Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Bernardo Galletti

23 Dielectric Recovery Characteristics of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breakers Operating with CO₂ Mixture

Authors: Peng Lu, Branimir Radisavljevic, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti

Abstract:

CO₂-based gas mixtures exhibit huge potential as the interruption medium for replacing SF₆ in high voltage switchgears. In this paper, the recovery characteristics of dielectric strength of CO₂-O₂ mixture in the post arc phase after the current zero are presented. As representative examples, the dielectric recovery curves under conditions of different gas filling pressures and short-circuit current amplitudes are presented. A series of dielectric recovery measurements suggests that the dielectric recovery rate is proportional to the mass flux of the blowing gas, and the dielectric strength recovers faster in the case of lower short circuit currents.

Keywords: CO₂ mixture, high voltage circuit breakers, dielectric recovery rate, short-circuit current, mass flux

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22 Thermal Interruption Performance of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breaker Operating with CO₂ Mixtures

Authors: Yacine Babou, Nitesh Ranjan, Branimir Radisavljevic , Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti, Paulo Cristini

Abstract:

In the frame of replacement of Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas as insulating and switching medium, diverse alternative gases, offering acceptable Global Warming Potential and fulfilling requirements in terms of heat dissipation, insulation and arc quenching performances are currently investigated for High Voltage Circuit Breaker applications. Among the potential gases, CO₂ seems a promising candidate for replacing SF6, because on one hand it is environmentally friendly, harmless, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-flammable and on the other hand previous studies have demonstrated its fair interruption capabilities. The present study aims at investigating the performance of CO₂ for the thermal interruption in high voltage self-blast circuit breakers. In particular, the correlation between thermal interruption performance and arc voltage is considered and the effect of the arc-network interaction on the performance is rigorously analyzed. For the considered designs, the thermal interruption was evaluated by varying the slope at current zero (i.e., di/dt) for which the breaker could interrupt. Besides, the characteristics of the post-arc current are examined in detail for various rated voltages and currents. The outcome of these experimental investigations will be reported and analyzed.

Keywords: current zero measurement, high voltage circuit breaker, thermal arc discharge, thermal interruption

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21 Crowdalert: An Android Application for Increasing the Awareness and Response Initiatives of the Citizens through Crowdsourcing

Authors: John Benedict Bernardo

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Crowdsourcing is a way of collecting information provided by the volunteers. This crowdsourced information has the capacity to increase the people’s situational awareness in times of disasters. The research reflected in this paper strives to demonstrate the benefits of crowdsourcing during natural disasters and the ways of utilizing it for disaster response. Shared information regarding natural disasters from social media is often scattered as the inputs from these media are uncategorized. For this reason, the study aims to equip the citizens a medium that is solely intended for sharing and/or obtaining natural disaster-related information. Ergo, an android application was developed to gather and publicize this volunteered information. The capability of crowdsourcing and the effectiveness of the application were evaluated and the result shows overwhelming agreement that this study is indeed efficient in increasing the awareness and response initiatives of the citizens during natural disasters.

Keywords: crowdsourcing, natural disasters, mobile application, social media

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20 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

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Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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19 Literary Translation Human vs Machine: An Essay about Online Translation

Authors: F. L. Bernardo, R. A. S. Zacarias

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The ways to translate are manifold since textual genres undergoing translations are diverse. In this essay, our goal is to give special attention to the literary genre and to the online translation tool Google Translate (GT), widely used either by nonprofessionals or by scholars, in order to show evidence of the indispensability of human wit in a good translation. Our study has its basis on a literary review of prominent authors, with emphasis on translation categories. Also highlighting the issue of polysemous literary translation, we aim to shed light on the translator’s craft and the fallible nature of online translation. To better illustrate these principles, the methodology consisted on performing a comparative analysis involving the original text Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in English to its online translation given by GT and to a translation into Brazilian Portuguese performed by a human. We proceeded to identifying and analyzing the degrees of textual equivalence according to the following categories: volume, levels and order. The results have attested the unsuitability in a translation done by a computer connected to the World Wide Web.

Keywords: Google Translator, human translation, literary translation, Moll Flanders

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18 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed

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The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: disturbance automation, electric power grid, smart grid, smart switches

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17 Science Communication: A Possible Dialogue between Researchers and Agribusiness Farmers

Authors: Cristiane Hengler Corrêa Bernardo

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The communication is an essential part of the process that characterizes scientific research. It should be present in every stage of research in a systemic way. However, this process is not always efficient and effective. Reports of researchers focused on agribusiness point to difficulties in communicating with farmers that negatively impact on research results and may cause distortions and even quite significant inconsistencies. This research aims at identifying the main noise and barriers in communication between agribusiness researchers and farmers. It discusses the possibility of creating a specific strategy to correct or minimize such failures. The main research question: what features of the communication process will be decisive for the communication between agribusiness researcher and farmer occur with greater efficiency? It is expected that the research will result in processes that may correct or minimize such problems, promoting dialogues more efficient knowledge. The research will adopt a qualitative approach, using action research as a form of investigative action for social and educational nature, aiming at promoting understanding and interaction between researchers and members of the investigated situations. To collect and analyze data to document analysis will be used; questionnaires and interviews and content analysis.

Keywords: agribusiness farmers, researchers, science communication, analysis

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16 Upcycling of Inorganic Waste: Lessons Learned and Outlook for the Future

Authors: Miroslava Hujová, Patricia Rabello Monich, Jozef Kraxner, Dusan Galusek, Enrico Bernardo

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Inorganic waste upcycling offers a solution how to avoid landfilling and how to save raw materials at the same time. However, its practical implementations in Slovakia and elsewhere in Europe, are rather limited despite the potential smaller countries like Slovakia have their advantage in closely-knitted inorganic materials industry. One part of discussion should include an overview of wastes that can be possibly used for upcycling, i.e. fly ashes, red mud, glass cullets, vitrified bottom ashes etc. These wastes can be processed by a variety of strategies, the one of our choice, alkali activation, opens the possibility for the formation of novel materials at almost negligible energetic expense. In the research, these materials are characterized by comprehensive means (X-Ray Fluorescece, Diffraction methods, Thermal Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Mechanical tests and Chemical stability), which time and time again demonstrate their competitive properties against traditional materials available at the market. It is just a question for discussion why these materials do not receive more significant attention from industry and there is pressing interest for the solution of standing situation.

Keywords: upcycling, inorganic wastes, glass ceramics, alkali-activation

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15 About Multi-Resolution Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Reactive Multi-Phase Flows

Authors: Giacomo Rossi, Bernardo Favini, Eugenio Giacomazzi, Franca Rita Picchia, Nunzio Maria Salvatore Arcidiacono

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A numerical technique for mesh refinement in the HeaRT (Heat Release and Transfer) numerical code is presented. In the CFD framework, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is gaining in importance as a tool for simulating turbulent combustion processes, also if this approach has an high computational cost due to the complexity of the turbulent modeling and the high number of grid points necessary to obtain a good numerical solution. In particular, when a numerical simulation of a big domain is performed with a structured grid, the number of grid points can increase so much that the simulation becomes impossible: this problem can be overcame with a mesh refinement technique. Mesh refinement technique developed for HeaRT numerical code (a staggered finite difference code) is based on an high order reconstruction of the variables at the grid interfaces by means of a least square quasi-ENO interpolation: numerical code is written in modern Fortran (2003 standard of newer) and is parallelized using domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI) standard.

Keywords: LES, multi-resolution, ENO, fortran

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14 Impact of Pan Pacific's Training Program to Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Practicum Trainees

Authors: Bandojo Paula Maria Noella, Bernardo Bea Samantha B., Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S., Gomez Marian Louise D., Gomez Rome Voltaire M., Reyes Alessa Anne Therese A.

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The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the training program of Pan Pacific Hotel to other Five Star Hotels in terms of the technical, professional and personal competencies before and after their training. The theoretical framework of this study is the practicum manual of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hotel and Restaurant Management Program Practicum Manual. This study was conducted using survey questionnaires that were distributed to 50 respondents. The results showed that there is a significant difference with the level of competencies of the practicum trainee before and after the training regardless if the training is structured or unstructured. Results also showed that the structured training program of Pan Pacific Hotel significantly improved the Technical Competencies in the different departments of the hotel industry. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there is no difference between the structured and unstructured training program in terms of Professional Competencies and Personal Competencies. The proponents concluded the study by providing recommendations to the partner hotels of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management that there should be a structured training program for the practicum trainees.

Keywords: structured and structured training program, practicum trainees, competencies, tourism

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13 The Visible Third: Female Artists’ Participation in the Portuguese Contemporary Art World

Authors: Sonia Bernardo Correia

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This paper is part of ongoing research that aims to understand the role of gender in the composition of the Portuguese contemporary art world and the possibilities and limits to the success of the professional paths of women and men artists. The field of visual arts is gender-sensitive as it differentiates the positions occupied by artists in terms of visibility and recognition. Women artists occupy a peripheral space, which may hinder the progression of their professional careers. Based on the collection of data on the participation of artists in Portuguese exhibitions, art fairs, auctions, and art awards between 2012 and 2019, the goal of this study is to portray female artists’ participation as a condition of professional, social, and cultural visibility. From the analysis of a significant sample of institutions from the artistic field, it was possible to observe that the works of female authors are under exhibited, never exceeding one-third of the total of exhibitions. Male artists also enjoy a comfortable majority as gallery artists (around 70%) and as part of institutional collections (around 80%). However, when analysing the younger age cohorts of artists by gender, it appears that there is representation parity, which may be a good sign of change. The data shows that there are persistent gender inequalities in accessing the artist profession. Women are not yet occupying positions of exposure, recognition, and legitimation in the market similar to those of their male counterparts, suggesting that they may face greater obstacles in experiencing successful professional trajectories.

Keywords: inequalities, invisibility of the woman artist, gender, visual arts

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12 The Effect of Heart Rate and Valence of Emotions on Perceived Intensity of Emotion

Authors: Madeleine Nicole G. Bernardo, Katrina T. Feliciano, Marcelo Nonato A. Nacionales III, Diane Frances M. Peralta, Denise Nicole V. Profeta

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This study aims to find out if heart rate variability and valence of emotion have an effect on perceived intensity of emotion. Psychology undergraduates (N = 60) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were shown 10 photographs from the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, along with a corresponding questionnaire with a Likert scale on perceived intensity of emotion. In this 3 x 2 mixed subjects factorial design, each group was either made to do a simple exercise prior to answering the questionnaire in order to increase the heart rate, listen to a heart rate of 120 bpm, or colour a drawing to keep the heart rate stable. After doing the activity, the participants then answered the questionnaire, providing a rating of the faces according to the participants’ perceived emotional intensity on the photographs. The photographs presented were either of positive or negative emotional valence. The results of the experiment showed that neither an induced fast heart rate or perceived fast heart rate had any significant effect on the participants’ perceived intensity of emotion. There was also no interaction effect of heart rate variability and valence of emotion. The insignificance of results was explained by the Philippines’ high context culture, accompanied by the prevalence of both intensely valenced positive and negative emotions in Philippine society. Insignificance in the effects were also attributed to the Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory and various methodological limitations.

Keywords: heart rate variability, perceived intensity of emotion, Philippines , valence of emotion

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11 Risk Analysis of Leaks from a Subsea Oil Facility Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques

Authors: Belén Vinaixa Kinnear, Arturo Hidalgo López, Bernardo Elembo Wilasi, Pablo Fernández Pérez, Cecilia Hernández Fuentealba

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The expanded use of risk assessment in legislative and corporate decision-making has increased the role of expert judgement in giving data for security-related decision-making. Expert judgements are required in most steps of risk assessment: danger recognizable proof, hazard estimation, risk evaluation, and examination of choices. This paper presents a fault tree analysis (FTA), which implies a probabilistic failure analysis applied to leakage of oil in a subsea production system. In standard FTA, the failure probabilities of items of a framework are treated as exact values while evaluating the failure probability of the top event. There is continuously insufficiency of data for calculating the failure estimation of components within the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy hypothesis can be used as a solution to solve the issue. The aim of this paper is to examine the leaks from the Zafiro West subsea oil facility by using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has given theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and environmental protection. It has been also an effective strategy used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries.

Keywords: expert judgment, probability assessment, fault tree analysis, risk analysis, oil pipelines, subsea production system, drilling, quantitative risk analysis, leakage failure, top event, off-shore industry

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10 Reinforcement Learning for Robust Missile Autopilot Design: TRPO Enhanced by Schedule Experience Replay

Authors: Bernardo Cortez, Florian Peter, Thomas Lausenhammer, Paulo Oliveira

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Designing missiles’ autopilot controllers have been a complex task, given the extensive flight envelope and the nonlinear flight dynamics. A solution that can excel both in nominal performance and in robustness to uncertainties is still to be found. While Control Theory often debouches into parameters’ scheduling procedures, Reinforcement Learning has presented interesting results in ever more complex tasks, going from videogames to robotic tasks with continuous action domains. However, it still lacks clearer insights on how to find adequate reward functions and exploration strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this work is a pioneer in proposing Reinforcement Learning as a framework for flight control. In fact, it aims at training a model-free agent that can control the longitudinal non-linear flight dynamics of a missile, achieving the target performance and robustness to uncertainties. To that end, under TRPO’s methodology, the collected experience is augmented according to HER, stored in a replay buffer and sampled according to its significance. Not only does this work enhance the concept of prioritized experience replay into BPER, but it also reformulates HER, activating them both only when the training progress converges to suboptimal policies, in what is proposed as the SER methodology. The results show that it is possible both to achieve the target performance and to improve the agent’s robustness to uncertainties (with low damage on nominal performance) by further training it in non-nominal environments, therefore validating the proposed approach and encouraging future research in this field.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, flight control, HER, missile autopilot, TRPO

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9 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario

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Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

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8 Hallucinatory Activity in Schizophrenia: The Relationship with Childhood Memories, Submissive Behavior, Social Comparison, and Depression

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Bernardo Peixoto

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Auditory hallucinations among the most invalidating and distressing experiences reported by patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, leading to feelings of powerlessness and helplessness towards their illness. In more severe cases, these auditory hallucinations can take the form of commanding voices, which are often related to high suicidality rates in these patients. Several authors propose that the meanings attributed to the hallucinatory experience, rather than characteristics like form and content, can be determinant in patients’ reactions to hallucinatory activity, particularly in the case of voice-hearing experiences. In this study, 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia presenting auditory hallucinations were studied. Multiple regression analyses were computed to study the influence of several developmental aspects, such as family and social dynamics, bullying, depression, and socio-cognitive variables on the auditory hallucinations, on patients’ attributions and relationships with their voices, and on the resulting invalidation of hallucinatory experience. Overall, results showed how relationships with voices can mirror several aspects of interpersonal relationship with others, and how self-schemas, depression and actual social relationships help shaping the voice-hearing experience. Early experiences of victimization and submission help predict the attributions of omnipotence of the voices, and increased hostility from parents seems to increase the malevolence of the voices, suggesting that socio-cognitive factors can significantly contribute to the etiology and maintenance of auditory hallucinations. The understanding of the characteristics of auditory hallucinations and the relationships patients established with their voices can allow the development of more promising therapeutic interventions that can be more effective in decreasing invalidation caused by this devastating mental illness.

Keywords: auditory hallucination, beliefs, life events, schizophrenia

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7 Analytical Slope Stability Analysis Based on the Statistical Characterization of Soil Shear Strength

Authors: Bernardo C. P. Albuquerque, Darym J. F. Campos

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Increasing our ability to solve complex engineering problems is directly related to the processing capacity of computers. By means of such equipments, one is able to fast and accurately run numerical algorithms. Besides the increasing interest in numerical simulations, probabilistic approaches are also of great importance. This way, statistical tools have shown their relevance to the modelling of practical engineering problems. In general, statistical approaches to such problems consider that the random variables involved follow a normal distribution. This assumption tends to provide incorrect results when skew data is present since normal distributions are symmetric about their means. Thus, in order to visualize and quantify this aspect, 9 statistical distributions (symmetric and skew) have been considered to model a hypothetical slope stability problem. The data modeled is the friction angle of a superficial soil in Brasilia, Brazil. Despite the apparent universality, the normal distribution did not qualify as the best fit. In the present effort, data obtained in consolidated-drained triaxial tests and saturated direct shear tests have been modeled and used to analytically derive the probability density function (PDF) of the safety factor of a hypothetical slope based on Mohr-Coulomb rupture criterion. Therefore, based on this analysis, it is possible to explicitly derive the failure probability considering the friction angle as a random variable. Furthermore, it is possible to compare the stability analysis when the friction angle is modelled as a Dagum distribution (distribution that presented the best fit to the histogram) and as a Normal distribution. This comparison leads to relevant differences when analyzed in light of the risk management.

Keywords: statistical slope stability analysis, skew distributions, probability of failure, functions of random variables

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6 Absolute Lymphocyte Count as Predictor of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients With Unknown HIV Status at a Private Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Marja A. Bernardo, Coreena A. Bueser, Cybele Lara R. Abad, Raul V. Destura

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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection among people with HIV. Early consideration of PCP should be made even in patients whose HIV status is unknown as delay in treatment may be fatal. The use of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been suggested as an alternative predictor of PCP especially in resource limited settings where PCR testing is costly or delayed. Objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) can be used as a screening tool to predict Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with unknown HIV status admitted at a private tertiary hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a private tertiary medical center. Inpatient medical records of patients aged 18 years old and above from January 2012 to May 2014, in whom a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was made were reviewed for inclusion. Demographic data, clinical features, hospital course, PCP PCR and HIV results were recorded. Independent t-test and chi-square analysis was used to determine any statistical difference between PCP-positive and PCP-negative groups. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison of hospital stay. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between PCP positive and negative groups. While both the percent lymphocyte count (0.14 ± 0.13 vs 0.21 ± 0.16) and ALC (1160 ± 528.67 vs 1493.70 ± 988.61) were lower for the PCP-positive group, only the percent lymphocyte count reached a statistically significant difference (p= 0.067 vs p= 0.042). Conclusion: A quick determination of the ALC may be useful as an additional parameter to help screen for and diagnose pneumocystis pneumonia. In our study, the ALC of patients with PCP appear to be lower than in patients without PCP. A low ALC (e.g. below 1200) may help with the decision regarding empiric treatment. However, it should be used in conjunction with the patient’s clinical presentation, as well as other diagnostic tests. Larger, prospective studies incorporating the ALC with other clinical predictors are necessary to optimally predict those who would benefit from empiric or expedited management for potential PCP.

Keywords: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Absolute Lymphocyte Count, infection, PCP

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5 Development and Characterization of Expandable TPEs Compounds for Footwear Applications

Authors: Ana Elisa Ribeiro Costa, Sónia Daniela Ferreira Miranda, João Pedro De Carvalho Pereira, João Carlos Simões Bernardo

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Elastomeric thermoplastics (TPEs) have been widely used in the footwear industry over the years. Recently this industry has been requesting materials that can combine lightweight and high abrasion resistance. Although there are blowing agents on the market to improve the lightweight, when these are incorporated into molten polymers during the extrusion or injection molding, it is necessary to have some specific processing conditions (e.g. effect of temperature and hydrodynamic stresses) to obtain good properties and acceptable surface appearance on the final products. Therefore, it is a great advantage for the compounder industry to acquire compounds that already include the blowing agents. In this way, they can be handled and processed under the same conditions as a conventional raw material. In this work, the expandable TPEs compounds, namely a TPU and a SEBS, with the incorporation of blowing agents, have been developed through a co-rotating modular twin-screw parallel extruder. Different blowing agents such as thermo-expandable microspheres and an azodicarbonamide were selected and different screw configurations and temperature profiles were evaluated since these parameters have a particular influence on the expansion inhibition of the blowing agents. Furthermore, percentages of incorporation were varied in order to investigate their influence on the final product properties. After the extrusion of these compounds, expansion was tested by the injection process. The mechanical and physical properties were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and abrasive tests, determination of hardness and density measurement. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. It was observed that it is possible to incorporate the blowing agents on the TPEs without their expansion on the extrusion process. Only with reprocessing (injection molding) did the expansion of the agents occur. These results are corroborated by SEM micrographs, which show a good distribution of blowing agents in the polymeric matrices. The other experimental results showed a good mechanical performance and its density decrease (30% for SEBS and 35% for TPU). This study suggested that it is possible to develop optimized compounds for footwear applications (e.g., sole shoes), which only will be able to expand during the injection process.

Keywords: blowing agents, expandable thermoplastic elastomeric compounds, low density, footwear applications

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4 Chemical Composition of Volatiles Emitted from Ziziphus jujuba Miller Collected during Different Growth Stages

Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel, Bernardo Melai, Pier Luigi Cioni, Luisa Pistelli

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Ziziphus jujuba Miller is a common species of the Ziziphus genus (Rhamnaceae family) native to the tropics and subtropics known for its edible fruits, fresh consumed or used in healthy food, as flavoring and sweetener. Many phytochemicals and biological activities are described for this species. In this work, the aroma profiles emitted in vivo by whole fresh organs (leaf, bud flower, flower, green and red fruits) were analyzed separately by mean of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The emitted volatiles from different plant parts were analysed using Supelco SPME device coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100µm). Fresh plant material was introduced separately into a glass conical flask and allowed to equilibrate for 20 min. After the equilibration time, the fibre was exposed to the headspace for 15 min at room temperature, the fibre was re-inserted into the needle and transferred to the injector of the CG and CG-MS system, where the fibre was desorbed. All the data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis, evidencing many differences amongst the selected plant parts and their developmental stages. A total of 144 compounds were identified corresponding to 94.6-99.4% of the whole aroma profile of jujube samples. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main chemical class of compounds in leaves also present in similar percentage in flowers and bud flowers where (E, E)-α-farnesene was the main constituent in all cited plant parts. This behavior can be due to a protection mechanism against pathogens and herbivores as well as resistance to abiotic factors. The aroma of green fruits was characterized by high amount of perillene while the red fruits release a volatile blend mainly constituted by different monoterpenes. The terpenoid emission of flesh fruits has important function in the interaction with animals including attraction of seed dispersers and it is related to a good quality of fruits. This study provides for the first time the chemical composition of the volatile emission from different Ziziphus jujuba organs. The SPME analyses of the collected samples showed different patterns of emission and can contribute to understand their ecological interactions and fruit production management.

Keywords: Rhamnaceae, aroma profile, jujube organs, HS-SPME, GC-MS

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3 Experimental Field for the Study of Soil-Atmosphere Interaction in Soft Soils

Authors: Andres Mejia-Ortiz, Catalina Lozada, German R. Santos, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo, Bernardo Caicedo

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The interaction between atmospheric variables and soil properties is a determining factor when evaluating the flow of water through the soil. This interaction situation directly determines the behavior of the soil and greatly influences the changes that occur in it. The atmospheric variations such as changes in the relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity and precipitation, are the external variables that reflect a greater incidence in the changes that are generated in the subsoil, as a consequence of the water flow in descending and ascending conditions. These environmental variations have a major importance in the study of the soil because the conditions of humidity and temperature in the soil surface depend on them. In addition, these variations control the thickness of the unsaturated zone and the position of the water table with respect to the surface. However, understanding the relationship between the atmosphere and the soil is a somewhat complex aspect. This is mainly due to the difficulty involved in estimating the changes that occur in the soil from climate changes; since this is a coupled process where act processes of mass transfer and heat. In this research, an experimental field was implemented to study in-situ the interaction between the atmosphere and the soft soils of the city of Bogota, Colombia. The soil under study consists of a 60 cm layer composed of two silts of similar characteristics at the surface and a deep soft clay deposit located under the silky material. It should be noted that the vegetal layer and organic matter were removed to avoid the evapotranspiration phenomenon. Instrumentation was carried on in situ through a field disposal of many measuring devices such as soil moisture sensors, thermocouples, relative humidity sensors, wind velocity sensor, among others; which allow registering the variations of both the atmospheric variables and the properties of the soil. With the information collected through field monitoring, the water balances were made using the Hydrus-1D software to determine the flow conditions that developed in the soil during the study. Also, the moisture profile for different periods and time intervals was determined by the balance supplied by Hydrus 1D; this profile was validated by experimental measurements. As a boundary condition, the actual evaporation rate was included using the semi-empirical equations proposed by different authors. In this study, it was obtained for the rainy periods a descending flow that was governed by the infiltration capacity of the soil. On the other hand, during dry periods. An increase in the actual evaporation of the soil induces an upward flow of water, increasing suction due to the decrease in moisture content. Also, cracks were developed accelerating the evaporation process. This work concerns to the study of soil-atmosphere interaction through the experimental field and it is a very useful tool since it allows considering all the factors and parameters of the soil in its natural state and real values of the different environmental conditions.

Keywords: field monitoring, soil-atmosphere, soft soils, soil-water balance

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2 Initiating the Provision of Adolescent Reproductive Health Information and Services (ARHIS) to Communities in Quezon City, Beginning with District 2

Authors: Erickson Bernardo, Caridad Pineda

Abstract:

The project Adolescent Reproductive Health Information and Services (ARHIS) is a nine-month pilot project which intends to bridge the existing gap between reproductive health information and services, particularly with regard to family planning and HIV, among adolescent boys and girls aged 10-19 years in the 2nd Congressional District of Quezon City, in the Philippines. It aims to increase adolescents' and young people's awareness about their reproductive health concerns and at the same time make a wide range of reproductive health (RH) services accessible and available to them. A number of methodologies were utilized in the implementation of the project. At the onset, a baseline survey was conducted by community mobilizers to gather a situational analysis of adolescents' and young people's issues and concerns. The results of this survey were then presented in a multi-stakeholders' meeting to gather community support and foster their involvement. Further, interactive learning sessions (ILS) on a variety of reproductive health topics, among young people, parents and community leaders based on the results of the baseline survey was conducted. With regard to reproductive health service provision, both facility-based delivery and conduct of outreach activities were employed. In the span of nine months, the project was able to yield the following results: • A total of 521 adolescents and youth (AY) were reached by ILS on puberty, responsible relationships, teenage pregnancy, family planning, as well as HIV & AIDS. • A total of 218 parents and community leaders were informed of AY RH-related issues and concerns. • More than 350 AYs availed of a wide range of FP services including pills – both combined oral and progestin-only, and progestin-only injectables and implants. • More than 380 AYs availed of condoms as means of STI and HIV prevention. A noble initiative of the project is the utilization of a "condom distributor", a youth leader who has been educated about STI and HIV prevention as well as correct condom use, as the focal point for condom access in the community. • A total of 25 young people, parents, and community leaders were identified as ARHIS champions who have been instrumental in the achievement of project deliverables through their dedication and commitment to support the project. The concept of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) remains to be a major challenge in the Philippine context. This is due to the fact that majority of Filipinos are still not keen on discussing issues and concerns related to ASRH, albeit the alarming number of teenage pregnancies and the rapid increase of HIV cases among 15- 24 year olds. In addition, Republic Act 10354 or the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012, requires minor adolescents to present a written parental consent prior to accessing RH services. However, with the involvement and support of parents and key community stakeholders, these barriers may be addressed. The project has demonstrated how adolescents and young people yearn for reproductive health information and services.

Keywords: adolescent sexual reproductive health, barriers to access, reproductive health information and services, teenage pregnancies

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1 Influence of Atmospheric Pollutants on Child Respiratory Disease in Cartagena De Indias, Colombia

Authors: Jose A. Alvarez Aldegunde, Adrian Fernandez Sanchez, Matthew D. Menden, Bernardo Vila Rodriguez

Abstract:

Up to five statistical pre-processings have been carried out considering the pollutant records of the stations present in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, also taking into account the childhood asthma incidence surveys conducted in hospitals in the city by the Health Ministry of Colombia for this study. These pre-processings have consisted of different techniques such as the determination of the quality of data collection, determination of the quality of the registration network, identification and debugging of errors in data collection, completion of missing data and purified data, as well as the improvement of the time scale of records. The characterization of the quality of the data has been conducted by means of density analysis of the pollutant registration stations using ArcGis Software and through mass balance techniques, making it possible to determine inconsistencies in the records relating the registration data between stations following the linear regression. The results obtained in this process have highlighted the positive quality in the pollutant registration process. Consequently, debugging of errors has allowed us to identify certain data as statistically non-significant in the incidence and series of contamination. This data, together with certain missing records in the series recorded by the measuring stations, have been completed by statistical imputation equations. Following the application of these prior processes, the basic series of incidence data for respiratory disease and pollutant records have allowed the characterization of the influence of pollutants on respiratory diseases such as, for example, childhood asthma. This characterization has been carried out using statistical correlation methods, including visual correlation, simple linear regression correlation and spectral analysis with PAST Software which identifies maximum periodicity cycles and minimums under the formula of the Lomb periodgram. In relation to part of the results obtained, up to eleven maximums and minimums considered contemporary between the incidence records and the particles have been identified taking into account the visual comparison. The spectral analyses that have been performed on the incidence and the PM2.5 have returned a series of similar maximum periods in both registers, which are at a maximum during a period of one year and another every 25 days (0.9 and 0.07 years). The bivariate analysis has managed to characterize the variable "Daily Vehicular Flow" in the ninth position of importance of a total of 55 variables. However, the statistical correlation has not obtained a favorable result, having obtained a low value of the R2 coefficient. The series of analyses conducted has demonstrated the importance of the influence of pollutants such as PM2.5 in the development of childhood asthma in Cartagena. The quantification of the influence of the variables has been able to determine that there is a 56% probability of dependence between PM2.5 and childhood respiratory asthma in Cartagena. Considering this justification, the study could be completed through the application of the BenMap Software, throwing a series of spatial results of interpolated values of the pollutant contamination records that exceeded the established legal limits (represented by homogeneous units up to the neighborhood level) and results of the impact on the exacerbation of pediatric asthma. As a final result, an economic estimate (in Colombian Pesos) of the monthly and individual savings derived from the percentage reduction of the influence of pollutants in relation to visits to the Hospital Emergency Room due to asthma exacerbation in pediatric patients has been granted.

Keywords: Asthma Incidence, BenMap, PM2.5, Statistical Analysis

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