Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: attribution

54 The Initiator Matters in Service Co-Recovery: Investigation on Attribution and Satisfaction

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai


In the literature, the positive effect of service co-recovery has been evidenced, and which customers’ attribution is the key successful factor has also been indicated. There is also literature investigating on initiation of co-recovery for finding out the superior way to co-recovery, and indicating co-recovery initiated by employees causes better effect of co-recovery. This research postulates the consequences of co-recovery by different initiators affect customers’ attribution and the resultant results. Thus, this research uses a 3x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of initiator of co-recovery and consequence of co-recovery on customers’ attribution and post-recovery satisfaction. The results show initiation of co-recovery has a significant influence on internal attribution, and the employee initiator causes the highest internal attribution. The consequences of co-recovery interact with initiators of co-recovery on internal attribution significantly. Moreover, internal attribution significantly affects post-recovery satisfaction.

Keywords: service co-recovery, initiation of co-recovery, attribution, post-recovery satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
53 Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis

Authors: Jian Xu, Xiaochun Yun, Yongzheng Zhang, Yafei Sang, Zhenyu Cheng


Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.

Keywords: attribution trace, probabilistic relevance, network attack, attacker identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
52 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei


With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain, threat intelligence

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51 Overconfidence and Self-Attribution Bias: The Difference among Economic Students at Different Stage of the Study and Non-Economic Students

Authors: Vera Jancurova


People are, in general, exposed to behavioral biases, however, the degree and impact are affected by experience, knowledge, and other characteristics. The purpose of this article is to study two of defined behavioral biases, the overconfidence and self-attribution bias, and its impact on economic and non-economic students at different stage of the study. The research method used for the purpose of this study is a controlled field study that contains questions on perception of own confidence and self-attribution and estimation of limits to analyse actual abilities. The results of the research show that economic students seem to be more overconfident than their non–economic colleagues, which seems to be caused by the fact the questionnaire was asking for predicting economic indexes and own knowledge and abilities in financial environment. Surprisingly, the most overconfidence was detected by the students at the beginning of their study (1st-semester students). However, the estimations of real numbers do not point out, that economic students have better results by the prediction itself. The study confirmed the presence of self-attribution bias at all of the respondents.

Keywords: behavioral finance, overconfidence, self-attribution, heuristics and biases

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
50 Exploring Syntactic and Semantic Features for Text-Based Authorship Attribution

Authors: Haiyan Wu, Ying Liu, Shaoyun Shi


Authorship attribution is to extract features to identify authors of anonymous documents. Many previous works on authorship attribution focus on statistical style features (e.g., sentence/word length), content features (e.g., frequent words, n-grams). Modeling these features by regression or some transparent machine learning methods gives a portrait of the authors' writing style. But these methods do not capture the syntactic (e.g., dependency relationship) or semantic (e.g., topics) information. In recent years, some researchers model syntactic trees or latent semantic information by neural networks. However, few works take them together. Besides, predictions by neural networks are difficult to explain, which is vital in authorship attribution tasks. In this paper, we not only utilize the statistical style and content features but also take advantage of both syntactic and semantic features. Different from an end-to-end neural model, feature selection and prediction are two steps in our method. An attentive n-gram network is utilized to select useful features, and logistic regression is applied to give prediction and understandable representation of writing style. Experiments show that our extracted features can improve the state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.

Keywords: authorship attribution, attention mechanism, syntactic feature, feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
49 Estimating View-Through Ad Attribution from User Surveys Using Convex Optimization

Authors: Yuhan Lin, Rohan Kekatpure, Cassidy Yeung


In Digital Marketing, robust quantification of View-through attribution (VTA) is necessary for evaluating channel effectiveness. VTA occurs when a product purchase is aided by an Ad but without an explicit click (e.g. a TV ad). A lack of a tracking mechanism makes VTA estimation challenging. Most prevalent VTA estimation techniques rely on post-purchase in-product user surveys. User surveys enable the calculation of channel multipliers, which are the ratio of the view-attributed to the click-attributed purchases of each marketing channel. Channel multipliers thus provide a way to estimate the unknown VTA for a channel from its known click attribution. In this work, we use Convex Optimization to compute channel multipliers in a way that enables a mathematical encoding of the expected channel behavior. Large fluctuations in channel attributions often result from overfitting the calculations to user surveys. Casting channel attribution as a Convex Optimization problem allows an introduction of constraints that limit such fluctuations. The result of our study is a distribution of channel multipliers across the entire marketing funnel, with important implications for marketing spend optimization. Our technique can be broadly applied to estimate Ad effectiveness in a privacy-centric world that increasingly limits user tracking.

Keywords: digital marketing, survey analysis, operational research, convex optimization, channel attribution

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48 As Evolved Mechanisms and Cultural Modeling Affect Child Gender Attribution

Authors: Stefano Federici, Alessandro Lepri, Antonella Carrera


Kessler and McKenna in the seventies, and recently Federici and Lepri investigated how an individual attributes gender to a person. By administering nudes of human figures, the scholars have found that the penis more than the vagina and the male sexual characteristics more than the female ones are significantly more salient in the gender attribution process. Federici and Lepri suggested that the asymmetrical salience of sexual characteristics is attributable to evolved decision-making processes for the solution of gender attribution problems to avoid the greatest danger of an (angry) adult male. The present study has observed the behaviour of 60 children, aged between 3 and 6 years, and their parents verifying whether the child gender attribution mechanisms are permeable to cultural stereotypes. The participating children were asked to make a male or a female on a tablet by combining 12 human physical characteristics (long hair, short hair, wide hips, narrow hips, breasts, flat chest, body hair, hairless body, penis, vagina, male face, and female face) and four cloths (male t-shirt, female t-shirt, pants, and skirt) by superimposing one or more of them on a sexually neutral manikin. On the tablet was installed an App, created by authors, to replicate the Kessler and McKenna and Federici and Lepri previous studies. One of the parents of each of the participating children was asked to make a male or a female using the same apparatus used by children. In addition, the participating parents were asked to complete a test, as proposed by Federici and Lepri in their previous study, to compare adult and child processes of gender attribution. The results suggested that children are affected both by evolved mechanisms as adults were (e.g., taking less time to make a male than a female, using the penis more often than the vagina), and by cultural modeling of parental and environmental gender stereotypes (e.g., the genitals were often covered with pants in case the delivery was to make a male and a skirt in the case was to make a female).

Keywords: biological sex, cognitive biases, cultural modeling, gender attribution, evolved decision-making processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
47 Pay Per Click Attribution: Effects on Direct Search Traffic and Purchases

Authors: Toni Raurich-Marcet, Joan Llonch-Andreu


This research is focused on the relationship between Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and traditional advertising. The dominant assumption is that SEM does not help brand awareness and only does it in session as if it were the cost of manufacturing the product being sold. The study is methodologically developed using an experiment where the effects were determined to analyze the billboard effect. The research allowed the cross-linking of theoretical and empirical knowledge on digital marketing. This paper has validated this marketing generates retention as traditional advertising would by measuring brand awareness and its improvements. This changes the way performance and brand campaigns are split within marketing departments, effectively rebalancing budgets moving forward.

Keywords: attribution, performance marketing, SEM, marketplaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
46 Attribution Theory and Perceived Reliability of Cellphones for Teaching and Learning

Authors: Mayowa A. Sofowora, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono


The use of information and communication technologies such as computers, mobile phones and the internet is becoming prevalent in today’s world; and it is facilitating access to a vast amount of data, services, and applications for the improvement of people’s lives. However, this prevalence of ICTs is hampered by the problem of low income levels in developing countries to the point where people cannot timeously replace or repair their ICT devices when damaged or lost; and this problem serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones when used for teaching and learning purposes. The research objectives unfolding this aim are of two types: objectives on the selection and design of theories and models, and objectives on the empirical testing of these theories and models. The first type of objectives is achieved using content analysis in an extensive literature survey, and the second type of objectives is achieved through a survey of high school teachers from the ILembe and Umgungudlovu districts in the KwaZuluNatal province of South Africa. Data collected from this questionnaire based survey is analysed in SPSS using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after checking the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics and the attribution identity of teachers on one hand, and their perceptions on the reliability of cellphones on the other hand, as suggested by existing literature; except that attribution identities are considered in this study under three angles: intention, knowledge and ability, and action. The results of this study confirm that the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones for teaching and learning are affected by the school location of these teachers, and by their perceptions on learners’ cellphones usage intentions and actual use.

Keywords: attribution, cellphones, e-learning, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
45 Investigating the Dimensions of Perceived Attributions in Making Sense of Failure: An Exploratory Study of Lebanese Entrepreneurs

Authors: Ghiwa Dandach


By challenging the anti-failure bias and contributing to the theoretical territory of the attribution theory, this thesis develops a comprehensive process for entrepreneurial learning from failure. The practical implication of the findings suggests assisting entrepreneurs (current, failing, and nascent) in effectively anticipating and reflecting upon failure. Additionally, the process is suggested to enhance the level of institutional and private (accelerators and financers) support provided to entrepreneurs, the implications of which may improve future opportunities for entrepreneurial success. Henceforth, exploring learning from failure is argued to impact the potential survival of future ventures, subsequently revitalizing the economic contribution of entrepreneurship. This learning process can be enhanced with the cognitive development of causal ascriptions for failure, which eventually impacts learning outcomes. However, the mechanism with which entrepreneurs make sense of failure, reflect on the journey, and transform experience into knowledge is still under-researched. More specifically, the cognitive process of failure attribution is under-explored, majorly in the context of developing economies, calling for a more insightful understanding on how entrepreneurs ascribe failure. Responding to the call for more thorough research in such cultural contexts, this study expands the understanding of the dimensions of failure attributions as perceived by entrepreneurs and the impact of these dimensions on learning outcomes in the Lebanese context. The research adopted the exploratory interpretivism paradigm and collected data from interviews with industry experts first, followed by narratives of entrepreneurs using the qualitative multimethod approach. The holistic and categorical content analysis of narratives, preceded by the thematic analysis of interviews, unveiled how entrepreneurs ascribe failure by developing minor and major dimensions of each failure attribution. The findings have also revealed how each dimension impacts the learning from failure when accompanied by emotional resilience. The thesis concludes that exploring in-depth the dimensions of failure attributions significantly determines the level of learning generated. They are moving beyond the simple categorisation of ascriptions as primary internal or external unveiled how learning may occur with each attribution at the individual, venture, and ecosystem levels. This has further accentuated that a major internal attribution of failure combined with a minor external attribution generated the highest levels of transformative and double-loop learning, emphasizing the role of personal blame and responsibility on enhancing learning outcomes.

Keywords: attribution, entrepreneurship, reflection, sense-making, emotions, learning outcomes, failure, exit

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44 Real-Time Multi-Vehicle Tracking Application at Intersections Based on Feature Selection in Combination with Color Attribution

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu


In multi-vehicle tracking, based on feature selection, the tracking system efficiently tracks vehicles in a video with minimal error in combination with color attribution, which focuses on presenting a simple and fast, yet accurate and robust solution to the problem such as inaccurately and untimely responses of statistics-based adaptive traffic control system in the intersection scenario. In this study, a real-time tracking system is proposed for multi-vehicle tracking in the intersection scene. Considering the complexity and application feasibility of the algorithm, in the object detection step, the detection result provided by virtual loops were post-processed and then used as the input for the tracker. For the tracker, lightweight methods were designed to extract and select features and incorporate them into the adaptive color tracking (ACT) framework. And the approbatory online feature selection algorithms are integrated on the mature ACT system with good compatibility. The proposed feature selection methods and multi-vehicle tracking method are evaluated on KITTI datasets and show efficient vehicle tracking performance when compared to the other state-of-the-art approaches in the same category. And the system performs excellently on the video sequences recorded at the intersection. Furthermore, the presented vehicle tracking system is suitable for surveillance applications.

Keywords: real-time, multi-vehicle tracking, feature selection, color attribution

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43 The Role of Situational Attribution Training in Reducing Automatic In-Group Stereotyping in Females

Authors: Olga Mironiuk, Małgorzata Kossowska


The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Situational Attribution Training on reducing automatic in-group stereotyping in females. The experiment was conducted with the control of age and level of prejudice. 90 female participants were randomly assigned to two conditions: experimental and control group (each group was also divided into younger- and older-aged condition). Participants from the experimental condition were subjected to more extensive training. In the first part of the experiment, the experimental group took part in the first session of Situational Attribution Training while the control group participated in the Grammatical Training Control. In the second part of the research both groups took part in the Situational Attribution Training (which was considered as the second training session for the experimental group and the first one for the control condition). The training procedure was based on the descriptions of ambiguous situations which could be explained using situational or dispositional attributions. The participant’s task was to choose the situational explanation from two alternatives, out of which the second one presented the explanation based on neutral or stereotypically associated with women traits. Moreover, the experimental group took part in the third training session after two- day time delay, in order to check the persistence of the training effect. The main hypothesis stated that among participants taking part in the more extensive training, the automatic in-group stereotyping would be less frequent after having finished training sessions. The effectiveness of the training was tested by measuring the response time and the correctness of answers: the longer response time for the examples where one of two possible answers was based on the stereotype trait and higher correctness of answers was considered to be a proof of the training effectiveness. As the participants’ level of prejudice was controlled (using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory), it was also assumed that the training effect would be weaker for participants revealing a higher level of prejudice. The obtained results did not confirm the hypothesis based on the response time: participants from the experimental group responded faster in case of situations where one of the possible explanations was based on stereotype trait. However, an interesting observation was made during the analysis of the answers’ correctness: regardless the condition and age group affiliation, participants made more mistakes while choosing the situational explanations when the alternative was based on stereotypical trait associated with the dimension of warmth. What is more, the correctness of answers was higher in the third training session for the experimental group in case when the alternative of situational explanation was based on the stereotype trait associated with the dimension of competence. The obtained results partially confirm the effectiveness of the training.

Keywords: female, in-group stereotyping, prejudice, situational attribution training

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42 Stigma and Discrimination toward Mental Illness: Translation and Validation of the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27)

Authors: Gokcen Akyurek, Hulya Kayihan, Deniz Yuce, Selen Yilmaz


The stigma towards mental illness is still very rooted in our society, despite the number of studies, campaigns, and anti-stigma programs developed in recent years. Stigma represents a serious obstacle to recovery and social integration for people who experience a mental illness, affecting directly their well-being and quality of life. It implies that these persons have to deal with many other barriers apart from the disease symptoms (1-5). Convergent, recent literature suggests that less positive attitudes by mental health professionals interfere with the self-determination and recovery process (4-10).The aim of this study was to translate the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27) to the Turkish language (AQ-27-T), and to examine the reliability and validity of this new Turkish version. Cultural adaptation was implemented according to the internationally suggested method. To determine the understandability and appropriateness of this measure for the Turkish culture, a pretest was administered and the final form was generated. Then, 424 randomly chosen people took part in the study. Participant’s mean age was 36.9±12.7 years and %52 of them female. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class coefficients were used to estimate instrument reliability. The AQ-27-T was assessed again 14 days later for test retest reliability. The AQ-27-T demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for the total scale and ranging between 0.86 and 0.89 for the items. The test-retest reliability was good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.79 for the total scale and ranging between 0.35 and 0.77 for the items (p<0.05). Correlation between subscales was moderate-good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.18-0.88 (p<0.05). Fit indices of the model supported the factor structure and paths. The AQ-27-T is a reliable measure to assess stigmatizing attitudes in Turkish.

Keywords: attribution questionnaire, validity, reliability, stigma

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41 Effects of an Educative Model in Socially Responsible Behavior and Other Psychological Variables

Authors: Gracia V. Navarro, Maria V. Gonzalez, Carlos G. Reed


The eudaimonic perspective in philosophy and psychology suggests that a good life is closely related to developing oneself in order to contribute to the well-being and happiness of other people and of the world as a whole. Educational psychology can help to achieve this through the design and validation of educative models. Since 2004, the University of Concepcion and other Chilean universities apply an educative model to train socially responsible professionals, people that in the exercise of their profession contribute to generate equity for the development and assess the impacts of their decisions, opting for those that serve the common good. The main aim is to identify if a relationship exists between achieved learning, attitudes toward social responsibility, self-attribution of socially responsible behavior, value type, professional behavior observed and, participation in a specific model to train socially responsible (SR) professionals. The Achieved Learning and Attitudes Toward Social Responsibility Questionnaire, interview with employers and Values Questionnaire and Self-attribution of SR Behavior Questionnaire is applied to 394 students and graduates, divided into experimental and control groups (trained and not trained under the educative model), in order to identify the professional behavior of the graduates. The results show that students and graduates perceive cognitive, affective and behavioral learning, with significant differences in attitudes toward social responsibility and self-attribution of SR behavior, between experimental and control. There are also differences in employers' perceptions about the professional practice of those who were trained under the model and those who were not. It is concluded that the educative model has an impact on the learning of social responsibility and educates for a full life. It is also concluded that it is necessary to identify mediating variables of the model effect.

Keywords: educative model, good life, professional social responsibility, values

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
40 The Grammar of the Content Plane as a Style Marker in Forensic Authorship Attribution

Authors: Dayane de Almeida


This work aims at presenting a study that demonstrates the usability of categories of analysis from Discourse Semiotics – also known as Greimassian Semiotics in authorship cases in forensic contexts. It is necessary to know if the categories examined in semiotic analysis (the ‘grammar’ of the content plane) can distinguish authors. Thus, a study with 4 sets of texts from a corpus of ‘not on demand’ written samples (those texts differ in formality degree, purpose, addressees, themes, etc.) was performed. Each author contributed with 20 texts, separated into 2 groups of 10 (Author1A, Author1B, and so on). The hypothesis was that texts from a single author were semiotically more similar to each other than texts from different authors. The assumptions and issues that led to this idea are as follows: -The features analyzed in authorship studies mostly relate to the expression plane: they are manifested on the ‘surface’ of texts. If language is both expression and content, content would also have to be considered for more accurate results. Style is present in both planes. -Semiotics postulates the content plane is structured in a ‘grammar’ that underlies expression, and that presents different levels of abstraction. This ‘grammar’ would be a style marker. -Sociolinguistics demonstrates intra-speaker variation: an individual employs different linguistic uses in different situations. Then, how to determine if someone is the author of several texts, distinct in nature (as it is the case in most forensic sets), when it is known intra-speaker variation is dependent on so many factors?-The idea is that the more abstract the level in the content plane, the lower the intra-speaker variation, because there will be a greater chance for the author to choose the same thing. If two authors recurrently chose the same options, differently from one another, it means each one’s option has discriminatory power. -Size is another issue for various attribution methods. Since most texts in real forensic settings are short, methods relying only on the expression plane tend to fail. The analysis of the content plane as proposed by greimassian semiotics would be less size-dependable. -The semiotic analysis was performed using the software Corpus Tool, generating tags to allow the counting of data. Then, similarities and differences were quantitatively measured, through the application of the Jaccard coefficient (a statistical measure that compares the similarities and differences between samples). The results showed the hypothesis was confirmed and, hence, the grammatical categories of the content plane may successfully be used in questioned authorship scenarios.

Keywords: authorship attribution, content plane, forensic linguistics, greimassian semiotics, intraspeaker variation, style

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
39 Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism: An Analysis of Global Cooperation and Cyber Security Counter Measures

Authors: Mastoor Qubra


Cyber-attacks have frequently disrupted the critical infrastructures of the major global states and now, cyber threat has become one of the dire security risks for the states across the globe. Recently, ransomware cyber-attacks, wannacry and petya, have affected hundreds of thousands of computer servers and individuals’ private machines in more than hundred countries across Europe, Middle East, Asia, United States and Australia. Although, states are rapidly becoming aware of the destructive nature of this new security threat and counter measures are being taken but states’ isolated efforts would be inadequate to deal with this heinous security challenge, rather a global coordination and cooperation is inevitable in order to develop a credible cyber deterrence policy. Hence, the paper focuses that coordinated global approach is required to deter posed cyber threat. This paper intends to analyze the cyber security counter measures in four dimensions i.e. evaluation of prevalent strategies at bilateral level, initiatives and limitations for cooperation at global level, obstacles to combat cyber terrorism and finally, recommendations to deter the threat by applying tools of deterrence theory. Firstly, it focuses on states’ efforts to combat the cyber threat and in this regard, US-Australia Cyber Security Dialogue is comprehensively illustrated and investigated. Secondly, global partnerships and strategic and analytic role of multinational organizations, particularly United Nations (UN), to deal with the heinous threat, is critically analyzed and flaws are highlighted, for instance; less significance of cyber laws within international law as compared to other conflict prone issues. In addition to this, there are certain obstacles and limitations at national, regional and global level to implement the cyber terrorism counter strategies which are presented in the third section. Lastly, by underlining the gaps and grey areas in the current cyber security counter measures, it aims to apply tools of deterrence theory, i.e. defense, attribution and retaliation, in the cyber realm to contribute towards formulating a credible cyber deterrence strategy at global level. Thus, this study is significant in understanding and determining the inevitable necessity of counter cyber terrorism strategies.

Keywords: attribution, critical infrastructure, cyber terrorism, global cooperation

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38 Analysis of the Significance of Multimedia Channels Using Sparse PCA and Regularized SVD

Authors: Kourosh Modarresi


The abundance of media channels and devices has given users a variety of options to extract, discover, and explore information in the digital world. Since, often, there is a long and complicated path that a typical user may venture before taking any (significant) action (such as purchasing goods and services), it is critical to know how each node (media channel) in the path of user has contributed to the final action. In this work, the significance of each media channel is computed using statistical analysis and machine learning techniques. More specifically, “Regularized Singular Value Decomposition”, and “Sparse Principal Component” has been used to compute the significance of each channel toward the final action. The results of this work are a considerable improvement compared to the present approaches.

Keywords: multimedia attribution, sparse principal component, regularization, singular value decomposition, feature significance, machine learning, linear systems, variable shrinkage

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37 Modelling of Multi-Agent Systems for the Scheduling of Multi-EV Charging from Power Limited Sources

Authors: Manan’Iarivo Rasolonjanahary, Chris Bingham, Nigel Schofield, Masoud Bazargan


This paper presents the research and application of model predictive scheduled charging of electric vehicles (EV) subject to limited available power resource. To focus on algorithm and operational characteristics, the EV interface to the source is modelled as a battery state equation during the charging operation. The researched methods allow for the priority scheduling of EV charging in a multi-vehicle regime and when subject to limited source power availability. Priority attribution for each connected EV is described. The validity of the developed methodology is shown through the simulation of different scenarios of charging operation of multiple connected EVs including non-scheduled and scheduled operation with various numbers of vehicles. Performance of the developed algorithms is also reported with the recommendation of the choice of suitable parameters.

Keywords: model predictive control, non-scheduled, power limited sources, scheduled and stop-start battery charging

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36 Experiences and Perceptions of Parents Raising Children with Autism

Authors: Tamene Keneni, Tibebu Yohannes


The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in general and autism in particular is on the rise globally, and the need for evidence-based intervention and care for children with autism has grown, too. However, evidence on autism is scanty in developing countries, including Ethiopia. With the aim to help fill the gap and paucity in research into the issue, the main purpose of this study is to explore, better understand, and document the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with autism. To this end, we used a qualitative survey to collect data from a convenient sample of parents raising a child with autism. The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis that yielded several themes and subthemes, including late diagnosis, parents’ reactions to diagnosis, sources of information during and after diagnosis, differing reactions to having a child with autism from siblings, extended family members, and the larger community, attribution of autism to several causes by the community, lack of recognition and open discussion of autism and lack of appropriated public educational and health care services for children with autism and their parents. The themes and subthemes identified were discussed in light of existing literature, and implications for practice were drawn.

Keywords: ASD, autism, children with autism, raising children with autism

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35 Holomorphic Prioritization of Sets within Decagram of Strategic Decision Making of POSM Using Operational Research (OR): Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Analysis

Authors: Elias Ogutu Azariah Tembe, Hussain Abdullah Habib Al-Salamin


There is decagram of strategic decisions of operations and production/service management (POSM) within operational research (OR) which must collate, namely: design, inventory, quality, location, process and capacity, layout, scheduling, maintain ace, and supply chain. This paper presents an architectural configuration conceptual framework of a decagram of sets decisions in a form of mathematical complete graph and abelian graph. Mathematically, a complete graph is undirected (UDG), and directed (DG) a relationship where every pair of vertices are connected, collated, confluent, and holomorphic. There has not been any study conducted which, however, prioritizes the holomorphic sets which of POMS within OR field of study. The study utilizes OR structured technique known as The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis for organizing, sorting and prioritizing (ranking) the sets within the decagram of POMS according to their attribution (propensity), and provides an analysis how the prioritization has real-world application within the 21st century.

Keywords: holomorphic, decagram, decagon, confluent, complete graph, AHP analysis, SCM, HRM, OR, OM, abelian graph

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34 Review on Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, Che-Yi Yang


Behaviors in sports have been one of the research focuses for long. The possible causes of these deviant behaviors should be deterred to diminish such behaviors. The studies on moral disengagement in sports gained great attention internationally since then however studies regarding such issue are rather scarce in Taiwan. Hence, the study adopted literature review approach to retrospect researches on moral disengagement in sport so forth, introduced current instruments available – moral disengagement in sports (six factors, 32 items), moral disengagement in sports –short (1 factor, 8 items), and two Chinese version scales. It has been proved that moral disengagement in sport would render antisocial behaviors in sport context. It is also found players in team contact sports (e.g. basketball, football, and hockey) have higher moral disengagement at play. Male athletes tend to have higher moral disengagement than their female counterparts. Athletes competing in higher level also show higher moral disengagement. The study also summarized that factors such as coaching styles, emotion, self-orientation, motivation, and personality traits may deter the severity of moral disengagement of athletes hence further spur the antisocial behaviors in sports. It is suggested that a measurement of moral disengagement adequate for Taiwanese athletes and effective strategies for improving the antisocial behaviors should be developed based on the knowledge of moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: antisocial behavior, attribution of blame, moral disengagement in sports measurement, nonresponsibility

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33 Resolving Conflicts of Constitutional Nature: Inside the Romanian Constitutional Court's Rulings on the Role and Competencies of the Public Authorities

Authors: Marieta Safta


The separation and balance of state powers constitute the basis of the rule of law. Observance of this principle requires framing of public authorities within the limits of competence established by the Constitution and the law, as well as loyal cooperation between them. From this perspective, the attribution of the constitutional courts for settling legal conflicts of a constitutional nature is an important tool for correcting the tendencies of violation of these limits, as well as for identifying solutions for situations that do not find an explicit regulation in the constitutional texts. The present study analyzes the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of Romania in the field of legal conflicts of a constitutional nature, revealing, together with the presentation of conflict situations, the vulnerabilities of the constitutional reference texts. It is also highlighted the role of the constitutional courts in the evolution of constitutional law institutions, even in terms of defining and redefining the regime of the forms of government. The conclusion of the study, beyond the subject of legal conflicts of a constitutional nature, bears on the necessity, even more so in this matter, of the certainty of jurisdictional interpretation. This certainty cannot be achieved as long as the interpretation is not authoritative; consequently, the assurance of the effectiveness of constitutional justice constitute a key issue of the rule of law.

Keywords: legal conflicts of constitutional nature, the Constitutional Court of Romania, the separation and balance of powers in the state, the effectiveness of constitutional justice

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32 Beyond Recognition: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking for Depression and Schizophrenia in Ghana

Authors: Peter Adu


Background: There is a paucity of mental health research in Ghana. Little is known about the beliefs and attitudes regarding specific mental disorders in Ghana. Method: A vignette study was conducted to examine the relationship between causal attributions, help-seeking, and stigma towards depression and schizophrenia using lay Ghanaians (N = 410). This adapted questionnaire presented two unlabelled vignettes about a hypothetical person with the above disorders for participants to provide their impressions. Next, participants answered questions on beliefs and attitudes regarding this person. Results: The results showed that causal beliefs about mental disorders were related to treatment options and stigma: spiritual causal attributions associated positively with spiritual help-seeking and perceived stigma for the mental disorders, whilst biological and psychosocial causal attribution of the mental disorders was positively related with professional help-seeking. Finally, contrary to previous literature, belonging to a particular religious group did not negatively associate with professional help-seeking for mental disorders. Conclusion: In conclusion, results suggest that Ghanaians may benefit from exposure to corrective information about depression and schizophrenia. Our findings have implications for mental health literacy and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.

Keywords: stigma, mental health literacy, depression, schizophrenia, spirituality, religion

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31 Attempt Survivor Families’ Views on Criminalizing Attempted Suicide in Ghana

Authors: Joseph Osafo, Winifred Asare-Doku, Charity Akotia


Decriminalizing suicide is one of the major goals of suicide prevention worldwide. In Ghana, suicide is legally prescribed and there is a wide-spread societal condemnation of the act, the survivor and families share the stigma. Evidence and advocacy continue to mount towards pressuring the government, the legal fraternity and lawmakers to consider decriminalizing the act. However, within this discourse, the views of families of attempt survivors are absent. The purpose of this study was to explore from relatives of suicide attempters their reactions towards the criminality of suicide attempt in the country. A total of 10 relatives of suicide attempters were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. We found that there were divergent views from families on decriminalizing suicide. We generated two major themes; Out-group bias versus In-group bias. Half of the participants opined that suicide attempt should not be decriminalized and others advocated for help and mental health care for victims of the suicide attempt. It was generally observed that although all 10 participants were cognizant that suicide attempt is a crime in Ghana, they preferred their relatives were spared from prosecution. The findings indicate incongruity, especially when participants want their relatives to avoid jail term but want the law that criminalizes suicide to remain. Findings are explained using the Fundamental Attribution Error and the concept of Kin selection. Implications for public education on decriminalization and advocacy are addressed.

Keywords: decriminalization, families, Ghana suicide, suicide attempt

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30 The Searching Artificial Intelligence: Neural Evidence on Consumers' Less Aversion to Algorithm-Recommended Search Product

Authors: Zhaohan Xie, Yining Yu, Mingliang Chen


As research has shown a convergent tendency for aversion to AI recommendation, it is imperative to find a way to promote AI usage and better harness the technology. In the context of e-commerce, this study has found evidence that people show less avoidance of algorithms when recommending search products compared to experience products. This is due to people’s different attribution of mind to AI versus humans, as suggested by mind perception theory. While people hold the belief that an algorithm owns sufficient capability to think and calculate, which makes it competent to evaluate search product attributes that can be obtained before actual use, they doubt its capability to sense and feel, which is essential for evaluating experience product attributes that must be assessed after experience in person. The result of the behavioral investigation (Study 1, N=112) validated that consumers show low purchase intention to experience products recommended by AI. Further consumer neuroscience study (Study 2, N=26) using Event-related potential (ERP) showed that consumers have a higher level of cognitive conflict when faced with AI recommended experience product as reflected by larger N2 component, while the effect disappears for search product. This research has implications for the effective employment of AI recommenders, and it extends the literature on e-commerce and marketing communication.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, consumer behavior, e-commerce, event-related potential, experience product, search product

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29 Identity (Mis)Representation and Ideological Struggles in Discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Ogungbemi


Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (also called Boko Haram) in the North-East of Nigeria has facilitated ideological binarity in discourses on the crisis. Since its proliferation, media representation of the crisis has facilitated identity contamination and ideological struggle through which other critical issues, such as religious intolerance, ethnic diversity and other forms of class conflict in the Nigerian state, are brought to public notice. Though Boko Haram insurgency is ideological laden, the manifestation of the inherent ideologies requires extensive scholarly attention in order deconstruct the veiled ideologies. Therefore, the thrust of this study is to critically investigate identity (mis)representation as a basis for ideological mapping in discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria, adopting critical discourse analytical tools supported with insights from systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis. The data for this study consist of articles on Boko Haram in Nigerian newspapers published in English. The data selection is purposive and aimed at responding to challenges that are inherent in Nigeria's multifaithism and multiculturalism, and their effects on the construction of narratives on Boko Haram. The study reveals that identity manipulation is a constructive device for ideological mapping, realised through labeling, agency activation, and transitivity. Identity representation in discourses on Boko Haram depicted four dichotomous binarities using exclusion, generalisation, contrasting and attribution.

Keywords: identity representation, ideology, Boko Haram, newspapers

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28 The Imminent Other in Anna Deavere Smith’s Performance

Authors: Joy Shihyi Huang


This paper discusses the concept of community in Anna Deavere Smith’s performance, one that challenges and explores existing notions of justice and the other. In contrast to unwavering assumptions of essentialism that have helped to propel a discourse on moral agency within the black community, Smith employs postmodern ideas in which the theatrical attributes of doubling and repetition are conceptualized as part of what Marvin Carlson coined as a ‘memory machine.’ Her dismissal of the need for linear time, such as that regulated by Aristotle’s The Poetics and its concomitant ethics, values, and emotions as a primary ontological and epistemological construct produced by the existing African American historiography, demonstrates an urgency to produce an alternative communal self to override metanarratives in which the African Americans’ lives are contained and sublated by specific historical confines. Drawing on Emmanuel Levinas’ theories in ethics, specifically his notion of ‘proximity’ and ‘the third,’ the paper argues that Smith enacts a new model of ethics by launching an acting method that eliminates the boundary of self and other. Defying psychological realism, Smith conceptualizes an approach to acting that surpasses the mere mimetic value of invoking a ‘likeness’ of an actor to a character, which as such, resembles the mere attribution of various racial or sexual attributes in identity politics. Such acting, she contends, reduces the other to a representation of, at best, an ultimate rendering of me/my experience. She instead appreciates ‘unlikeness,’ recognizes the unavoidable actor/character gap as a power that humbles the self, whose irreversible journey to the other carves out its own image.

Keywords: Anna Deavere Smith, Emmanuel Levinas, other, performance

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27 The Role of Authority's Testimony in Preschoolers' Ownership Judgment: A Study with Conflicting Cues Method

Authors: Zhanxing Li, Liqi Zhu


Authorities often intervene in children’s property conflicts, which may affect young children’s ownership understanding. First possession is a typical rule of ownership judgment. We recruited Chinese preschoolers as subjects and investigated their ownership reasoning regarding first possession, by setting three conditions via a conflicting cues method, in which a third party (mother or peer friend)’s testimony was always opposite to the cue of first possession (authority/non-authority testimony condition), or only the cue of first possession was present (no testimony condition). In Study A, we examined forty-two 3- and 5-year olds’ attribution and justification of ownership. The results showed while 5-year olds gave more support for the first possessor as the owner across three conditions, 3-year olds’ choice for the first possessor had no difference from the non-first possessor in the authority testimony condition. Moreover, 3-year olds tended to justify by reference to what mother said in the authority testimony condition, 5-year olds consistently referred to the first possession in three conditions. In Study B, we added two ownership questions to quantify children’s ability of ownership reasoning with four age groups (n = 32 for the 3-year-olds, n = 33 for the 4-year-olds, n = 27 for the 5-year olds and n = 30 for the adults) to explore the developmental trajectory further. It revealed that while 5-year olds’ performances were similar to the adults’ and always judged the first possessor as owner in three conditions, 3- and 4-year olds’ performed at chance level in the authority testimony condition. The results imply that Chinese young preschooler’s ownership reasoning was susceptible to authority’s testimony. Family authority may play an important role in diluting children’s adherence to ownership principles, which will be helpful for children to learn to share with others.

Keywords: authority, ownership judgment, preschoolers, testimony

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26 Demonstration of Logical Inconsistency in the Discussion of the Problem of Evil

Authors: Mohammad Soltani Renani


The problem of evil is one of the heated battlegrounds of the idea of theism and its critics. Since time immemorial and in various philosophical schools and religions, the belief in an Omniscient, Omnipotent, and Absolutely Good God has been considered inconsistent with the existence of the evil in the universe. The theist thinkers have generally adopted one of the following four ways for answering this problem: denial of the existence of evil or considering it to be relative, privation theory of evil, attribution of evil to something other than God, and depiction of an alternative picture of God. Defense or criticism of these alternative answers have given rise to an extensive and unending dispute. However, evaluation of the presupposition and context upon/in which a question is raised precedes offering an answer to it. This point in the discussion of the problem of evil is of paramount importance for both parties, i.e., questioners and answerers, that the attributes of knowledge, power, love, good-will, among others, can be supposed to be infinite only in the essence of the attributed and the domain of potentiality but what can be realized in the domain of actuality is always finite. Therefore, infinite nature of Divine Attributes and realization of evil belong to two spheres. Divine Attributes are infinite (absolute) in Divine Essence, but when they are created, each one becomes bounded by the other. This boundedness is a result of the state of being surrounded of the attributes by each other in finite world of possibility. Evil also appears in this limited world. This inconsistency leads to the collapse of the problem of evil from within: the place of infinity of the Divine Attributes, in the words of Muslim mystics, lies in the Holiest Manifestation [Feyze Aqdas] while evil emerges in the Holy Manifestation where the Divine Attributes become bounded by each other. This idea is neither a new answer to the problem of evil nor a defense of theism; rather it reveals a logical inconsistency in the discussion of the problem of evil.

Keywords: problem of evil, infinity of divine attributes, boundedness of divine attributes, holiest manifestation, holy manifestation

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25 Attribution of Strategic Motive, Business Efficiencies, Firm Economies, and Market Factors as Motivations of Restaurant Industry Vertical Integration Adoption: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: S. Y. Melecio Jr. A.


The decision to adopt vertical integration (VI) is firm-specific, but there is a common practice among businesses in an industry to maximize the massive potential benefits of VI. This study aims to determine VI adoption in the restaurant industry in Davao City. Using a two-step sampling process, the study used a validated survey questionnaire among 264 restaurant owners and managers randomly selected and geographically classified. It is a quantitative study where the data were subjected to a structural equation model (SEM). The results revealed that VI is present but limited to procurement, production, restaurant services, and online marketing. Raw materials were outsourced while delivery to customers through third-party delivery services. VI slowly increased over ten years except for online marketing, which has grown significantly in a few years. The endogenous and exogenous variables were correlated and established the linear regression model. The SEM's best fit model revealed that strategic motives (SMOT) and market factors (MFAC) influenced VI adoption while MFAC is the best predictor. Favorable market factors may lead restaurants to adopt VI. It is, thus, recommended for restaurants to institutionalize strategic management, quantify the impact of double marginalization in future studies as a reason for VI and conduct this study during the new normal to see the influence of business efficiencies and firm economies on VI adoption.

Keywords: business efficiencies, business management, davao city, firm economies, market factors, philippines, strategic motives, structural equation model, supply chain, vertical integration adoption

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