Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4443

Search results for: network protocol

4443 Evaluation of Collect Tree Protocol for Structural Health Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzedine


Routing protocol may enhance the lifetime of sensor network, it has a highly importance, especially in wireless sensor network (WSN). Therefore, routing protocol has a big effect in these networks, thus the choice of routing protocol must be studied before setting up our network. In this work, we implement the routing protocol collect tree protocol (CTP) which is one of the hierarchic protocols used in structural health monitoring (SHM). Therefore, to evaluate the performance of this protocol, we choice to work with Contiki system and Cooja simulator. By throughput and RSSI evaluation of each node, we will deduce about the utility of CTP in structural monitoring system.

Keywords: CTP, WSN, SHM, routing protocol

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4442 Survey on Securing the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Authors: Kimaya Subhash Gaikwad, S. B. Waykar


The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is collection of various types of nodes. In MANET various protocols are used for communication. In OLSR protocol, a node is selected as multipoint relay (MPR) node which broadcast the messages. As the MANET is open kind of network any malicious node can easily enter into the network and affect the performance of the network. The performance of network mainly depends on the components which are taking part into the communication. If the proper nodes are not selected for the communication then the probability of network being attacked is more. Therefore, it is important to select the more reliable and secure components in the network. MANET does not have any filtering so that only selected nodes can be used for communication. The openness of the MANET makes it easier to attack the communication. The most of the attack are on the Quality of service (QoS) of the network. This paper gives the overview of the various attacks that are possible on OLSR protocol and some solutions. The papers focus mainly on the OLSR protocol.

Keywords: communication, MANET, OLSR, QoS

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4441 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich


Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocol

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4440 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal


Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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4439 Secure Network Coding-Based Named Data Network Mutual Anonymity Transfer Protocol

Authors: Tao Feng, Fei Xing, Ye Lu, Jun Li Fang


NDN is a kind of future Internet architecture. Due to the NDN design introduces four privacy challenges,Many research institutions began to care about the privacy issues of naming data network(NDN).In this paper, we are in view of the major NDN’s privacy issues to investigate privacy protection,then put forwards more effectively anonymous transfer policy for NDN.Firstly,based on mutual anonymity communication for MP2P networks,we propose NDN mutual anonymity protocol.Secondly,we add interest package authentication mechanism in the protocol and encrypt the coding coefficient, security of this protocol is improved by this way.Finally, we proof the proposed anonymous transfer protocol security and anonymity.

Keywords: NDN, mutual anonymity, anonymous routing, network coding, authentication mechanism

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4438 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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4437 The Study of ZigBee Protocol Application in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ardavan Zamanpour, Somaieh Yassari


ZigBee protocol network was developed in industries and MIT laboratory in 1997. ZigBee is a wireless networking technology by alliance ZigBee which is designed to low board and low data rate applications. It is a Protocol which connects between electrical devises with very low energy and cost. The first version of IEEE 802.15.4 which was formed ZigBee was based on 2.4GHZ MHZ 912MHZ 868 frequency band. The name of system is often reminded random directions that bees (BEES) traversing during pollination of products. Such as alloy of the ways in which information packets are traversed within the mesh network. This paper aims to study the performance and effectiveness of this protocol in wireless networks.

Keywords: ZigBee, protocol, wireless, networks

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4436 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha


This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

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4435 Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Kamalpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar


In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.

Keywords: ERA, fuzzy logic, network model, WSN

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4434 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali


The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several sub-networks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, AD HOC topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements

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4433 Evaluation of Security and Performance of Master Node Protocol in the Bitcoin Peer-To-Peer Network

Authors: Muntadher Sallal, Gareth Owenson, Mo Adda, Safa Shubbar


Bitcoin is a digital currency based on a peer-to-peer network to propagate and verify transactions. Bitcoin is gaining wider adoption than any previous crypto-currency. However, the mechanism of peers randomly choosing logical neighbors without any knowledge about underlying physical topology can cause a delay overhead in information propagation, which makes the system vulnerable to double-spend attacks. Aiming at alleviating the propagation delay problem, this paper introduces proximity-aware extensions to the current Bitcoin protocol, named Master Node Based Clustering (MNBC). The ultimate purpose of the proposed protocol, that are based on how clusters are formulated and how nodes can define their membership, is to improve the information propagation delay in the Bitcoin network. In MNBC protocol, physical internet connectivity increases, as well as the number of hops between nodes, decreases through assigning nodes to be responsible for maintaining clusters based on physical internet proximity. We show, through simulations, that the proposed protocol defines better clustering structures that optimize the performance of the transaction propagation over the Bitcoin protocol. The evaluation of partition attacks in the MNBC protocol, as well as the Bitcoin network, was done in this paper. Evaluation results prove that even though the Bitcoin network is more resistant against the partitioning attack than the MNBC protocol, more resources are needed to be spent to split the network in the MNBC protocol, especially with a higher number of nodes.

Keywords: Bitcoin network, propagation delay, clustering, scalability

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4432 Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Anu Malhotra


An Ad-hoc network is one that is an autonomous, self configuring network made up of mobile nodes connected via wireless links. Ad-hoc networks often consist of nodes, mobile hosts (MH) or mobile stations (MS, also serving as routers) connected by wireless links. Different routing protocols are used for data transmission in between the nodes in an adhoc network. In this paper two protocols (OLSR and AODV) are analyzed on the basis of two parameters i.e. time delay and throughput with different data rates. On the basis of these analysis, we observed that with same data rate, AODV protocol is having more time delay than the OLSR protocol whereas throughput for the OLSR protocol is less compared to the AODV protocol.

Keywords: routing adhoc, mobile hosts, mobile stations, OLSR protocol, AODV protocol

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4431 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri


A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, truetime

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4430 Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Vikram Prabhu, Mohammad Shikh Bahaei


This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.

Keywords: interlock protocol, Diffie-Hellman algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, control station, man-in-the-middle attack, Wireshark

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4429 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba


In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: IP scheduled throughput, E-UTRAN, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network, NTP, Network Time Protocol, assymetric network, delay

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4428 Securing Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Utilizing OPNET Simulator

Authors: Tariq A. El Shheibia, Halima Mohamed Belhamad


This paper is considered securing data based on multi-path protocol (SDMP) in mobile ad hoc network utilizing OPNET simulator modular 14.5, including the AODV routing protocol at the network as based multi-path algorithm for message security in MANETs. The main idea of this work is to present a way that is able to detect the attacker inside the MANETs. The detection for this attacker will be performed by adding some effective parameters to the network.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, malicious node, OPNET

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4427 Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sumanpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar


In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.

Keywords: DSEP, fuzzy logic, energy model, WSN

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4426 Multi-Level Clustering Based Congestion Control Protocol for Cyber Physical Systems

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Amita Rani, Sanjay Kumar


The Internet of Things (IoT), a cyber-physical paradigm, allows a large number of devices to connect and send the sensory data in the network simultaneously. This tremendous amount of data generated leads to very high network load consequently resulting in network congestion. It further amounts to frequent loss of useful information and depletion of significant amount of nodes’ energy. Therefore, there is a need to control congestion in IoT so as to prolong network lifetime and improve the quality of service (QoS). Hence, we propose a two-level clustering based routing algorithm considering congestion score and packet priority metrics that focus on minimizing the network congestion. In the proposed Priority based Congestion Control (PBCC) protocol the sensor nodes in IoT network form clusters that reduces the amount of traffic and the nodes are prioritized to emphasize important data. Simultaneously, a congestion score determines the occurrence of congestion at a particular node. The proposed protocol outperforms the existing Packet Discard Network Clustering (PDNC) protocol in terms of buffer size, packet transmission range, network region and number of nodes, under various simulation scenarios.

Keywords: internet of things, cyber-physical systems, congestion control, priority, transmission rate

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4425 Multi-Sender MAC Protocol Based on Temporal Reuse in Underwater Acoustic Networks

Authors: Dongwon Lee, Sunmyeng Kim


Underwater acoustic networks (UANs) have become a very active research area in recent years. Compared with wireless networks, UANs are characterized by the limited bandwidth, long propagation delay and high channel dynamic in acoustic modems, which pose challenges to the design of medium access control (MAC) protocol. The characteristics severely affect network performance. In this paper, we study a MS-MAC (Multi-Sender MAC) protocol in order to improve network performance. The proposed protocol exploits temporal reuse by learning the propagation delays to neighboring nodes. A source node locally calculates the transmission schedules of its neighboring nodes and itself based on the propagation delays to avoid collisions. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and confirms that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput.

Keywords: acoustic channel, MAC, temporal reuse, UAN

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4424 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad


File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol, DHT

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4423 Security in Resource Constraints Network Light Weight Encryption for Z-MAC

Authors: Mona Almansoori, Ahmed Mustafa, Ahmad Elshamy


Wireless sensor network was formed by a combination of nodes, systematically it transmitting the data to their base stations, this transmission data can be easily compromised if the limited processing power and the data consistency from these nodes are kept in mind; there is always a discussion to address the secure data transfer or transmission in actual time. This will present a mechanism to securely transmit the data over a chain of sensor nodes without compromising the throughput of the network by utilizing available battery resources available in the sensor node. Our methodology takes many different advantages of Z-MAC protocol for its efficiency, and it provides a unique key by sharing the mechanism using neighbor node MAC address. We present a light weighted data integrity layer which is embedded in the Z-MAC protocol to prove that our protocol performs well than Z-MAC when we introduce the different attack scenarios.

Keywords: hybrid MAC protocol, data integrity, lightweight encryption, neighbor based key sharing, sensor node dataprocessing, Z-MAC

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4422 Comparative Study on Manet Using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: Amarjit Singh, Tripatdeep Singh Dua, Vikas Attri


Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a combination of several nodes that create dynamically a specific network without using any base infrastructure. In this study all the mobile nodes can depended upon each other to send any data. Mobile host can pick up data and forwarding to their destination path. Basically MANET depend upon their Quality of Service which is highly constraints to the user. To give better services we need to improve the QOS. In these days MANET QOS requirement to use soft computing techniques. These techniques depend upon their specific requirement and which exists using MANET concepts. Using a soft computing techniques various protocol and algorithms may be considered. In this paper, we provide comparative study review of existing work done in MANET using various kind of soft computing techniques. Our review research is based on their specific protocol or algorithm which provide concern solution of QOS need. We discuss about various protocol through which routing in MANET. In Second section we clear the concepts of Soft Computing and their types. In third section we review the MANET using different kind of soft computing techniques work done before. In forth section we need to understand the concept of QoS requirement which exists in MANET and we done comparative study on different protocol used before and last we conclude the purpose of using MANET with soft computing techniques metrics.

Keywords: mobile ad-hoc network, fuzzy improved genetic approach, neural network, routing protocol, wireless mesh network

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4421 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh


In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

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4420 Reactive Analysis of Different Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manoj Kumar


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper, we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR, and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyze these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show how to pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, sent data traffic, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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4419 Optimized Cluster Head Selection Algorithm Based on LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wided Abidi, Tahar Ezzedine


Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) has been considered as one of the effective hierarchical routing algorithms that optimize energy and prolong the lifetime of network. Since the selection of Cluster Head (CH) in LEACH is carried out randomly, in this paper, we propose an approach of electing CH based on LEACH protocol. In other words, we present a formula for calculating the threshold responsible for CH election. In fact, we adopt three principle criteria: the remaining energy of node, the number of neighbors within cluster range and the distance between node and CH. Simulation results show that our proposed approach beats LEACH protocol in regards of prolonging the lifetime of network and saving residual energy.

Keywords: wireless sensors networks, LEACH protocol, cluster head election, energy efficiency

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4418 A Low Power Consumption Routing Protocol Based on a Meta-Heuristics

Authors: Kaddi Mohammed, Benahmed Khelifa D. Benatiallah


A sensor network consists of a large number of sensors deployed in areas to monitor and communicate with each other through a wireless medium. The collected routing data in the network consumes most of the energy of the sensor nodes. For this purpose, multiple routing approaches have been proposed to conserve energy resource at the sensors and to overcome the challenges of its limitation. In this work, we propose a new low energy consumption routing protocol for wireless sensor networks based on a meta-heuristic methods. Our protocol is to operate more fairly energy when routing captured data to the base station.

Keywords: WSN, routing, energy, heuristic

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4417 Hybrid Hierarchical Routing Protocol for WSN Lifetime Maximization

Authors: H. Aoudia, Y. Touati, E. H. Teguig, A. Ali Cherif


Conceiving and developing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks requires considerations on constraints such as network lifetime and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a hybrid hierarchical routing protocol named HHRP combining both clustering mechanism and multipath optimization taking into account residual energy and RSSI measures. HHRP consists of classifying dynamically nodes into clusters where coordinators nodes with extra privileges are able to manipulate messages, aggregate data and ensure transmission between nodes according to TDMA and CDMA schedules. The reconfiguration of the network is carried out dynamically based on a threshold value which is associated with the number of nodes belonging to the smallest cluster. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach HHRP, a comparative study with LEACH protocol is illustrated in simulations.

Keywords: routing protocol, optimization, clustering, WSN

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4416 Agent Based Location Management Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Mallikarjun B. Channappagoudar, Pallapa Venkataram


The dynamic nature of Mobile adhoc network (MANET) due to mobility and disconnection of mobile nodes, leads to various problems in predicting the movement of nodes and their location information updation, for efficient interaction among the application specific nodes. Location management is one of the main challenges to be considered for an efficient service provision to the applications of a MANET. In this paper, we propose a location management protocol, for locating the nodes of a MANET and to maintain uninterrupted high-quality service for distributed applications by intelligently anticipating the change of location of its nodes. The protocol predicts the node movement and application resource scarcity, does the replacement with the chosen nodes nearby which have less mobility and rich in resources, with the help of both static and mobile agents, and maintains the application continuity by providing required network resources. The protocol has been simulated using Java Agent Development Environment (JADE) Framework for agent generation, migration and communication. It consumes much less time (response time), gives better location accuracy, utilize less network resources, and reduce location management overhead.

Keywords: mobile agent, location management, distributed applications, mobile adhoc network

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4415 Signal Strength Based Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Chothmal


In this paper, we present a route discovery process which uses the signal strength on a link as a parameter of its inclusion in the route discovery method. The proposed signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) based multipath reactive routing protocol is named as SINR-MP protocol. The proposed SINR-MP routing protocols has two following two features: a) SINR-MP protocol selects routes based on the SINR of the links during the route discovery process therefore it select the routes which has long lifetime and low frame error rate for data transmission, and b) SINR-MP protocols route discovery process is multipath which discovers more than one SINR based route between a given source destination pair. The multiple routes selected by our SINR-MP protocol are node-disjoint in nature which increases their robustness against link failures, as failure of one route will not affect the other route. The secondary route is very useful in situations where the primary route is broken because we can now use the secondary route without causing a new route discovery process. Due to this, the network overhead caused by a route discovery process is avoided. This increases the network performance greatly. The proposed SINR-MP routing protocol is implemented in the trail version of network simulator called Qualnet.

Keywords: ad hoc networks, quality of service, video streaming, H.264/SVC, multiple routes, video traces

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4414 Mechanism for Network Security via Routing Protocols Estimated with Network Simulator 2 (NS-2)

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Sufyan, Nasir Ahmed


The MANETs have lessened transportation and decentralized network. There are numerous basis of routing protocols. We derived the MANETs protocol into three major categories like Reactive, Proactive and hybrid. In these protocols, we discussed only some protocols like Distance Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The AODV and DSR are both reactive type of protocols. On the other hand, DSDV is proactive type protocol here. We compare these routing protocols for network security estimated by network simulator (NS-2). In this dissertation some parameters discussed such as simulation time, packet size, number of node, packet delivery fraction, push time and speed etc. We will construct all these parameters on routing protocols under suitable conditions for network security measures.

Keywords: DSDV, AODV, DSR NS-2, PDF, push time

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