Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3237

Search results for: lean construction

3237 Building a Lean Construction Body of Knowledge

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes

Abstract:

The process of construction significantly contributes to high level of risks, complexity and uncertainties leading to cost and time overrun, customer dissatisfaction etc. lean construction is important as it is a comprehensive system of tools and concepts focusing on moving closer to customer satisfaction by understanding the process, identifying the waste and eliminating it. The proposed work includes identification of knowledge areas from lean perspective, lean tools/concepts used in lean construction and establishing a relationship matrix between knowledge areas and lean tools/concepts, thus developing and building up a lean construction body of knowledge (LCBOK), i.e. a guide to lean construction, aiming to provide guidelines to manage individual projects and also helping construction industry to minimise waste and maximize value to the customer. In this study, we identified 8 knowledge areas and 62 lean tools/concepts from lean perspective and also one tool can help to manage two or more knowledge areas.

Keywords: knowledge areas, lean body matrix, lean construction, lean tools

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3236 Lean Implementation Analysis on the Safety Performance of Construction Projects in the Philippines

Authors: Kim Lindsay F. Restua, Jeehan Kyra A. Rivero, Joneka Myles D. Taguba

Abstract:

Lean construction is defined as an approach in construction with the purpose of reducing waste in the process without compromising the value of the project. There are numerous lean construction tools that are applied in the construction process, which maximizes the efficiency of work and satisfaction of customers while minimizing waste. However, the complexity and differences of construction projects cause a rise in challenges on achieving the lean benefits construction can give, such as improvement in safety performance. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between lean construction tools and their effects on safety performance. The relationship between construction tools applied in construction and safety performance is identified through Logistic Regression Analysis, and Correlation Analysis was conducted thereafter. Based on the findings, it was concluded that almost 60% of the factors listed in the study, which are different tools and effects of lean construction, were determined to have a significant relationship with the level of safety in construction projects.

Keywords: correlation analysis, lean construction tools, lean construction, logistic regression analysis, risk management, safety

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3235 Lean Construction Techniques in Construction Projects of Pakistan

Authors: Aftab Hameed Memon, Shadab Noor, Muhammad Akram Akhund

Abstract:

Lean construction is a philosophy adopted in the construction industry to increase the value of a project by reducing waste and improving construction productivity. Lean emphasizes on maximizing the value of a project with less expenditure. Globally, lean philosophy has received wider popularity in construction sector. Lean construction has supported the practitioners with several tools and techniques to implement at various stages of a construction project. Following the global trends, this study has investigated the lean practice in Pakistan. The level of implementation of different lean tools and techniques altogether with potential benefits experienced by its implementation in construction projects of Pakistan is analyzed. To achieve the targets, the opinion was sought by the practitioners involved in handling construction projects representing four stakeholders that are a client, consultant, contractors and material suppliers through a structured questionnaire. A total of 34 completed questionnaires were collected and then statistically analyzed. The findings of the analysis have highlighted that pull approach, work standardization, just in time, increase visualization tools, integrated project delivery method and fail-safe for quality are common lean techniques implemented in the local construction industry. While reduction in waste, client’s satisfaction, improved communication, visual control and proper task management are major benefits of the lean construction application.

Keywords: lean construction, lean tools and techniques, lean benefits, waste reduction, Pakistan

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3234 Achieving Sustainable Rapid Construction Using Lean Principles

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Mohammed Alias Yusof

Abstract:

There is the need to take the holistic approach in achieving sustainable construction for a contemporary practice. Sustainable construction is the practice that involved method of human preservation of the environment, whether economically or socially through responsibility, management of resources and maintenance utilizing support. This paper shows the correlation of achieving rapid construction with sustainable concepts using lean principles. Lean principles being used widely in the manufacturing industry, but this research will demonstrate the principles into building construction. Lean principle offers the benefits of stabilizing work flow and elimination of unnecessary work. Therefore, this principle contributes to time and waste reduction. The correlation shows that pulling factor provides the improvement of progress curve and stabilizing the time-quality relation. The finding shows the lean principles offer the elements of rapid construction synchronized with the elements of sustainability.

Keywords: sustainable construction, rapid construction, time reduction, lean construction

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3233 A Conceptual Framework of Impact of Lean on the Performance of Construction Industry

Authors: Jaber Shurrab, Matloub Hussain

Abstract:

The rapid pace of changes in the construction industry, technological advancements, and rising costs present tremendous challenges for project managers. Project managers are under severe pressure to minimize the waste, improve the efficiency of the entire operations and the philosophy of ‘lean thinking’ so that ‘more could be achieved with less’ is becoming very popular. Though, lean management has strong roots in manufacturing industry and over the last decade lean philosophy has started gaining attention in the service industry as well. However, little has been known in the context of waste minimization and lean implementation in the construction industry and this paper deals with this important issue. The primary objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for the exploration of appropriate lean techniques applicable to medium and large construction companies and measure their impact on the competitiveness and economic performance of construction companies of United Arab Emirates (UAE). To this end, a comprehensive literature review and interviews with eight project managers of medium and large construction companies of UAE have been conducted. It has been found that competitive, reduce waste and costs are critical to the construction industry. This is an ongoing research in lean management, giving project managers a practical framework for improving the efficiency of their project through various lean techniques. Originality/value: Research significance emphasizes increasing the effectiveness of the construction industry, influences the development of lean construction framework which improves lean construction practices using the lean techniques. This contributes to the effort of applying lean techniques in the construction industry. Limited publications were done in the construction industry mainly in United Arab Emirates (UAE) compared to the lean manufacturing. This research will recommend a systematic approach for the implementing of the anticipated framework within a cyclical look-ahead period and emphasizes the practical implications of the proposed approach.

Keywords: construction, lean, lean manufacturing, waste

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3232 Lean: A Sustainable Approach to Design and Construction for Environmental Sustainability

Authors: Evelyn Lami Ashelo Allu, Fidelis A. Emuze

Abstract:

This study aims to contribute to the pursuit of environmental sustainability through the built environment practices of design and construction. Activities within the built environment and particularly within the construction industry have a significant role in ensuring environmental sustainability. The adoption of Lean principles and approaches would ensure that project deliverables are sustainable. This is because the processes that integrate lean principles reduce waste, add value to productivity, ensures customer satisfaction and are mindful of future productivity. Additionally, the lean principles for development are sustainable in themselves and thus promotes environmental sustainability. The study encourages further research with other methodologies and recommends the development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in order to promote the global concern for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: built environment, construction, design, lean, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3231 Innovation in Lean Thinking to Achieve Rapid Construction

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Mohammed Alias Yusof

Abstract:

Lean thinking holds the potential for improving the construction sector, and therefore, it is a concept that should be adopted by construction sector players and academicians in the real industry. Bridging from that, a learning process for construction sector players regarding this matter should be the agenda in gaining the knowledge in preparation for their career. Lean principles offer opportunities for reducing lead times, eliminating non-value adding activities, reducing variability, and are facilitated by methods such as pull scheduling, simplified operations and buffer reduction. Thus, the drive for rapid construction, which is a systematic approach in enhancing efficiency to deliver a project using time reduction, while lean is the continuous process of eliminating waste, meeting or exceeding all customer requirements, focusing on the entire value stream and pursuing perfection in the execution of a constructed project. The methodology presented is shown to be valid through literature, interviews and questionnaire. The results show that the majority of construction sector players unfamiliar with lean thinking and they agreed that it can improve the construction process flow. With this background knowledge established and identified, best practices and recommended action are drawn.

Keywords: construction improvement, rapid construction, time reduction, lean construction

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3230 Lean Impact Analysis Assessment Models: Development of a Lean Measurement Structural Model

Authors: Catherine Maware, Olufemi Adetunji

Abstract:

The paper is aimed at developing a model to measure the impact of Lean manufacturing deployment on organizational performance. The model will help industry practitioners to assess the impact of implementing Lean constructs on organizational performance. It will also harmonize the measurement models of Lean performance with the house of Lean that seems to have become the industry standard. The sheer number of measurement models for impact assessment of Lean implementation makes it difficult for new adopters to select an appropriate assessment model or deployment methodology. A literature review is conducted to classify the Lean performance model. Pareto analysis is used to select the Lean constructs for the development of the model. The model is further formalized through the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in defining the underlying latent structure of a Lean system. An impact assessment measurement model developed can be used to measure Lean performance and can be adopted by different industries.

Keywords: impact measurement model, lean bundles, lean manufacturing, organizational performance

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3229 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance, optimisation, decision making

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3228 Lean Thinking and E-Commerce as New Opportunities to Improve Partnership in Supply Chain of Construction Industries

Authors: Kaustav Kundu, Alberto Portioli Staudacher

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a vital role in the economy of the world. But due to high uncertainty and variability in the industry, its performance is not as efficient in terms of quality, lead times, productivity and costs as of other industries. Moreover, there are continuous conflicts among the different actors in the construction supply chains in terms of profit sharing. Previous studies suggested partnership as an important approach to promote cooperation among the different actors in the construction supply chains and thereby it improves the overall performance. Construction practitioners tried to focus on partnership which can enhance the performance of construction supply chains but they are not fully aware of different approaches and techniques for improving partnership. In this research, a systematic review on partnership in relation to construction supply chains is carried out to understand different elements influencing the partnership. The research development of this domain is analyzed by reviewing selected articles published from 1996 to 2015. Based on the papers, three major elements influencing partnership in construction supply chains are identified: “Lean approach”, “Relationship building” and “E-commerce applications”. This study analyses the contributions in the areas within each element and provides suggestions for future developments of partnership in construction supply chains.

Keywords: partnership, construction, lean, SCM, supply chain management

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3227 Lean Models Classification: Towards a Holistic View

Authors: Y. Tiamaz, N. Souissi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a classification of Lean models which aims to capture all the concepts related to this approach and thus facilitate its implementation. This classification allows the identification of the most relevant models according to several dimensions. From this perspective, we present a review and an analysis of Lean models literature and we propose dimensions for the classification of the current proposals while respecting among others the axes of the Lean approach, the maturity of the models as well as their application domains. This classification allowed us to conclude that researchers essentially consider the Lean approach as a toolbox also they design their models to solve problems related to a specific environment. Since Lean approach is no longer intended only for the automotive sector where it was invented, but to all fields (IT, Hospital, ...), we consider that this approach requires a generic model that is capable of being implemented in all areas.

Keywords: lean approach, lean models, classification, dimensions, holistic view

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3226 Understand and Redefine Lean Product Development

Authors: Alemu Moges Belay, Torgeir Welo, Jan Ola Strandhagen

Abstract:

Lean has long been linked with manufacturing, but its application claimed also by other functions such as product development and services. However, there is a challenge on understanding and defining lean in each function context. This paper aims to investigate the literature that focus mainly on PD process improvement, obtain better understanding and redefine LPD in systematic way. In addition to that, the paper attempts to summarize various proposed transformation strategies, definitions, identifying features of manufacturing and product development that would help to redefining lean in product development context. Finally we redefine LPD in organized way that encompasses different steps such as stage gate, communication and information, events, learning, innovation, knowledge and value creation.

Keywords: lean, lean manufacturing, lean product development, transformation, strategies

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3225 Establishing a Sustainable Construction Industry: Review of Barriers That Inhibit Adoption of Lean Construction in Lesotho

Authors: Tsepiso Mofolo, Luna Bergh

Abstract:

The Lesotho construction industry fails to embrace environmental practices, which has then lead to excessive consumption of resources, land degradation, air and water pollution, loss of habitats, and high energy usage. The industry is highly inefficient, and this undermines its capability to yield the optimum contribution to social, economic and environmental developments. Sustainable construction is, therefore, imperative to ensure the cultivation of benefits from all these intrinsic themes of sustainable development. The development of a sustainable construction industry requires a holistic approach that takes into consideration the interaction between Lean Construction principles, socio-economic and environmental policies, technological advancement and the principles of construction or project management. Sustainable construction is a cutting-edge phenomenon, forming a component of a subjectively defined concept called sustainable development. Sustainable development can be defined in terms of attitudes and judgments to assist in ensuring long-term environmental, social and economic growth in society. The key concept of sustainable construction is Lean Construction. Lean Construction emanates from the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS), namely the application and adaptation of the fundamental concepts and principles that focus on waste reduction, the increase in value to the customer, and continuous improvement. The focus is on the reduction of socio-economic waste, and protestation of environmental degradation by reducing carbon dioxide emission footprint. Lean principles require a fundamental change in the behaviour and attitudes of the parties involved in order to overcome barriers to cooperation. Prevalent barriers to adoption of Lean Construction in Lesotho are mainly structural - such as unavailability of financing, corruption, operational inefficiency or wastage, lack of skills and training and inefficient construction legislation and political interferences. The consequential effects of these problems trigger down to quality, cost and time of the project - which then result in an escalation of operational costs due to the cost of rework or material wastage. Factor and correlation analysis of these barriers indicate that they are highly correlated, which then poses a detrimental potential to the country’s welfare, environment and construction safety. It is, therefore, critical for Lesotho’s construction industry to develop a robust governance through bureaucracy reforms and stringent law enforcement.

Keywords: construction industry, sustainable development, sustainable construction industry, lean construction, barriers to sustainable construction

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3224 Identification of Lean Implementation Hurdles in Indian Industries

Authors: Bhim Singh

Abstract:

Due to increased pressure from global competitors, manufacturing organizations are switching over to lean philosophies from traditional mass production. Lean manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which focuses on elimination of various types of wastes and creates maximum value for the end customers. Lean thinking aims to produce high quality products and services at the lowest possible cost with maximum customer responsiveness. Indian Industry is facing lot of problems in this transformation from traditional mass production to lean production. Through this paper an attempt has been made to identify various lean implementation hurdles in Indian industries with the help of a structured survey. Identified hurdles are grouped with the help of factor analysis and rated by calculating descriptive statistics. To show the effect of lean implementation hurdles a hypothesis “Organizations having higher level of lean implementation hurdles will have poor (negative) performance” has been postulated and tested using correlation matrix between performance parameters of the organizations and identified hurdles. The findings of the paper will be helpful to prepare road map to identify and eradicate the lean implementation hurdles.

Keywords: factor analysis, global competition, lean implementation, lean hurdles

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3223 Smart Lean Manufacturing in the Context of Industry 4.0: A Case Study

Authors: M. Ramadan, B. Salah

Abstract:

This paper introduces a framework to digitalize lean manufacturing tools to enhance smart lean-based manufacturing environments or Lean 4.0 manufacturing systems. The paper discusses the integration between lean tools and the powerful features of recent real-time data capturing systems with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop an intelligent real-time monitoring and controlling system of production operations concerning lean targets. This integration is represented in the Lean 4.0 system called Dynamic Value Stream Mapping (DVSM). Moreover, the paper introduces the practice of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and ICT to smartly support lean tools and practices during daily production runs to keep the lean system alive and effective. This work introduces a practical description of how the lean method tools 5S, standardized work, and poka-yoke can be digitalized and smartly monitored and controlled through DVSM. A framework of the three tools has been discussed and put into practice in a German switchgear manufacturer.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, Industry 4.0, radio frequency identification, value stream mapping

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3222 An Application of Lean Thinking at the Cargo Transport Area

Authors: Caroline Demartin, Natalia Camaras, Nelson Maestrelli, Max Filipe Gonçalves

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of Lean Thinking at the cargo transport area. Lean Office principles are considered the application of Lean Thinking focusing on the service area and it is based on Lean Production concepts. Lean production is a philosophy that was born and gained ground after the Second World War when the Japanese Toyota Company developed a process of identifying and eliminating waste. Many researchers show that most part of the companies decide to adopt the principles created at Toyota especially in the manufacturing sector, but until 90’s, has no major applications for the service sector. Due to increased competition and the need for competitive advantage, many companies began to observe the lean transformation and take it as reference. In this study, a key process at a cargo transport company was analyzed using Lean Office tools and methods: a current state map was developed, main wastes were identified, some metrics were used to evaluate improvements and a priority matrix was used to identify action plans. The obtained results showed that Lean Office has a great potential to be successful applied in cargo air transport companies.

Keywords: lean production, lean office, logistic, service sector

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3221 Lean Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers in the Colombian Context

Authors: Erika Ruiz, Nestor Ortiz

Abstract:

Lean philosophy has evolved over time and has been implemented both in manufacturing and services, more recently lean has been integrated in the companies of the health sector. Currently it is important to understand the successful way to implement this philosophy and try to identify barriers and enablers to the sustainability of lean healthcare. The main purpose of this research is to identify the barriers and enablers in the implementation of Lean Healthcare based on case studies of Colombian healthcare centers. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews based on a maturity model. The main results indicate that the success of Lean implementation depends on its adaptation to contextual factors. In addition, in the Colombian context were identified new factors such as organizational culture, management models, integration of the care and administrative departments and triple helix relationship.

Keywords: barriers, enablers, implementation, lean healthcare, sustainability

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3220 The Application of Lean-Kaizen in Course Plan and Delivery in Malaysian Higher Education Sector

Authors: Nur Aishah Binti Awi, Zulfiqar Khan

Abstract:

Lean-kaizen has always been applied in manufacturing sector since many years ago. What about education sector? This paper discuss on how lean-kaizen can also be applied in education sector, specifically in academic area of Malaysian’s higher education sector. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of lean kaizen in course plan and delivery. Lean-kaizen techniques have been used to identify waste in the course plan and delivery. A field study has been conducted to obtain the data. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher had interviewed the chosen lecturers regarding to the problems of course plan and delivery that they encountered. Secondary data of students’ feedback at the end of semester also has been used to improve course plan and delivery. The result empirically shows that lean-kaizen helps to improve the course plan and delivery by reducing the wastes. Thus, this study demonstrates that lean-kaizen can also help education sector to improve their services as achieved by manufacturing sector.

Keywords: course delivery, education, Kaizen, lean

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3219 The Relationship of Lean Management Principles with Lean Maturity Levels: Multiple Case Study in Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Alexandre D. Ferraz, Dario H. Alliprandini, Mauro Sampaio

Abstract:

Companies and other institutions are constantly seeking better organizational performance and greater competitiveness. In order to fulfill this purpose, there are many tools, methodologies and models for increasing performance. However, the Lean Management approach seems to be the most effective in terms of achieving a significant improvement in productivity relatively quickly. Although Lean tools are relatively easy to understand and implement in different contexts, many organizations are not able to transform themselves into 'Lean companies'. Most of the efforts in its implementation have shown single benefits, failing to achieve the desired impact on the performance of the overall enterprise system. There is also a growing perception of the importance of management in Lean transformation, but few studies have empirically investigated and described the 'Lean Management'. In order to understand more clearly the ideas that guide Lean Management and its influence on the maturity level of the production system, the objective of this research is analyze the relationship between the Lean Management principles and the Lean maturity level in the organizations. The research also analyzes the principles of Lean Management and its relationship with the 'Lean culture' and the results obtained. The research was developed using the case study methodology. Three manufacturing units of a German multinational company from industrial automation segment, located in different countries were studied, in order to have a better comparison between the practices and the level of maturity in the implementation. The primary source of information was the application of a research questionnaire based on the theoretical review. The research showed that higher the level of Lean Management principles, higher are the Lean maturity level, the Lean culture level, and the level of Lean results obtained in the organization. The research also showed that factors such as time for application of Lean concepts and company size were not determinant for the level of Lean Management principles and, consequently, for the level of Lean maturity in the organization. The characteristics of the production system showed much more influence in different evaluated aspects. The present research also left recommendations for the managers of the plants analyzed and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: lean management, lean principles, lean maturity level, lean manufacturing

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3218 Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) Framework Development

Authors: A. P. Puvanasvaran, Suresh A. L. Vasu, N. Norazlin

Abstract:

The Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) framework development is integration between lean core element and ISO 14001. The curiosity on the relationship between continuous improvement and sustainability of lean implementation has influenced this study toward LEMIS. Characteristic of ISO 14001 standard clauses and core elements of lean principles are explored from past studies and literature reviews. Survey was carried out on ISO 14001 certified companies to examine continual improvement by implementing the ISO 14001 standard. The study found that there is a significant and positive relationship between Lean Principles: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection with the ISO 14001 requirements. LEMIS is significant to support the continuous improvement and sustainability. The integration system can be implemented to any manufacturing company. It gives awareness on the importance on why organizations need to sustain its Environmental management system. At the meanwhile, the lean principle can be adapted in order to streamline daily activities of the company. Throughout the study, it had proven that there is no sacrifice or trade-off between lean principles with ISO 14001 requirements. The framework developed in the study can be further simplified in the future, especially the method of crossing each sub requirements of ISO 14001 standard with the core elements of Lean principles in this study.

Keywords: LEMIS, ISO 14001, integration, framework

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3217 Anti-Corruption, an Important Challenge for the Construction Industry!

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes, Fritz Gehbauer

Abstract:

The construction industry is perhaps one of the oldest industry of the world. The ancient monuments like the egyptian pyramids, the temples of Greeks and Romans like Parthenon and Pantheon, the robust bridges, old Roman theatres, the citadels and many more are the best testament to that. The industry also has a symbiotic relationship with other . Some of the heavy engineering industry provide construction machineries, chemical industry develop innovative construction materials, finance sector provides fund solutions for complex construction projects and many more. Construction Industry is not only mammoth but also very complex in nature. Because of the complexity, construction industry is prone to various tribulations which may have the propensity to hamper its growth. The comparitive study of this industry with other depicts that it is associated with a state of tardiness and delay especially when we focus on the managerial aspects and the study of triple constraint (time, cost and scope). While some institutes says the complexity associated with it as a major reason, others like lean construction, refers to the wastes produced across the construction process as the prime reason. This paper introduces corruption as one of the prime factors for such delays.To support this many international reports and studies are available depicting that construction industry is one of the most corrupt sectors worldwide, and the corruption can take place throught the project cycle comprising project selection, planning, design, funding, pre-qualification, tendering, execution, operation and maintenance, and even through the reconstrction phase. It also happens in many forms such as bribe, fraud, extortion, collusion, embezzlement and conflict of interest and the self-sufficient. As a solution to cope the corruption in construction industry, the paper introduces the integrity as a key factor and build a new integrity framework to develop and implement an integrity management system for construction companies and construction projects.

Keywords: corruption, construction industry, integrity, lean construction

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3216 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Bernasconi Matteo, Grothkopp Mark, Friedli Thomas

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The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and human resource management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices

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3215 Measuring the Lean Readiness of Kuwaiti Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Mohamad Alnajem

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Purpose: To measure the readiness of the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries (K-SMMIs) to implement the lean system (LS) through an evaluation of their existing quality practices, and compare such readiness among different product sectors and ownership types. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the measurement framework developed by Al-Najem et al. (2013), which establishes six constructs related to lean quality practices, namely: process, planning and control, customer relations, suppliers relations, HR, and top management and leadership. Data were collected from a survey of 50 K-SMMIs operating in different industrial sectors. One research question and two hypotheses were developed and tested using t-test and Levene’s test, descriptive analysis, and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The results demonstrate that the K-SMMIs are far from being ready to implement lean. In addition, the study found that product sector and ownership type have no significant impact on the lean readiness in the K-SMMIs. Practical implications: This research provides insight into preparing Kuwaiti, and other SMMIs, to implement the LS by creating an assessment of their existing lean practices and readiness. Originality/value: This research is among a limited number of studies that have addressed lean within the Arab region, and only the second to examine the level of lean readiness of the K-SMMIs. It expands the literature on lean in developing countries, particularly in the Arab region, and can provide guidance to research within other countries in the region.

Keywords: Kuwaiti small and medium sized industries, lean system, lean readiness, manufacturing industries

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3214 Application of Lean Manufacturing in Brake Shoe Manufacturing Plant: A Case Study

Authors: Anees K. Ahamed, Aakash Kumar R. G., Raj M. Mohan

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The main objective is to apply lean tools to identify and eliminate waste in and among the work stations so as to improve the process speed and quality. From the top seven wastes in the lean concept, we consider the movement of materials, defects, and inventory for the improvement since these cause the major impact on the performance measures. The layout was improved to reduce the movement of materials. It also quantifies the reduction in movement among the work stations. Value stream mapping has been used for identification of waste. Cause and effect diagram and 5W analysis are used to identify the reasons for defects and to provide the counter measures. Some cycle time reduction techniques also proposed to improve the productivity. Lean Audit check sheet was also used to identify the current position of the industry and to identify the gap to make the industry Lean.

Keywords: cause and effect diagram, cycle time reduction, defects, lean, waste reduction

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3213 Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Some Companies in Colombia: A Case Study

Authors: Natalia Marulanda, Henry González, Gonzalo León, Alejandro Hincapié

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Continuous improvement tools are the result of a set of studies that developed theories and methodologies. These methodologies enable organizations to increase their levels of efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. Based on these methodologies, lean manufacturing philosophy, which is based on the optimization of resources, waste disposal, and generation of value to products and services, was developed. Lean application has been massive globally, but Colombian companies have been made it incipiently. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify the impacts generated by the implementation of lean manufacturing tools in five companies located in Colombia and Medellín metropolitan area. It also seeks to make a comparison of the results obtained from the implementation of lean philosophy and Theory of Constraints. The methodology is qualitative and quantitative, is based on the case study interview from dialogue with the leaders of the processes that used lean tools. The most used tools by research companies are 5's with 100% and TPM with 80%. The less used tool is the synchronous production with 20%. The main reason for the implementation of lean was supply chain management with 83.3%. For the application of lean and TOC, we did not find significant differences between the impact, in terms of methodology, areas of application, staff initiatives, supply chain management, planning, and training.

Keywords: business strategy, lean manufacturing, theory of constraints, supply chain

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3212 Simulation of Lean Principles Impact in a Multi-Product Supply Chain

Authors: Matteo Rossini, Alberto Portioli Staudacher

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The market competition is moving from the single firm to the whole supply chain one because of increasing competition and growing need for operational efficiencies and customer orientation. Supply chain management allows companies to look beyond their organizational boundaries to develop and leverage resources and capabilities of their supply chain partners. This leads to create competitive advantages in the marketplace and because of this SCM has acquired strategic importance. Lean Approach is a management strategy that focuses on reducing every type of waste present in an organization. This approach is becoming more and more popular among supply chain managers. The supply chain application of lean approach is low diffused. It is not well studied which are the impacts of lean approach principles in a supply chain context. In literature there are only few studies simulating the lean approach performance in single products supply chain. This research work studies the impacts of lean principles implementation along a supply chain. To achieve this, a simulation model of a three-echelon multiproduct product supply chain has been built. Kanban system (and several priority policies) and setup time reduction degrees are implemented in the lean-configured supply chain to apply pull and lot-sizing decrease principles respectively. To evaluate the benefits of lean approach, lean supply chain is compared with an EOQ-configured supply chain. The simulation results show that Kanban system and setup-time reduction improve inventory stock level. They also show that logistics efforts are affected to lean implementation degree. The paper concludes describing performances of lean supply chain in different contexts.

Keywords: inventory policy, Kanban, lean supply chain, simulation study, supply chain management, planning

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3211 The Aspect of the Human Bias in Decision Making within Quality Management Systems and LEAN Theory

Authors: Adriana Avila Zuniga Nordfjeld

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This paper provides a literature review to document the state of the art with respect to handling 'human bias' in decision making within the established quality management systems (QMS) and LEAN theory, in the context of shipbuilding. Previous research shows that in shipbuilding there is a huge deviation from the planned man-hours under the project management to the actual man-hours used because of errors in planning and reworks caused by human bias in the information flows among others. This reduces the efficiency and increases operational costs. Thus, the research question is how QMS and LEAN handle biases. The findings show the gap in studying the integration of methods to handle human bias in decision making into QMS and lean, not only within shipbuilding but also in general. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed for researchers and practitioners in the areas of decision making QMS, LEAN, and future research is suggested.

Keywords: human bias, decision making, LEAN shipbuilding, quality management systems

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3210 An Evaluative Approach for Successful Implementation of Lean and Green Manufacturing in Indian SMEs

Authors: Satya S. N. Narayana, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan, N. Kannan

Abstract:

Enterprises adopt methodologies to increase their business performance and to stay competent in the volatile global market. Lean manufacturing is one such manufacturing paradigm which focuses on reduction of cost by elimination of wastes or non-value added activities. With increased awareness about social responsibility and the necessary to meet the terms of the environmental policy, green manufacturing is becoming increasingly important for industries. Large plants have more resources, have started implementing lean and green practices and they are getting good results. Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are facing problems in implementing lean and green concept. This paper aims to identify the key issues for implementation of lean and green concept in Indian SMEs. The key factors identified based on literature review and expert opinions are grouped into different levels by Modified Interpretive Structural Modeling (MISM) to explore the importance among the factors to implement lean and green manufacturing. Finally, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method has been used to determine the extent to which the main principles of lean and green manufacturing have been carried out in the six Indian medium scale manufacturing industries.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, green manufacturing, MISM, FANP

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3209 Simulating Lean and Green Correlation in Supply Chain Context

Authors: Rachid Benmoussa, Fatima Ezzahra Essaber, Roland De Guio, Fatima Zahra Ben Moussa

Abstract:

Implementing green practices in supply chain management is a complex task mainly because ecological, economical and operational goals are usually in conflict. Green practices might thus face companies’ reluctance because managers can consider its implementation obviously as a performance lean degradation. To implement lean and green practices successfully, companies need relevant decision-making tools to highlight the correlation between them. To contribute to this issue, this work tries to answer the following research question: How to use simulation to assess correlation (antagonism or convergence) between lean and green goals? To answer this question, we propose in this paper a based simulation process that measures correlation generally between two variables. So as to prove its relevance, a logistics academic case study is used to illustrate all its stages. It shows, as for example, that Lean goal 'Stock' and Green goal 'CO₂ emission' are not conceptually correlated (linearly).

Keywords: simulation, lean, green, supply chain

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3208 Implementation of Lean Management in Non-Governmental Organizations: A Case Study on WrocłAw Food Bank

Authors: Maciej Pieńkowski

Abstract:

Lean Management is nowadays one of the most dominating management concepts within industrial and service environment, providing compelling business benefits to many companies. At the same time, its application in the non-governmental organizations has not been extensively researched yet. Filling this gap will address clear necessity of efficient management system in NGO environment and significantly improve operational performance of many organizations. The goal of the research is to verify effectiveness of Lean Management implementation in the non-governmental organizations, based on Wrocław Food Bank case study. The case study describes a Lean Management implementation project within analyzed organization. During the project, Wrocław Food Bank went through full 5-step Lean Thinking processes, which consist of value identification, value stream mapping, creation of flow, establishing pull and seeking perfection. The research contains a detailed summary of each of those steps and provides with information regarding results of their implementation. The major findings of the study indicate, that application of Lean Management in NGO environment is possible, however physical implementation of its guidelines can be strongly impeded by multiple constraints, which non-governmental organizations are facing. Due to challenges like limited resources, project based activities and lack of traditional supplier-customer relationship, many NGOs may fail in their efforts to implement Lean Management. Successful Lean application requires therefore strong leadership commitment, which would drive transformation to remove barriers and obstacles.

Keywords: lean management, non-governmental organizations, continuous improvement, lean thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 204