PCs with defects were reported theoretically and experimentally by Smith et al.. in conventional photonic band gap structure. In the present paper, we have presented the defect mode tunability in tilted non-graded photonic crystal (NGPC) and linearly graded photonic crystal (LGPC) using lead sulphide (PbS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the infrared region. A birefringent defect layer is created in NGPC and LGPC using potassium titany phosphate (KTP). With the help of transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of proposed structure is investigated for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. NGPC and LGPC without defect layer is also investigated. We have found that a photonic band gap (PBG) arises in the infrared region. An additional defect layer of KTP is created in NGPC and LGPC structure. We have seen that an additional transmission mode appers in PBG region. It is due to the addition of defect layer. We have also seen the effect, linear gradation in thickness, angle of incidence, tilt angle, and thickness of defect layer, on PBG and additional transmission mode. We have observed that the additional transmission mode and PBG can be tuned by changing the above parameters. The proposed structure may be used as channeled filter, optical switches, monochromator, and broadband optical reflector.

Keywords: defect modes, graded photonic crystal, photonic crystal, tilt angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1673 Ultra-Low Chromatic Dispersion, Low Confinement Loss, and Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber (IG-PCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600 nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of IG-PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
1672 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
1671 Terahertz Glucose Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Pillar Array

Authors: S. S. Sree Sanker, K. N. Madhusoodanan

Abstract:

Optical biosensors are dominant alternative for traditional analytical methods, because of their small size, simple design and high sensitivity. Photonic sensing method is one of the recent advancing technology for biosensors. It measures the change in refractive index which is induced by the difference in molecular interactions due to the change in concentration of the analyte. Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide, which is a metabolic source in many of the organisms. The terahertz waves occupies the space between infrared and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz waves are expected to be applied to various types of sensors for detecting harmful substances in blood, cancer cells in skin and micro bacteria in vegetables. We have designed glucose sensors using silicon based 1D and 2D photonic crystal pillar arrays in terahertz frequency range. 1D photonic crystal has rectangular pillars with height 100 µm, length 1600 µm and width 50 µm. The array period of the crystal is 500 µm. 2D photonic crystal has 5×5 cylindrical pillar array with an array period of 75 µm. Height and diameter of the pillar array are 160 µm and 100 µm respectively. Two samples considered in the work are blood and glucose solution, which are labelled as sample 1 and sample 2 respectively. The proposed sensor detects the concentration of glucose in the samples from 0 to 100 mg/dL. For this, the crystal was irradiated with 0.3 to 3 THz waves. By analyzing the obtained S parameter, the refractive index of the crystal corresponding to the particular concentration of glucose was measured using the parameter retrieval method. Refractive indices of the two crystals decreased gradually with the increase in concentration of glucose in the sample. For 1D photonic crystals, a gradual decrease in refractive index was observed at 1 THz. 2D photonic crystal showed this behavior at 2 THz. The proposed sensor was simulated using CST Microwave studio. This will enable us to develop a model which can be used to characterize a glucose sensor. The present study is expected to contribute to blood glucose monitoring.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, glucose sensor, photonic crystal, terahertz waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
1670 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi- Periodic Photonic Structure

Authors: Hamed Alipour-Banaei, Farhad Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

We report the design and characterization of ultra high quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue-Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM communication applications.

Keywords: Thue-Morse, filter, quality factor, photonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
1669 Study of Photonic Crystal Band Gap and Hexagonal Microcavity Based on Elliptical Shaped Holes

Authors: A. Benmerkhi, A. Bounouioua, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a numerical optical properties of a triangular periodic lattice of elliptical air holes. We report the influence of the ratio (semi-major axis length of elliptical hole to the filling ratio) on the photonic band gap. Then by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm, the resonant wavelength of the point defect microcavities in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) shifts towards the low wavelengths with significantly increased filing ratio. It can be noted that the Q factor is gradually changed to higher when the filling ratio increases. It is due to an increase in reflectivity of the PC mirror. Also we theoretically investigate the H1 cavity, where the value of semi-major axis (Rx) of the six holes surrounding the cavity are fixed at 0.5a and the Rx of the two edge air holes are fixed at the optimum value of 0.52a. The highest Q factor of 4.1359 × 106 is achieved at the resonant mode located at λ = 1.4970 µm.

Keywords: photonic crystal, microcavity, filling ratio, elliptical holes

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1668 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim

Abstract:

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1667 Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals

Authors: A. Mousavi, S. Sadegzadeh

Abstract:

In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.

Keywords: band gap, dispersion relation, non-thermal plasma, plasma photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
1666 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi

Abstract:

Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1665 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1664 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik

Abstract:

Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
1663 Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Jinlu Ruan, Liang Chen, Bo Liu, Xiaoping Ouyang, Zhichao Zhu, Zhongbing Zhang, Shiyi He, Mengxuan Xu

Abstract:

Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.

Keywords: angular profile, atomic layer deposition, light extraction efficiency, plastic scintillator, photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
1662 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: multi-wavelength Q-switched, multi-walled carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
1661 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya

Abstract:

The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: photonic crystal fibers, gold, silver, surface plasmon, biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1660 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: photonic crystal fiber, dispersion, bandwidth, chromatic dispersion, effective dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective area, effective refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1659 Optical Properties of a One Dimensional Graded Photonic Structure Based on Material Length Redistribution

Authors: Danny Manuel Calvo Velasco, Robert Sanchez Cano

Abstract:

By using the transference matrix formalism, in this work, it is presented the study of the optical properties of the 1D graded structure, constructed by multiple bi-layers of dielectric and air, considering a redistribution of the material lengths following an arithmetic progression as a function of two parameters. It is presented a factorization for the transference matrices for the graded structure, which allows the interpretation of their optical properties in terms of the properties of simpler structures. It is shown that the graded structure presents new transmission peaks, which can be controlled by the parameter values located in frequencies for which a periodic system has a photonic bandgap. This result is extended to the case of a photonic crystal for which the unitary cell is the proposed graded structure, showing new transmission bands which are due to the multiple new sub-structures present in the system. Also, for the TE polarization, it is observed transmission bands' low frequencies which present low variation of its width and position with the incidence angle. It is expected that these results could guide a route in the design of new photonic devices.

Keywords: graded, material redistribution, photonic system, transference matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1658 Anti-Scale Magnetic Method as a Prevention Method for Calcium Carbonate Scaling

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit

Abstract:

The effect of anti-scale magnetic method (AMM) in retarding scaling deposition is confirmed by many researchers, to result in new crystal morphology, the crystal which has the tendency to remain suspended more than precipitated. AMM is considered as an economic method when compared to other common methods used for scale prevention in desalination plant as acid treatment and addition of antiscalant. The current project was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of AMM in preventing calcium carbonate scaling. The AMM was tested at different flow velocities (1.0, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.003 m/s), different operating temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C), different feed pH and different magnetic field strength. The results showed that AMM was effective in retarding calcium carbonate scaling deposition, and the performance of AMM depends strongly on the flow velocity. The scaling retention time was found to be affected by the operating temperatures, flow velocity, and magnetic strength (MS), and in general, it was found that as the operating temperatures increased the effectiveness of the AMM in retarding calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) scaling increased.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, field strength, flow velocity, magnetic scale retention time

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
1657 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev

Abstract:

Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: crystal structure, magnetic properties, manganese oxalate, thermal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1656 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu

Abstract:

Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.

Keywords: spin flop transition, torque magnetometry, magnetization, anisotropic

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1655 Beam Deflection with Unidirectionality Due to Zeroth Order and Evanescent Wave Coupling in a Photonic Crystal with a Defect Layer without Corrugations under Oblique Incidence

Authors: Evrim Colak, Andriy E. Serebryannikov, Thore Magath, Ekmel Ozbay

Abstract:

Single beam deflection and unidirectional transmission are examined for oblique incidence in a Photonic Crystal (PC) structure which employs defect layer instead of surface corrugations at the interfaces. In all of the studied cases, the defect layer is placed such that the symmetry is broken. Two types of deflection are observed depending on whether the zeroth order is coupled or not. These two scenarios can be distinguished from each other by considering the simulated field distribution in PC. In the first deflection type, Floquet-Bloch mode enables zeroth order coupling. The energy of the zeroth order is redistributed between the diffraction orders at the defect layer, providing deflection. In the second type, when zeroth order is not coupled, strong diffractions cause blazing and the evanescent waves deliver energy to higher order diffraction modes. Simulated isofrequency contours can be utilized to estimate the coupling behavior. The defect layer is placed at varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC while evancescent waves can still couple to higher order modes. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission and beam deflection are still encountered when the zeroth order is not coupled. We assume ε=11.4 (refractive index close to that of GaAs and Si) for the PC rods. A possible operation wavelength can be within microwave and infrared range. Since the suggested material is low loss, the structure can be scaled down to operate higher frequencies. Thus, a sample operation wavelength is selected as 1.5μm. Although the structure employs no surface corrugations transmission value T≈0.97 can be achieved by means of diffraction order m=-1. Moreover, utilizing an extra line defect, T value can be increased upto 0.99, under oblique incidence even if the line defect layer is deeply embedded in the photonic crystal. The latter configuration can be used to obtain deflection in one frequency range and can also be utilized for the realization of another functionality like defect-mode wave guiding in another frequency range but still using the same structure.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, beam deflection, blazing, bi-directional splitting, defect layer, dual beam splitting, Floquet-Bloch modes, isofrequency contours, line defect, oblique incidence, photonic crystal, unidirectionality

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1654 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom

Abstract:

The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
1653 Reentrant Spin-Glass State Formation in Polycrystalline Er₂NiSi₃

Authors: Santanu Pakhira, Chandan Mazumdar, R. Ranganathan, Maxim Avdeev

Abstract:

Magnetically frustrated systems are of great interest and one of the most adorable topics for the researcher of condensed matter physics, due to their various interesting properties, viz. ground state degeneracy, finite entropy at zero temperature, lowering of ordering temperature, etc. Ternary intermetallics with the composition RE₂TX₃ (RE = rare-earth element, T= d electron transition metal and X= p electron element) crystallize in hexagonal AlB₂ type crystal structure (space group P6/mmm). In a hexagonal crystal structure with the antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments, the center moment is geometrically frustrated. Magnetic frustration along with disorder arrangements of non-magnetic ions are the building blocks for metastable spin-glass ground state formation for most of the compounds of this stoichiometry. The newly synthesized compound Er₂NiSi₃ compound forms in single phase in AlB₂ type structure with space group P6/mmm. The compound orders antiferromagnetically below 5.4 K and spin freezing of the frustrated magnetic moments occurs below 3 K for the compound. The compound shows magnetic relaxation behavior and magnetic memory effect below its freezing temperature. Neutron diffraction patterns for temperatures below the spin freezing temperature have been analyzed using FULLPROF software package. Diffuse magnetic scattering at low temperatures yields spin glass state formation for the compound.

Keywords: antiferromagnetism, magnetic frustration, spin-glass, neutron diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1652 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo

Abstract:

Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: GeSn, crystal growth, sputtering, photonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1651 Understanding Magnetic Properties of Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 Using Local Structure Probes

Authors: P. Suchismita Behera, V. G. Sathe, A. K. Nigam, P. A. Bhobe

Abstract:

Co-existence of long-range ferromagnetism and semi-conductivity with correlated behavior of structural, magnetic, optical and electrical properties in various sites doping at CdCr2Se4 makes it a most promising candidate for spin-based electronic applications and magnetic devices. It orders ferromagnetically below TC = 130 K with a direct band gap of ~ 1.5 eV. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr spin couplings and the ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr exchange interactions. With an aim of understanding the influence of crystal structure on its magnetic properties without disturbing the magnetic site, we investigated four compositions with 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of Sn-substitution at Cd-site. Partial substitution of Cd2+ (0.78Å) by small sized nonmagnetic ion, Sn4+ (0.55Å), is expected to bring about local lattice distortion as well as a change in electronic charge distribution. The structural disorder would affect the Cd/Sn – Se bonds thus affecting the Cr-Cr and Cr-Se-Cr bonds. Whereas, the charge imbalance created due to Sn4+ substitution at Cd2+ leads to the possibility of Cr mixed valence state. Our investigation of the local crystal structure using the EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic properties using SQUID magnetometry of the Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 series reflects this premise. All compositions maintain the Fd3m cubic symmetry with tetrahedral distribution of Sn at Cd-site, as confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameters were determined from the Rietveld refinement technique of the XRD data and further confirmed from the EXAFS spectra recorded at Cr K-edge. Presence of five Raman-active phonon vibrational modes viz. (T2g (1), T2g (2), T2g (3), Eg, A1g) in the Raman spectra further confirms the crystal symmetry. Temperature dependence of the Raman data provides interesting insight to the spin– phonon coupling, known to dominate the magneto-capacitive properties in the parent compound. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the longitudinal damping of Eg mode associated with Se-Cd/Sn-Se bending and T2g (2) mode associated to Cr-Se-Cr interaction, show interesting deviations with respect to increase in Sn substitution. Besides providing the estimate of TC, the magnetic measurements recorded as a function of field provide the values of total magnetic moment for all the studied compositions indicative of formation of multiple Cr valences.

Keywords: exchange interactions, EXAFS, ferromagnetism, Raman spectroscopy, spinel chalcogenides

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1650 Design of Photonic Crystal with Defect Layer to Eliminate Interface Corrugations for Obtaining Unidirectional and Bidirectional Beam Splitting under Normal Incidence

Authors: Evrim Colak, Andriy E. Serebryannikov, Pavel V. Usik, Ekmel Ozbay

Abstract:

Working with a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) structure which does not include surface corrugations, unidirectional transmission and dual-beam splitting are observed under normal incidence as a result of the strong diffractions caused by the embedded defect layer. The defect layer has twice the period of the regular PC segments which sandwich the defect layer. Although the PC has even number of rows, the structural symmetry is broken due to the asymmetric placement of the defect layer with respect to the symmetry axis of the regular PC. The simulations verify that efficient splitting and occurrence of strong diffractions are related to the dispersion properties of the Floquet-Bloch modes of the photonic crystal. Unidirectional and bi-directional splitting, which are associated with asymmetric transmission, arise due to the dominant contribution of the first positive and first negative diffraction orders. The effect of the depth of the defect layer is examined by placing single defect layer in varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission is still valid even if the zeroth order is not coupled. This transmission is due to evanescent waves which reach to the deeply embedded defect layer and couple to higher order modes. In an additional selected performance, whichever surface is illuminated, i.e., in both upper and lower surface illumination cases, incident beam is split into two beams of equal intensity at the output surface where the intensity of the out-going beams are equal for both illumination cases. That is, although the structure is asymmetric, symmetric bidirectional transmission with equal transmission values is demonstrated and the structure mimics the behavior of symmetric structures. Finally, simulation studies including the examination of a coupled-cavity defect for two different permittivity values (close to the permittivity values of GaAs or Si and alumina) reveal unidirectional splitting for a wider band of operation in comparison to the bandwidth obtained in the case of a single embedded defect layer. Since the dielectric materials that are utilized are low-loss and weakly dispersive in a wide frequency range including microwave and optical frequencies, the studied structures should be scalable to the mentioned ranges.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, beam deflection, blazing, bi-directional splitting, defect layer, dual beam splitting, Floquet-Bloch modes, isofrequency contours, line defect, oblique incidence, photonic crystal, unidirectionality

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1649 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: Cr-doped ZnO, ferromagnetic properties, magnetization, sputtering, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1648 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
1647 Thermo-Physical and Morphological Properties of Pdlcs Films Doped with Tio2 Nanoparticles.

Authors: Salima Bouadjela, Fatima Zohra Abdoune, Lahcene Mechernene

Abstract:

PDLCs are currently considered as promising materials for specific applications such as creation of window blinds controlled by electric field, fog simulators, UV protective glasses, high data storage device etc. We know that the electrical field inside the liquid crystal is low compare with the external electric field [1,2]. An addition of high magnetic and electrical, properties containing compounds to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) will enhance the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of the PDLC [3,4]. Low Concentration of inorganic nanoparticles TiO2 added to nematic liquid crystals (E7) and also combined with monomers (TPGDA) and cured monomer/LC mixture to elaborate polymer-LC-NP dispersion. The presence of liquid crystal and nanoparticles in TPGDA matrix were conformed and the modified properties of PDLC due to doped nanoparticle were studied and explained by the results of FTIR, POM, UV. Incorporation of nanoparticles modifies the structure of PDLC and thus it makes increase the amount of droplets and decrease in droplet size. we found that the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a shift the nematic-isotropic transition temperature TNI.

Keywords: nanocomposites, PDLC, phases diagram, TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1646 Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Six-Lines Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Chandni Rani, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferrihydrite is one of the distinct minerals in the family of oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. It is a nanocrystalline material. It occurs naturally in different sediments, soil systems and also found in the core of ferritin, an iron storage protien. This material can also be synthesized by suitable chemical methods in laboratories. This is known as less crystalline Iron (III) Oxyhydroxide. Due to its poor crystallinity, there are very broad peaks in x-ray diffraction. Depending on the number of peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern, it is classified as two lines and six lines ferrihydrite. The average crystallite size for these two forms is found to be about 2nm to 5nm. The exact crystal structure of this system is still under debate. Out of these two forms, the six lines ferrihydrite is more ordered in comparison to two lines ferrihydrite. The magnetic behavior of two lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles is somewhat well studied. But the magnetic behavior of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles could not attract the attention of researchers much. This motivated us to work on the magnetic properties of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. In this work, we present synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of 5 nm six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope are used for structural characterization of this system. Magnetization measurements are performed to fit the data at different temperatures. Then the effect of magnetic moment distribution is also found. All these observations are discussed in detail.

Keywords: nanoparticles, magnetism, superparamagnetism, magnetic anisotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 253