Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3211

Search results for: heat recovery from flue gas

3211 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan

Abstract:

In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3210 Waste Heat Recovery Using Spiral Heat Exchanger

Authors: Parthiban S. R.

Abstract:

Spiral heat exchangers are known as excellent heat exchanger because of far compact and high heat transfer efficiency. An innovative spiral heat exchanger based on polymer materials is designed for waste heat recovery process. Such a design based on polymer film technology provides better corrosion and chemical resistance compared to conventional metal heat exchangers. Due to the smooth surface of polymer film fouling is reduced. A new arrangement for flow of hot flue gas and cold fluid is employed for design, flue gas flows in axial path while the cold fluid flows in a spiral path. Heat load recovery achieved with the presented heat exchanger is in the range of 1.5 kW thermic but potential heat recovery about 3.5 kW might be achievable. To measure the performance of the spiral tube heat exchanger, its model is suitably designed and fabricated so as to perform experimental tests. The paper gives analysis of spiral tube heat exchanger.

Keywords: spiral heat exchanger, polymer based materials, fouling factor, heat load

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3209 Polymer Spiral Film Gas-Liquid Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery in Exhaust Gases

Authors: S. R. Parthiban, C. Elajchet Senni

Abstract:

Spiral heat exchangers are known as excellent heat exchanger because of far compact and high heat transfer efficiency. An innovative spiral heat exchanger based on polymer materials is designed for waste heat recovery process. Such a design based on polymer film technology provides better corrosion and chemical resistance compared to conventional metal heat exchangers. Due to the smooth surface of polymer film fouling is reduced. A new arrangement for flow of hot flue gas and cold fluid is employed for design, flue gas flows in axial path while the cold fluid flows in a spiral path. Heat load recovery achieved with the presented heat exchanger is in the range of 1.5 kW thermic but potential heat recovery about 3.5kW might be achievable. To measure the performance of the spiral tube heat exchanger, its model is suitably designed and fabricated so as to perform experimental tests. The paper gives analysis of spiral tube heat exchanger.

Keywords: spiral heat exchanger, polymer based materials, fouling factor, heat load

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
3208 Thermodynamic Cycle Using Cyclopentane for Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation from Clinker Cooler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Vijayakumar Kunche

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery from Pre Heater exhaust gases and Clinker cooler vent gases is now common place in Cement Industry. Most common practice is to use Steam Rankine cycle for heat to power conversion. In this process, waste heat from the flue gas is recovered through a Heat Recovery steam generator where steam is generated and fed to a conventional Steam turbine generator. However steam Rankine cycle tends to have lesser efficiency for smaller power plants with less than 5MW capacity and where the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is less than 350 deg C. further a steam Rankine cycle needs treated water and maintenance intensive. These problems can be overcome by using Thermodynamic cycle using Cyclopentane vapour in place of steam. This innovative cycle is best suited for Heat recovery in cement plants and results in best possible heat to power conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about Heat Recovery Power generation using innovative thermal cycle which uses Cyclopentane vapour in place of water- steam. And how this technology has been adopted for a Clinker cooler hot gas from mid-tap.

Keywords: clinker cooler, energy efficiency, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
3207 Developing Alternative Recovery Technology of Waste Heat in Automobile Factory

Authors: Kun-Ping Cheng, Dong-Shang Chang, Rou-Wen Wang

Abstract:

Pre-treatment of automobile paint-shop procedures are the preparation of warm water rinsing tank, hot water rinsing tank, degreasing tank, phosphate tank. The conventional boiler steam fuel is natural gas, producing steam to supply the heat exchange of each tank sink. In this study, the high-frequency soldering economizer is developed for recovering waste heat in the automotive paint-shop (RTO, Regenerative Thermal Oxidation). The heat recovery rate of the new economizer is 20% to 30% higher than the conventional embedded heat pipe. The adaptive control system responded to both RTO furnace exhaust gas and heat demands. In order to maintain the temperature range of the tanks, pre-treatment tanks are directly heated by waste heat recovery device (gas-to-water heat exchanger) through the hot water cycle of heat transfer. The performance of developed waste heat recovery system shows the annual recovery achieved to 1,226,411,483 Kcal of heat (137.8 thousand cubic meters of natural gas). Boiler can reduce fuel consumption by 20 to 30 percent compared to without waste heat recovery. In order to alleviate environmental impacts, the temperature at the end of the flue is further reduced from 160 to 110°C. The innovative waste heat recovery is helpful to energy savings and sustainable environment.

Keywords: waste heat recovery system, sustainability, RTO (Regenerative Thermal Oxidation), economizer, automotive industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
3206 Polygeneration Solar Air Drying

Authors: Binoy Chandra Sarma, S. K. Deb

Abstract:

Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study. Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study.

Keywords: dryer, polygeneration, moisture, equilibrium, humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
3205 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
3204 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3203 Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
3202 Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3201 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Built-In Thermoelectric Generator Modules with Elliptical Pin-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: J. Y Jang, C. Y. Tseng

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical model of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules attached to a large chimney plate is proposed and solved numerically using a control volume based finite difference formulation. The TEG module consists of a thermoelectric generator, an elliptical pin-fin heat sink, and a cold plate for water cooling. In the chimney, the temperature of flue gases is 450-650K. Therefore, the effects of convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. Although the TEG hot-side temperature and thus the electric power output can be increased by inserting an elliptical pin-fin heat sink into the chimney tunnel to increase the heat transfer area, the pin fin heat sink would cause extra pumping power at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of geometrical parameters on the electric power output and chimney pressure drop characteristics. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions, including various inlet velocities (Vin = 1, 3, 5 m/s) and inlet temperatures (Tgas = 450, 550, 650K) are discussed in detail. The predicted numerical data for the power vs. current (P-I) curve are in good agreement (within 11%) with the experimental data.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, waste heat recovery, pin-fin heat sink, experimental and numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3200 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng

Abstract:

This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3199 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala

Abstract:

This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation, and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. Results show that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
3198 Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery from Gas Turbine with Respect to Cooling Condition

Authors: Young Min Kim, Jeong Lak Sohn, Eui Soo Yoon

Abstract:

This study describes the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) power cycle for recovering waste heat from a gas turbine. An S-CO2 cycle that recovers heat from small industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines can outperform a steam-bottoming cycle despite its simplicity and compactness. In using S-CO2 power cycles for waste heat recovery, a split cycle was studied to maximize the net output power by incorporating the utilization efficiency of the waste heat (lowering the temperature of the exhaust gas through the heater) along with the thermal efficiency of the cycle (minimizing the temperature difference for the heat transfer, exergy loss). The cooling condition of the S-CO2 WHR system has a great impact on the performance and the optimum low pressure of the system. Furthermore, the optimum high pressure of the S-CO2 WHR systems for the maximum power from the given heat sources is dependent on the temperature of the waste heat source.

Keywords: exergy loss, gas turbine, optimization, supercritical CO2 power cycle, split cycle, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3197 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
3196 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3195 Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery from Excavator

Authors: Young Min Kim, Dong Gil Shin, Assmelash Assefa Negash

Abstract:

This study describes the application of a single loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for recovering waste heat from an excavator. In the case of waste heat recovery of the excavator, the heat of hydraulic oil can be used in the ORC system together with the other waste heat sources including the exhaust gas and engine coolant. The performances of four different cases of single loop ORC systems were studied at the main operating condition, and critical design factors are studied to get the maximum power output from the given waste heat sources. The energy and exergy analysis of the cycles are performed concerning the available heat source to determine the best fluid and system configuration. The analysis demonstrates that the ORC in the excavator increases 14% of the net power output at the main operating condition with a simpler system configuration at a lower expander inlet temperature than in a conventional vehicle engine without the heat of the hydraulic oil.

Keywords: engine, excavator, hydraulic oil, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
3194 Thermal-Fluid Characteristics of Heating Element in Rotary Heat Exchanger in Accordance with Fouling Phenomena

Authors: Young Mun Lee, Seon Ho Kim, Seok Min Choi, JeongJu Kim, Seungyeong Choi, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

To decrease sulfur oxide in the flue gas from coal power plant, a flue gas de-sulfurization facility is operated. In the reactor, a chemical reaction occurs with a temperature change of the gas so that sulfur oxide is removed and cleaned air is emitted. In this process, temperature change induces a serious problem which is a cold erosion of stack. To solve this problem, the rotary heat exchanger is managed before the stack. In the heat exchanger, a heating element is equipped to increase a heat transfer area. Heat transfer and pressure loss is a big issue to improve a performance. In this research, thermal-fluid characteristics of the heating element are analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. Fouling simulation is also conducted to calculate a performance of heating element. Numerical analysis is performed on the situation where plugging phenomenon has already occurred and existed in the inlet region of the heating element. As the pressure of the rear part of the plugging decreases suddenly and the flow velocity becomes slower, it is found that the flow is gathered from both sides as it develops in the flow direction, and it is confirmed that the pressure difference due to plugging is increased.

Keywords: heating element, plugging, rotary heat exchanger, thermal fluid characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
3193 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Bao Kha Nguyen, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3192 Optimization and Analysis of Heat Recovery System on Gas Complex Turbo Generators

Authors: Ensieh Hajeb, Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohamad Baqer Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper layout plans and determine the best place to install a heat recovery boilers , gas turbines , and simulation models built to evaluate the performance of the design and operating conditions, heat recovery boiler design using model built on the basis of operating conditions , the effect of various parameters on the performance of the designed heat recovery boiler , heat recovery boiler installation was designed to evaluate the technical and economic impact on performance would be Turbo generator. Given the importance of this issue, that is the main goal of economic efficiency and reduces costs; this project has been implemented similar plans in which the target is implementation specific patterns. The project will also help us in the process of gas refineries and the actual efficiency of the process after adding a system to analyze the turbine and predict potential problems and how to fix them and appropriate measures according to the results of simulation analysis and results of the process gain. The results of modeling and the effect of different parameters on this line, the software has been ThermoFlow.

Keywords: boiler, gas turbine, turbo generator, power flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3191 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya

Abstract:

The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
3190 Application of Flue Gas Recirculation in Fluidized Bed Combustor for Energy Efficiency Enhancement

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang

Abstract:

For a fluidized-bed combustion system, excess air ratio (EAR) and superficial velocity are major operating parameters affecting combustion behaviors, and these 2 factors are dependent variables since both fluidizing gas and combustion-supporting agent are air. EAR will change when superficial velocity alters, so that the effect of superficial velocity and/or EAR on combustion behaviors cannot be examined under a specific condition. When stage combustion is executed, one can discuss the effect of EAR under a certain specific superficial velocity, but the flow rate of secondary air and EAR are dependent. In order to investigate the effect of excess air ratio on the combustion behavior of a fluidized combustion system, the flue gas recirculation was adapted by the author in 2007. We can maintain a fixed flow rate of primary gas or secondary gas and change excess oxygen as an independent variable by adjusting the recirculated flue gas appropriately. In another word, we can investigate the effect of excess oxygen on the combustion behavior at a certain primary gas flow, or at a certain hydrodynamics conditions. This technique can be used at a lower turndown ratio to maintain the residual oxygen in the flue gas at a certain value. All the experiments were conducted in a pilot scale fluidized bed combustor. The fluidized bed combustor can be divided into four parts, i.e., windbox, distributor, combustion chamber, and freeboard. The combustion chamber with a cross-section of 0.8 m × 0.4 m was constructed of 6 mm carbon steel lined with 150 mm refractory to reduce heat loss. Above the combustion chamber, the freeboard is 0.64 m in inner diameter. A total of 27 tuyeres with orifices of 5 and 3 mm inside diameters mounted on a 6 mm stainless-steel plate were used as the gas distributor with an open-area-ratio of 0.52%. The Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min respectively. The bed temperature was controlled by three heat transfer tubes inserted into the bubbling bed zone. The experimental data shows that bed temperature, CO and NO emissions increase with the stoichiometric oxygen of the primary gas. NO emissions decrease with the stoichiometric oxygen of the primary. Compared with part of primary air substituted with nitrogen, a lower NO emission can be obtained while flue gas recirculation applies as part of primary air.

Keywords: fluidized bed combustion, flue gas circulation, NO emission, recycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3189 Tests and Comparison of Two Mobile Industrial Analytical Systems for Mercury Speciation in Flue Gas

Authors: Karel Borovec, Jerzy Gorecki, Tadeas Ochodek

Abstract:

Combustion of solid fuels is one of the main sources of mercury in the environment. To reduce the amount of mercury emitted to the atmosphere, it is necessary to modify or optimize old purification technologies or introduce the new ones. Effective reduction of mercury level in the flue gas requires the use of speciation systems for mercury form determination. This paper describes tests and provides comparison of two industrial portable and continuous systems for mercury speciation in the flue gas: Durag HM-1400 TRX with a speciation module and the Portable Continuous Mercury Speciation System based on the SGM-8 mercury speciation set, made by Nippon Instruments Corporation. Additionally, the paper describes a few analytical problems that were encountered during a two-year period of using the systems.

Keywords: continuous measurement, flue gas, mercury determination, speciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3188 Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301

Authors: M. Ba-Shammakh

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101, ZIF-301

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3187 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik

Abstract:

Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: desulphurization, absorption, flue gas, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3186 Dissolution of South African Limestone for Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization

Authors: Lawrence Koech, Ray Everson, Hein Neomagus, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

Wet Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems are commonly used to remove sulphur dioxide from flue gas by contacting it with limestone in aqueous phase which is obtained by dissolution. Dissolution is important as it affects the overall performance of a wet FGD system. In the present study, effects of pH, stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the dissolution of limestone using an organic acid (adipic acid) were investigated. This was investigated using the pH stat apparatus. Calcium ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine.

Keywords: desulphurization, limestone, dissolution, pH stat apparatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
3185 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa

Abstract:

This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: membrane distillation, heat transfer, heat recovery, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3184 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger

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3183 Growth Performance Of fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella sp. Exposed to Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Titin Handayani, Adi Mulyanto, Fajar Eko Priyanto

Abstract:

It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO₂ emissions. Based on light and CO₂, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient feeding of CO₂, especially on a large scale, is one of them. Current methods for CO₂ feeding to algae cultures rely on the sparging pure CO₂ or directly from flue gas. The limiting factor in this system is the solubility of CO₂ in water, which demands a considerable amount of energy for an effective gas to liquid transfer and leads to losses to the atmosphere. Due to the current ineffective methods for CO₂ introduction into algae ponds very large surface areas would be required for enough ponds to capture a considerable amount of the CO₂. The purpose of this study is to assess technology to capture carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generated by industry by utilizing of microalgae Chlorella sp. The microalgae were cultivated in a bioreactor culture pond raceway type. The result is expected to be useful in mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases in reducing the CO₂ emissions. The research activities include: (1) Characterization of boiler flue gas, (2) Operation of culture pond, (3) Sampling and sample analysis. The results of this study showed that the initial assessment absorption of the flue gas by microalgae using 1000 L raceway pond completed by heat exchanger were quite promising. The transfer of CO₂ into the pond culture system was run well. This identified from the success of cooling the boiler flue gas from the temperature of about 200 °C to below ambient temperature. Except for the temperature, the gas bubbles into the culture media were quite fine. Therefore, the contact between the gas and the media was well performed. The efficiency of CO₂ absorption by Chlorella sp reached 6.68 % with an average CO₂ loading of 0.29 g/L/day.

Keywords: Chlorella sp., CO2 emission, heat exchange, microalgae, milk industry, raceway pond

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3182 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon

Abstract:

Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 223