Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: repurchase intent

155 The Impact of Level and Consequence of Service Co-Recovery on Post-Recovery Satisfaction and Repurchase Intent

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

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In service delivery, interpersonal interaction is the key to customer satisfaction, and apparently, the factor of human is critical in service delivery. Besides, customers quite care about the consequences of co-recovery. Thus, this research focuses on service failure caused by other customers and uses a 2x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of consequence and level of service co-recovery on post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. 150 undergraduates were recruited as participants, and assigned to one of the four cells randomly. Every participant was requested to read the scenario and then rated the post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. The results show that under the condition of failed co-recovery, level of co-recovery has no effect on post-recovery satisfaction, while under the condition of successful co-recovery, high-level co-recovery causes significantly higher post-recovery satisfaction than low-level co-recovery. Moreover, post-recovery satisfaction has significantly positive impact on repurchase intent. In the system of service delivery, customers interact with other customers frequently. Therefore, comparing with the literature, this research focuses on the service failure caused by other customers. This research also supplies a better understanding of customers’ view on consequences of different levels of co-recovery, which is helpful for the practitioners to make use of co-recovery.

Keywords: service failure, service co-recovery, consequence of co-recovery, level of co-recovery, post-recovery satisfaction, repurchase intent

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154 The Relationship of Service Marketing Mix and Intention to Repurchase of Thai Dessert

Authors: Siri-Orn Champatong

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This research aimed to study the relationship between attitudes toward marketing mix and customers’ repurchase intention of Thai dessert in case of Ekachai Salee Suphan’s shop in Thailand. This study employed by survey and quantitative research and the questionnaire was used to collect the data from 385 sampled of customers who visited at Ekachai Salee Suphan's shop in Thailand. The descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis was used to analyze data. The research found that the customers’ perception on the overall and individual aspects of attitudes toward marketing mix include products, prices, promotions, and physical characteristics were at very good level, but distribution channels, staffs, and management process were at good level. Furthermore, the hypothesis tests found that attitudes toward overall marketing mix had relationship with individual aspects of intention that were the repurchase intention, willingness to recommend others to repurchase, and possibility to repurchase with statistical significance level of 0.01.

Keywords: intention, repurchase, service marketing mix, Thai dessert

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
153 The Impact of Insider Trading on Open Market Share Repurchase: A Study in Indian Context

Authors: Sarthak Kumar Jena, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Prabina Rajib

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Purpose: This paper aims to derive undervaluation signal from the insiders trading of Indian companies where the ownership is complex and concentrated, investors protection is weak, and the insider rules and regulations are not stringent like developed country. This study examines the relationship between insider trading with short term and long term abnormal return. The study also examines the relationship between insider trading and the actual share repurchase by the firm. Methodology: A sample of 78 companies over the period 2008-2013 are analyzed in the study due to not availability of insider data in Indian context. For preliminary analysis T-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to find the difference between the insider trading before and after the share repurchase announcement. Tobit model is used to find out whether insider trading influence shares repurchase decisions or not. Return on the basis of market model and buy hold are calculated in the previous year and the following year of share repurchase announcement. Findings: The paper finds that insider trading around share repurchase is more than control firms and there is positive and significant difference in insider buying between the previous year of share buyback announcement and the following year of buyback announcement. Insider buying before share repurchase announcement has a positive influence on share repurchase decisions. We find insider buying has a positive and significant relationship with announcement return, whereas insider selling has a negative significant relationship with announcement return. Actual share repurchase and program completion also depend on insider trading before share repurchase. Research limitation: The study is constrained by the small sample size, so the results should be viewed by keeping this limitation in mind. Originality: The paper is to our best knowledge the first study based on Indian context to extend the insider trading literature to share repurchase event and examine insider trading to find out undervaluation signal associated with insider buying.

Keywords: insider trading, buyback, open market share repurchase, signalling

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152 Analysing the Moderating Effect of Customer Loyalty on Long Run Repurchase Intentions

Authors: John Akpesiri Olotewo

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One of the controversies in existing marketing literatures is on how to retain existing and new customers to have repurchase intention in the long-run; however, empirical answer to this question is scanty in existing studies. Thus, this study investigates the moderating effect of consumer loyalty on long-run repurchase intentions in telecommunication industry using Lagos State environs. The study adopted field survey research design using questionnaire to elicit responses from 250 respondents who were selected using random and stratified random sampling techniques from the telecommunication industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The internal consistency of the research instrument was verified using the Cronbach’s alpha, the result of 0.89 implies the acceptability of the internal consistency of the survey instrument. The test of the research hypotheses were analyzed using Pearson Product Method of Correlation (PPMC), simple regression analysis and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0 (SPSS). The study confirmed that customer satisfaction has a significant relationship with customer loyalty in the telecommunication industry; also Service quality has a significant relationship with customer loyalty to a brand; loyalty programs have a significant relationship with customer loyalty to a network operator in Nigeria and Customer loyalty has a significant effect on the long run repurchase intentions of the customer. The study concluded that one of the determinants of long term profitability of a business entity is the long run repurchase intentions of its customers which hinges on the level of brand loyalty of the customer. Thus, it was recommended that service providers in Nigeria should improve on factors like customer satisfaction, service quality, and loyalty programs in order to increase the loyalty of their customer to their brands thereby increasing their repurchase intentions.

Keywords: customer loyalty, long run repurchase intentions, brands, service quality and customer satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
151 The Quality and Management Development for Traditional Community Retailers in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Suppara Charoenpoom

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The purposes of this research were to investigate the level of consumers’ awareness of the traditional community retailers in terms of location, service quality, risk, shopping enjoyment, value for money, shopping satisfaction and intention to repurchase as well as to investigate the factors influenced the consumers’ repurchase in Samut Sonkhram Province, Thailand. The findings revealed that consumers had a high level of awareness in terms of location, and intention to repurchase. The factors influenced the consumers’ level of satisfaction included value for money, shopping enjoyment, and service quality. The factors of consumers’ level of satisfaction had an influence to the intention to repurchase. Moreover, the findings also revealed that the majority of respondents wanted traditional community retailers to continue to operate because of these reasons: close location, convenience, credit, as well as provide a place and time for community social gathering and activities.

Keywords: quality management, service quality, traditional retailer, consumers’ awareness

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150 Looking Elsewhere for Job: Relationship between Procedural Justice and Survivors’ Turnover Intent in Consolidated Nigeria Banks

Authors: Fasanmi Samuel Sunday

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The study examines the relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated Nigeria bank. Opinions of eight hundred and eighty five staff of First City Monumental Bank and Finbank who survived the consolidated process were conveniently sampled using battery of tests. Two hypotheses were tested for this study. Results revealed that procedural justice and demographic variables (sex, age, previous banking job experience, and year of work experience) were significantly, independently and jointly influence turnover intent among survivors in consolidated banks in Nigeria. Also, there was a significant relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated bank in Nigeria. It was recommended that if the workers perceived the process of downsizing to be fair, they tend to reason with their management and coast along with the process rather than increasing in their turnover intent which will eventually drastically reduce the profitability matrix which the banks desired so desperately.

Keywords: bankers, procedural justice, sex, turnover intent

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
149 Antecedents of Regret and Satisfaction in Electronic Commerce

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Chuang-Chun Liu

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Online shopping has become very popular recently. In today’s highly competitive online retail environment, retaining existing customers is a necessity for online retailers. This study focuses on the antecedents and consequences of Internet buyer regret and satisfaction in the online consumer purchasing process. This study examines the roles that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) and alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) play in determining buyer regret and satisfaction in e-commerce. The study also examines the consequences of regret, satisfaction and habit in regard to repurchase intention. In addition, this study attempts to investigate the moderating role of habit in attaining a better understanding of the relationship between repurchase intention and its antecedents. Survey data collected from 431 online customers are analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) and support provided for the hypothesized links. These results indicate that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) have significant influences on regret and satisfaction, which in turn influences repurchase intention. In addition, alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) has a significant positive influence on regret. The research model can provide a richer understanding of online customers’ repurchase behavior and contribute to both research and practice.

Keywords: online shopping, purchase evaluation, regret, satisfaction

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148 The Roles of Pay Satisfaction and Intent to Leave on Counterproductive Work Behavior among Non-Academic University Employees

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Sunday Samson Babalola, Uzor Friday Ordu

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Issue of employees counterproductive work behavior in government owned organization in emerging economies has continued to be a major concern. This study investigated the factors of pay satisfaction, intent to leave and age as predictors of counterproductive work behavior among non-academic employee in a Nigerian federal government owned university. A sample of 200 non-academic employees completed questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine the contribution of each of the predictor variables on the criterion variable on counterproductive work behavior. Results indicate that age of participants (β = -.18; p < .05) significantly independently predicted CWB by accounting for 3% of the explained variance. Addition of pay satisfaction (β = -.14; p < .05) significantly accounted for 5% of the explained variance, while intent to leave (β = -.17; p < .05) further resulted in 8% of the explained variance in counterproductive work behavior. The importance of these findings with regards to reduction in counterproductive work behavior is highlighted.

Keywords: counterproductive, work behaviour, pay satisfaction, intent to leave

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
147 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen

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This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
146 Socio Economic Deprivation, Institutional Outlay and the Intent of Mobile Snatching and Street Assaults in Pakistan

Authors: Asad Salahuddin

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Crime rates seem to be severely augmenting over the past several years in Pakistan which has perpetuated concerns as to what, when and how this upsurge will be eradicated. State institutions are posed to be in utmost perplexity, given the enormity of worsening law and order situation, compelling government on the flip side to expend more resources in strengthening institutions to confront crime, whereas, the economy has been confronted with massive energy crisis, mass unemployment and considerable inflation which has rendered most of the people into articulate apprehension as to how to satisfy basic necessities. A framework to investigate the variability in the rising street crimes, as affected by social and institutional outcomes, has been established using a cross-sectional study. Questionnaire, entailing 7 sections incorporating numerous patterns of behavior and history of involvement in different crimes for potential street criminals was observed as data collection instrument. In order to specifically explicate the intent of street crimes on micro level, various motivational and de-motivational factors that stimulate people to resort to street crimes were scrutinized. Intent of mobile snatching and intent of street assault as potential dependent variables were examined using numerous variables that influence the occurrence and intent of these crimes using ordered probit along with ordered logit and tobit as competing models. Model Estimates asserts that intent of mobile snatching has been significantly enhanced owing to perceived judicial inefficiency and lower ability of police reforms to operate effectively, which signifies the inefficiency of institutions that are entitled to deliver justice and maintaining law and order respectively. Whereas, intent of street assaults, as an outcome, affirms that people with lack of self-stability and severe childhood punishments were more tempted to be involved in violent acts. Hence, it is imperative for government to render better resources in form of training, equipment and improved salaries to police and judiciary in order to enhance their abilities and potential to curb inflating crime.

Keywords: deprivation, street assault, self control, police reform

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145 The Impact of Quality of Life on Satisfaction and Intent to Return for Distance Running

Authors: Chin-Huang Huang, Chun-Chu Yeh

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Physical activities have a positive impact on individuals’ health and well-being. They also play an important role in promoting quality of life (QoL). The distance running enhances participants’ life satisfaction and provides positive experiences in physical activity. This study aims to measure the perception of QoL and to find the effect on satisfaction and intent to return for distance runners. Exploratory factor analysis is carried out to extract four major factorial dimensions of QoL, including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors. The main factors of QoL will be introduced into the regression function on satisfaction and return intention. The results show that the QoL factors including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors have a positive and significant impact on satisfaction for participants. The multiple functions and physical factors are also significantly positively correlated to the intent of return for runners.

Keywords: quality of life, physical activity, distance running, satisfaction

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144 Corporate Social Responsibility the New Route to Competitive Advantage: An Applied Study on Telecommunication Sector in Egypt

Authors: Rania Sherif Abd El-Azim

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The role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in business has evolved and led to an era where industry leaders can no longer overlook the importance of being participative corporate citizens. This is not only because of the media’s skeptical attitude toward whether or not companies’ CSR efforts are sincere but also due to key stakeholders’ ability to hold companies to a higher standard than ever before as companies can gain competitive advantage through CSR. These programs result in addressing global challenges, such as climate, and poverty, or simply improving employee retention, so it has become increasingly clear that CSR is not just the new trend for companies but a necessary tool that organizations must integrate into their overall business strategies to build a stronger reputation as well as to also increase credibility among their key audience and enhance customers’ willingness to repurchase, pay premium price and enhancing positive word of mouth. According to the literature review, the link between CSR and competitive advantage at the firm level has long been an important topic for both CSR researchers and practitioners. Thus CSR can play an important role in enhancing the firm's competitive advantage, which seems an attractive area to investigate specially in Egypt. So, this paper will investigate the role of corporate social responsibility in enhancing the firm competitive advantage.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, competitive advantage, corporate reputation, customers' willingness to repurchase, willingness to pay premium price, positive word of mouth

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143 3rd Generation Modular Execution: A Global Breakthrough in Modular Facility Construction System

Authors: Sean Bryner S. Rey, Eric Tanjutco

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Modular execution strategies are performed to address the various challenges of any projects and are implemented on each project phase that covers Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication and Construction. It was until the recent years that the intent to surpass mechanical modularization approach were conceptualized to give solution to much greater demands of project components such as site location and adverse weather condition, material sourcing, construction schedule, safety risks and overall plot layout and allocation. The intent of this paper is to introduce the 3rd Generation Modular Execution with an overview of its advantages on project execution and will give emphasis on Engineering, Construction, Operation and Maintenance. Most importantly, the paper will present the key differentiator of 3rd Gen modular execution against other conventional project execution and the merits it bears for the industry.

Keywords: 3rd generation modular, process block, construction, operation & maintenance

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142 Searching Linguistic Synonyms through Parts of Speech Tagging

Authors: Faiza Hussain, Usman Qamar

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Synonym-based searching is recognized to be a complicated problem as text mining from unstructured data of web is challenging. Finding useful information which matches user need from bulk of web pages is a cumbersome task. In this paper, a novel and practical synonym retrieval technique is proposed for addressing this problem. For replacement of semantics, user intent is taken into consideration to realize the technique. Parts-of-Speech tagging is applied for pattern generation of the query and a thesaurus for this experiment was formed and used. Comparison with Non-Context Based Searching, Context Based searching proved to be a more efficient approach while dealing with linguistic semantics. This approach is very beneficial in doing intent based searching. Finally, results and future dimensions are presented.

Keywords: natural language processing, text mining, information retrieval, parts-of-speech tagging, grammar, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
141 Interactivity as a Predictor of Intent to Revisit Sports Apps

Authors: Young Ik Suh, Tywan G. Martin

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Sports apps in a smartphone provide up-to-date information and fast and convenient access to live games. The market of sports apps has emerged as the second fastest growing app category worldwide. Further, many sports fans use their smartphones to know the schedule of sporting events, players’ position and bios, videos and highlights. In recent years, a growing number of scholars and practitioners alike have emphasized the importance of interactivity with sports apps, hypothesizing that interactivity plays a significant role in enticing sports apps users and that it is a key component in measuring the success of sports apps. Interactivity in sports apps focuses primarily on two functions: (1) two-way communication and (2) active user control, neither of which have been applicable through traditional mass media and communication technologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the interactivity function on sports apps leads to positive outcomes such as intent to revisit. More specifically, this study investigates how three major functions of interactivity (i.e., two-way communication, active user control, and real-time information) influence the attitude of sports apps users and their intent to revisit the sports apps. The following hypothesis is proposed; interactivity functions will be positively associated with both attitudes toward sports apps and intent to revisit sports apps. The survey questionnaire includes four parts: (1) an interactivity scale, (2) an attitude scale, (3) a behavioral intention scale, and (4) demographic questions. Data are to be collected from ESPN apps users. To examine the relationships among the observed and latent variables and determine the reliability and validity of constructs, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is conducted. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test hypothesized relationships among constructs. Additionally, this study compares the proposed interactivity model with a rival model to identify the role of attitude as a mediating factor. The findings of the current sports apps study provide several theoretical and practical contributions and implications by extending the research and literature associated with the important role of interactivity functions in sports apps and sports media consumption behavior. Specifically, this study may improve the theoretical understandings of whether the interactivity functions influence user attitudes and intent to revisit sports apps. Additionally, this study identifies which dimensions of interactivity are most important to sports apps users. From practitioners’ perspectives, this findings of this study provide significant implications. More entrepreneurs and investors in the sport industry need to recognize that high-resolution photos, live streams, and up-to-date stats are in the sports app, right at sports fans fingertips. The result will imply that sport practitioners may need to develop sports mobile apps that offer greater interactivity functions to attract sport fans.

Keywords: interactivity, two-way communication, active user control, real time information, sports apps, attitude, intent to revisit

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140 An Assessment into the Drift in Direction of International Migration of Labor: Changing Aspirations for Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Rabia Zulfiqar

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This paper attempts to trace the determining factor- as far as individual preferences and expectations are concerned- of what causes the direction of international migration to drift in certain ways owing to factors such as Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation. The narrative on migration has graduated from the age long ‘push/pull’ debate to that of complex factors that may vary across each individual. We explore the longstanding factor of religiosity widely acknowledged in mentioned literature as a key variable in the assessment of migration, wherein the impact of religiosity in the form of a drift into the intent of migration has been analyzed. A more conventional factor cultural assimilation is used in a contemporary way to estimate how it plays a role in affecting the drift in direction. In particular what our research aims at achieving is to isolate the effect our key variables: Cultural Assimilation and Religiosity have on direction of migration, and to explore how they interplay as a composite unit- and how we may be able to justify the change in behavior displayed by these key variables. In order to establish a true sense of what drives individual choices we employ the method of survey research and use a questionnaire to conduct primary research. The questionnaire was divided into six sections covering subjects including household characteristics, perceptions and inclinations of the respondents relevant to our study. Religiosity was quantified using a proxy of Migration Network that utilized secondary data to estimate religious hubs in recipient countries. To estimate the relationship between Intent of Migration and its variants three competing econometric models namely: the Ordered Probit Model, the Ordered Logit Model and the Tobit Model were employed. For every model that included our key variables, a highly significant relationship with the intent of migration was estimated.

Keywords: international migration, drift in direction, cultural assimilation, religiosity, ordered probit model

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139 The 'Currency' of Dolus Eventualis Considered during Sentencing for Murder

Authors: Reuben Govender

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Culpability is an essential element for an accused to be held liable for a crime. The mental element or mens rea determines blameworthiness of an accused on a charge of killing a person. The mens rea required for a conviction of murder is intent while culpable homicide requires negligence. Central to blameworthiness in mens rea is individual freedom and voluntariness. The test for intent is subjective and objective for negligence. This paper presents a review of dolus eventualis in the context of murder trials and from a South African perspective. This paper poses a central questions namely, is dolus eventualis a ‘weaker currency’ during sentencing for murder? This paper attempts to answer this question by reviewing the concept of dolus eventualis, the test in judicial application, a review of decided South African cases in its application, its incorrect application and finally, considerations for its correct application. Lastly, the ‘weight’ of a dolus eventualis conviction in terms of sentencing will be reviewed to support the central question which is answered in the negative.

Keywords: dolus eventualis, dolus indeterminatus, dolus generalis, mens rea

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
138 Unseen Classes: The Paradigm Shift in Machine Learning

Authors: Vani Singhal, Jitendra Parmar, Satyendra Singh Chouhan

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Unseen class discovery has now become an important part of a machine-learning algorithm to judge new classes. Unseen classes are the classes on which the machine learning model is not trained on. With the advancement in technology and AI replacing humans, the amount of data has increased to the next level. So while implementing a model on real-world examples, we come across unseen new classes. Our aim is to find the number of unseen classes by using a hierarchical-based active learning algorithm. The algorithm is based on hierarchical clustering as well as active sampling. The number of clusters that we will get in the end will give the number of unseen classes. The total clusters will also contain some clusters that have unseen classes. Instead of first discovering unseen classes and then finding their number, we directly calculated the number by applying the algorithm. The dataset used is for intent classification. The target data is the intent of the corresponding query. We conclude that when the machine learning model will encounter real-world data, it will automatically find the number of unseen classes. In the future, our next work would be to label these unseen classes correctly.

Keywords: active sampling, hierarchical clustering, open world learning, unseen class discovery

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137 One-Shot Text Classification with Multilingual-BERT

Authors: Hsin-Yang Wang, K. M. A. Salam, Ying-Jia Lin, Daniel Tan, Tzu-Hsuan Chou, Hung-Yu Kao

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Detecting user intent from natural language expression has a wide variety of use cases in different natural language processing applications. Recently few-shot training has a spike of usage on commercial domains. Due to the lack of significant sample features, the downstream task performance has been limited or leads to an unstable result across different domains. As a state-of-the-art method, the pre-trained BERT model gathering the sentence-level information from a large text corpus shows improvement on several NLP benchmarks. In this research, we are proposing a method to change multi-class classification tasks into binary classification tasks, then use the confidence score to rank the results. As a language model, BERT performs well on sequence data. In our experiment, we change the objective from predicting labels into finding the relations between words in sequence data. Our proposed method achieved 71.0% accuracy in the internal intent detection dataset and 63.9% accuracy in the HuffPost dataset. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by NCKU-B109-K003, which is the collaboration between National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, and SoftBank Corp., Tokyo.

Keywords: OSML, BERT, text classification, one shot

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136 An Analysis of the Strategic Pathway to Building a Successful Mobile Advertising Business in Nigeria: From Strategic Intent to Competitive Advantage

Authors: Pius A. Onobhayedo, Eugene A. Ohu

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Nigeria has one of the fastest growing mobile telecommunications industry in the world. In the absence of fixed connection access to the Internet, access to the Internet is primarily via mobile devices. It, therefore, provides a test case for how to penetrate the mobile market in an emerging economy. We also hope to contribute to a sparse literature on strategies employed in building successful data-driven mobile businesses in emerging economies. We, therefore, sought to identify and analyse the strategic approach taken in a successful locally born mobile data-driven business in Nigeria. The analysis was carried out through the framework of strategic intent and competitive advantages developed from the conception of the company to date. This study is based on an exploratory investigation of an innovative digital company based in Nigeria specializing in the mobile advertising business. The projected growth and high adoption of mobile in this African country, coinciding with the smartphone revolution triggered by the launch of iPhone in 2007 opened a new entrepreneurial horizon for the founder of the company, who reached the conclusion that ‘the future is mobile’. This dream led to the establishment of three digital businesses, designed for convergence and complementarity of medium and content. The mobile Ad subsidiary soon grew to become a truly African network with operations and campaigns across West, East and South Africa, successfully delivering campaigns in several African countries including Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Zambia amongst others. The company recently declared a 40% year-end profit which was nine times that of the previous financial year. This study drew from an in-depth interview with the company’s founder, analysis of primary and secondary data from and about the business, as well as case studies of digital marketing campaigns. We hinge our analysis on the strategic intent concept which has been proposed to be an engine that drives the quest for sustainable strategic advantage in the global marketplace. Our goal was specifically to identify the strategic intents of the founder and how these were transformed creatively into processes that may have led to some distinct competitive advantages. Along with the strategic intents, we sought to identify the respective absorptive capacities that constituted favourable antecedents to the creation of such competitive advantages. Our recommendations and findings will be pivotal information for anybody wishing to invest in the world’s fastest technology business space - Africa.

Keywords: Africa, competitive advantage, competitive strategy, digital, mobile business, marketing, strategic intent

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135 Utilisation of Sports and Games for Psychosocial Rehabilitation of Internally Displaced Persons in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Authors: Stephen Hamafyelto, Hussaini Garba, Mary Pindar Ndahi

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The study was carried out with the intent to mitigate the trauma experienced by victims of insurgent attacks by the so-called Boko Haram militants in Borno state of Nigeria. The area was ridden by the crisis over the past 9 years. As a result, many people were killed, maimed and raped. Some others suffered all manner of inhuman treatment at the hands of their captors. The extent to which this dehumanized treatment has gone and impacted on the people in this area has left most of them traumatised. Victims who survived the attacks have been resettled in camps provided by government where their needs have been cared for. This can never be the same with their natural habitats. Many interventions have also been done by government, non-governmental organisations and corporate and individual bodies. In this regard, social needs of the victims have been the immediate concerns of most organisations, where food, shelter, and clothing were provided. However, there is little that has been done to rehabilitate these victims psychosocially. In this regard, sports and games including the victims’ local games were used to provide psychosocial rehabilitation of victims. The intent was to bring them back to social reality, social inclusion, and stable emotions and peer integration. Descriptive statistics and Multivariate analysis were done. No statistically significant difference was found among male and female children and adults in terms of psychosocial rehabilitation using sports and games.

Keywords: social reality, social inclusion, emotional intellegence, peer model

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134 Generating Ideas to Improve Road Intersections Using Design with Intent Approach

Authors: Omar Faruqe Hamim, M. Shamsul Hoque, Rich C. McIlroy, Katherine L. Plant, Neville A. Stanton

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Road safety has become an alarming issue, especially in low-middle income developing countries. The traditional approaches lack the out of the box thinking, making engineers confined to applying usual techniques in making roads safer. A socio-technical approach has recently been introduced in improving road intersections through designing with intent. This Design With Intent (DWI) approach aims to give practitioners a more nuanced approach to design and behavior, working with people, people’s understanding, and the complexities of everyday human experience. It's a collection of design patterns —and a design and research approach— for exploring the interactions between design and people’s behavior across products, services, and environments, both digital and physical. Through this approach, it can be seen that how designing with people in behavior change can be applied to social and environmental problems, as well as commercially. It has a total of 101 cards across eight different lenses, such as architectural, error-proofing, interaction, ludic, perceptual, cognitive, Machiavellian, and security lens each having its own distinct characteristics of extracting ideas from the participant of this approach. For this research purpose, a three-legged accident blackspot intersection of a national highway has been chosen to perform the DWI workshop. Participants from varying fields such as civil engineering, naval architecture and marine engineering, urban and regional planning, and sociology actively participated for a day long workshop. While going through the workshops, the participants were given a preamble of the accident scenario and a brief overview of DWI approach. Design cards of varying lenses were distributed among 10 participants and given an hour and a half for brainstorming and generating ideas to improve the safety of the selected intersection. After the brainstorming session, the participants spontaneously went through roundtable discussions regarding the ideas they have come up with. According to consensus of the forum, ideas were accepted or rejected. These generated ideas were then synthesized and agglomerated to bring about an improvement scheme for the intersection selected in our study. To summarize the improvement ideas from DWI approach, color coding of traffic lanes for separate vehicles, channelizing the existing bare intersection, providing advance warning traffic signs, cautionary signs and educational signs motivating road users to drive safe, using textured surfaces at approach with rumble strips before the approach of intersection were the most significant one. The motive of this approach is to bring about new ideas from the road users and not just depend on traditional schemes to increase the efficiency, safety of roads as well and to ensure the compliance of road users since these features are being generated from the minds of users themselves.

Keywords: design with intent, road safety, human experience, behavior

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133 Online Shopping vs Privacy – Results of an Experimental Study

Authors: Andrzej Poszewiecki

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The presented paper contributes to the experimental current of research on privacy. The question of privacy is being discussed at length at present, primarily among lawyers and politicians. However, the matter of privacy has been of interest for economists for some time as well. The valuation of privacy by people is of great importance now. This article is about how people valuate their privacy. An experimental method has been utilised in the conducted research – the survey was carried out among customers of an online store, and the studied issue was whether their readiness to sell their data (WTA) was different from the willingness to buy data back (WTP). The basic aim of this article is to analyse whether people shopping on the Internet differentiate their privacy depending on whether they protect or sell it. The achieved results indicate the presence of major differences in this respect, which do not always come up with the original expectations. The obtained results have supported the hypothesis that people are more willing to sell their data than to repurchase them. However, the hypothesis that the value of proposed remuneration affects the willingness to sell/buy back personal data (one’s privacy) has not been supported.

Keywords: privacy, experimental economics, behavioural economics, internet

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132 Laparoscopic Curative Resection for Right-Sided Colonic Tumours: Initial Experience from a Cancer Hospital of a Developing Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Aamir Ali Syed, Shahid Khattak

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Introduction: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is an advanced cancer surgery in today's era. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and initial oncological outcomes after curative, laparoscopic resection of right sided colonic tumors. Also to compare our results with those of previous randomized trials. Methods And Procedures: We retrospectively analyzed the medical record files of all the patients who presented to our hospital with the diagnosis of right sided colon carcinoma from January 2012 to December 2017 and underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Demographics, operative findings and histopathological reports were all recorded on a preformed data sheet. All the analysis was performed on SPSS 20. Results: Total of 48 patients were included. There were 37 male and 11 female patients with mean age of 49.7 (range from 25 – 82). Mean hospital stay was 8.25 ± 3.17 days. Blood loss was 80mls and operative mean time was 240 minutes. Eighteen patients had extended right hemicolectomy. Median length of the specimen retrieved was 31cm (range, 14-59cm). Mean size of tumor was 6.44cm + 2.53. Total number of lymph nodes removed was 20.5 + 8.3. All had R0 resection. Post-operatively 2 patients had pelvic collection and there was no 30 day mortality. In 33 patients there was T3 disease, 5 had T2 and 10 had T4 disease. There was distant recurrence in 4 patients with peritoneal metastasis in 3 and liver metastasis in 1 patient. Forty-six patients are still alive and 44 are disease free. The mean follow-up period was 25.31 (12 to 60) months. Conclusion: Our early experience with Laparascopic Right hemicolectomy as a safe and oncologically feasible surgical option. We attained comparable surgical results with curative intent.

Keywords: right hemicolectomy, right sided colonic tumors, laparoscopic, curative intent

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131 Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

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The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.

Keywords: electronic payment, intention, online purchasing, trust

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130 The Political Economy of Fiscal and Monetary Interactions in Brazil

Authors: Marcos Centurion-Vicencio

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This study discusses the idea of ‘dominance’ in economic policy and its practical influence over monetary decisions. The discretionary use of repurchase agreements in Brazil over the period 2006-2016 and its effects on the overall price level are the specific issues we will be focusing on. The set of in-depth interviews carried out with public servants at the Brazilian central bank and national treasury, alongside data collected from the National Institution of Statistics (IBGE), suggest that monetary and fiscal dominance do not differ in nature once the assumption of depoliticized central bankers is relaxed. In both regimes, the pursuit of private gains via public institutions affects price stability. While short-sighted politicians in the latter are at the origin of poor monetary decisions, the action of short-sighted financial interest groups is likely to generate a similar outcome in the former. This study then contributes to rethinking monetary policy theory as well as the nature of public borrowing.

Keywords: fiscal and monetary interactions, interest groups, monetary capture, public borrowing

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129 Gender Equality: A Constitutional Myth When Featured with Domestic Violence

Authors: Suja S. Nayar, Mayuri Pandya

Abstract:

The foundation of legal system of any nation is its constitution and the strive to achieve equality amongst different classes prevailing in the social system. The most traditional form of inequality that is prevailing in the society is the gender inequality. The existence of inequality on the basis of gender prevails since the ancient era which has with the passing time merely continued and aggravated to a great extent. The founding fathers of our constitution were well aware of the then prevailing situation and being concerned about the future if this inequality continued to prevail, and in such view, the provisions of Article 14, 15, 38 and 44 of our Constitution were enacted with specific intent for the upliftment of women. The strive for equality is the rule of law embodied with the principle of foreseeability which is necessitated in the stability of justice system of any nation, and when it comes to equality, the first form of equality we need to achieve is gender equality. Time and again various initiatives have been announced and attempted to achieve the objective of gender equality, but analysis of the ground reality always have yielded disappointing results. The research that is proposed to be undertaken intends to cover all the above issues concerning the failures ineffective implementation of the gender-specific laws especially the provisions concerning the protection provided under Domestic Violence Act. The researchers will analyze the judgment of last five years' judgments of Supreme Court of India. In Hiral P. Harsora and ors. v Kusum Narottamdas Harsora and Ors. the Hon'ble Supreme Court recently deleting the words 'adult male' from the definition of respondent disclosed it is intent and understanding that domestic violence is being caused by a female on female also and not only restricted to males on females only. The procedure as prescribed under the act for claiming reliefs though is as per the criminal mandate, but the reliefs are of civil nature and so same needs to deal emphatically which now makes it a lengthier process. The pros and cons of such pronouncements are being weighed on the balance of constitution and social equality that is strived by the entire women fraternity.

Keywords: domestic, violence, constitution, gender, equality, women

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128 A Case Study on the Field Surveys and Repair of a Marine Approach-Bridge

Authors: S. H. Park, D. W. You

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This study is about to the field survey and repair works in a marine approach-bride. In order to evaluate the stability of the ground and the structure, field surveys such as exterior inspection, non-destructive inspection, measurement, and geophysical exploration are carried out. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the cause of the abutment displacement at the same time. In addition, repair works are practiced to the region damaged with intent to sustain long-term safety.

Keywords: field survey, expansion joint, repair, maintenance

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127 Developing Family-Based Eco-Citizenship with Social Media: A Mixed Methods Collective Case Study of Families Looking to Adopt Ecologically Responsible Actions Using Facebook

Authors: Michel T. Leger, Shawn Martin

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Leading an ecologically responsible lifestyle represents a difficult challenge. Though research in environmental education does point to an increase in the intention to act more responsibly towards the environment, this intent does not seem to translate to concrete ecological action. This mixed methods collective case study explores the adoption of ecological actions in the family, a context of socio-ecological transformation rarely examined in the scientific literature. More specifically, it takes into account the popular use of social media today to explore the potential role social media, namely Facebook, in promoting environmental action. In other words, for families who are intent on adopting an ecologically friendly lifestyle, could the use of Facebook positively affect the way family members relate to the environment and bring about real change in their daily household actions? To answer this question, twenty-one families living in an urban setting were recruited and then divided them into two distinct groups. The first group of families attempted to lower their household electrical bill as part of a private Facebook group, while the other aimed to do the same, but without the directed use of social media. For both groups, we recorded the amount of kilowatt-hours used during the project as well as the amount used for the same months the previous year, adjusting for temperature variations. Exit interviews were also conducted with each family in order to try to understand the processes of eco-citizenship development in the context of family. Results seem to suggest that both virtual social networks and one-on-one support can help to increase environmental awareness in participating family. Interestingly, families from the Facebook group seemed to demonstrate a higher degree of environmental engagement, and younger family members in this group were more active in the processes of collective behavioral change.

Keywords: environmental education, family-based eco-citizenship, social media, case study

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126 Studying the Influence of Systematic Pre-Occupancy Data Collection through Post-Occupancy Evaluation: A Shift in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid, Donovan Nelson, Cara Prosser

Abstract:

The architectural design process could be mapped out as a dialogue between designer and user that is constructed across multiple phases with the overarching goal of aligning design outcomes with user needs. Traditionally, this dialogue is bounded within a preliminary phase of determining factors that will direct the design intent, and a completion phase, of handing off the project to the client. Pre- and post-occupancy evaluations (P/POE’s) could provide an alternative process by extending this dialogue on both ends of the design process. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of systematic pre-occupancy data collection in achieving design goals by conducting post-occupancy evaluations of two case studies. In the context of this study, systematic pre-occupancy data collection is defined as the preliminary documentation of the existing conditions that helps portray stakeholders’ needs. When implemented, pre-occupancy occurs during the early phases of the architectural design process, utilizing the information to shape the design intent. Investigative POE’s are performed on two case studies with distinct early design approaches to understand how the current space is impacting user needs, establish design outcomes, and inform future strategies. The first case study underwent systematic pre-occupancy data collection and synthesis, while the other represents the traditional, uncoordinated practice of informally collecting data during an early design phase. POE’s target the dynamics between the building and its occupants by studying how spaces are serving the needs of the users. Data collection for this study consists of user surveys, audiovisual materials, and observations during regular site visits. Mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses are synthesized to identify patterns in the data. The paper concludes by positioning value on both sides of the architectural design process: the integration of systematic pre-occupancy methods in the early phases and the reinforcement of a continued dialogue between building and design team after building completion.

Keywords: architecture, design process, pre-occupancy data, post-occupancy evaluation

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