Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 530

Search results for: quantum optics

530 Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models

Authors: Suren Chilingaryan


We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.

Keywords: quantum optics, quantum phase transition, cavity QED, circuit QED

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529 Regional Dynamics of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Optics and Photonics Industry

Authors: Mustafa İlhan Akbaş, Özlem Garibay, Ivan Garibay


The economic entities in innovation ecosystems form various industry clusters, in which they compete and cooperate to survive and grow. Within a successful and stable industry cluster, the entities acquire different roles that complement each other in the system. The universities and research centers have been accepted to have a critical role in these systems for the creation and development of innovations. However, the real effect of research institutions on regional economic growth is difficult to assess. In this paper, we present our approach for the identification of the impact of research activities on the regional entrepreneurship for a specific high-tech industry: optics and photonics. The optics and photonics has been defined as an enabling industry, which combines the high-tech photonics technology with the developing optics industry. The recent literature suggests that the growth of optics and photonics firms depends on three important factors: the embedded regional specializations in the labor market, the research and development infrastructure, and a dynamic small firm network capable of absorbing new technologies, products and processes. Therefore, the role of each factor and the dynamics among them must be understood to identify the requirements of the entrepreneurship activities in optics and photonics industry. There are three main contributions of our approach. The recent studies show that the innovation in optics and photonics industry is mostly located around metropolitan areas. There are also studies mentioning the importance of research center locations and universities in the regional development of optics and photonics industry. These studies are mostly limited with the number of patents received within a short period of time or some limited survey results. Therefore the first contribution of our approach is conducting a comprehensive analysis for the state and recent history of the photonics and optics research in the US. For this purpose, both the research centers specialized in optics and photonics and the related research groups in various departments of institutions (e.g. Electrical Engineering, Materials Science) are identified and a geographical study of their locations is presented. The second contribution of the paper is the analysis of regional entrepreneurship activities in optics and photonics in recent years. We use the membership data of the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) and the regional photonics clusters to identify the optics and photonics companies in the US. Then the profiles and activities of these companies are gathered by extracting and integrating the related data from the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database, ES-202 database and the data sets from the regional photonics clusters. The number of start-ups, their employee numbers and sales are some examples of the extracted data for the industry. Our third contribution is the utilization of collected data to investigate the impact of research institutions on the regional optics and photonics industry growth and entrepreneurship. In this analysis, the regional and periodical conditions of the overall market are taken into consideration while discovering and quantifying the statistical correlations.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, industrial clusters, optics, photonics, emerging industries, research centers

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
528 Flat-Top Apodization of Laser Beams by Means of Acousto-Optics

Authors: Sergey I. Chizhikov, Vladimir Y. Molchanov, Konstantin B. Yushkov


We demonstrate a method for adaptive spatial shaping of laser beams by means of acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. Transformation of the angular spectrum during Bragg diffraction is used to convert Gaussian intensity distribution into a flat-top one. Theoretical model is supported by the experiment.

Keywords: acousto-optics, flat top, beam shaping, Bragg diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
527 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh


Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
526 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta


Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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525 Dispersion Effects in Waves Reflected by Lossy Conductors: The Optics vs. Electromagnetics Approach

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda


The study of dispersion phenomena in electromagnetic waves reflected by conductors at infrared and lower frequencies is a topic which finds a number of applications. We aim to explain in this work what are the most relevant ones and how this phenomenon is modeled from both optics and electromagnetics points of view. We also explain here how the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave reflected by a lossy conductor could depend on both the frequency of the incident wave, as well as on the electrical properties of the conductor, and we illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example. The mathematical analysis made by a specialist in electromagnetics or a microwave engineer is apparently very different from the one made by a specialist in optics. We show here how both approaches lead to the same physical result and what are the key concepts which enable one to understand that despite the differences in the equations the solution to the problem happens to be the same. Our study starts with an analysis made by using the complex refractive index and the reflectance parameter. We show how this reflectance has a dependence with the square root of the frequency when the reflecting material is a good conductor, and the frequency of the wave is low enough. Then we analyze the same problem with a less known approach, which is based on the reflection coefficient of the electric field, a parameter that is most commonly used in electromagnetics and microwave engineering. In summary, this paper presents a mathematical study illustrated with a worked example which unifies the modeling of dispersion effects made by specialists in optics and the one made by specialists in electromagnetics. The main finding of this work is that it is possible to reproduce the dependence of the Fresnel reflectance with frequency from the intrinsic impedance of the reflecting media.

Keywords: dispersion, electromagnetic waves, microwaves, optics

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524 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation

Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu


Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.

Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonics

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523 Theoretical Study on the Nonlinear Optical Responses of Peptide Bonds Created between Alanine and Some Unnatural Amino Acids

Authors: S. N. Derrar, M. Sekkal-Rahal


The Nonlinear optics (NLO) technique is widely used in the field of biological imaging. In fact, grafting biological entities with a high NLO response on tissues and cells enhances the NLO responses of these latter, and ameliorates, consequently, their biological imaging quality. In this optics, we carried out a theoretical study, in the aim of analyzing the peptide bonds created between alanine amino acid and both unnatural amino acids: L-Dopa and Azatryptophan, respectively. Ramachandran plots have been performed for these systems, and their structural parameters have been analyzed. The NLO responses of these peptides have been reported by calculating the first hyperpolarizability values of all the minima found on the plots. The use of such unnatural amino acids as endogenous probing molecules has been investigated through this study. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been used for structural properties, while the Second-order Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2) has been employed for the NLO calculations.

Keywords: biological imaging, hyperpolarizability, nonlinear optics, probing molecule

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522 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
521 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems

Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi


The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.

Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting system

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
520 Identification of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Understand Image Formations through Virtual Objects in the Field of Geometric Optics and Development of a New Material to Exploit Virtual Objects

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt


The aim of the study is to develop materials for understanding image formations through virtual objects in geometric optics. The images in physics course books are formed by using real objects. This results in mistakes in the features of images because of generalizations which leads to conceptual misunderstandings in learning. In this study it was intended to identify pre-service physics teachers misunderstandings arising from false generalizations. Focused group interview was used as a qualitative method. The findings of the study show that students have several misconceptions such as "the image in a plain mirror is always virtual". However a real image can be formed in a plain mirror. To explain a virtual object's image formation in a more understandable way an overhead projector and episcope and their design was illustrated. The illustrations are original and several computer simulations will be suggested.

Keywords: computer simulations, geometric optics, physics education, students' misconceptions in physics

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519 Quantum Dots with Microwave Propagation in Future Quantum Internet Protocol for Mobile Telephony

Authors: A. B. R. Hazarika


In the present paper, Quantum dots of ZnS are used to study the faster microwave propagation in space and on earth which will be difficult to bypass as quantum key encryption-decryption is difficult to decode. The present study deals with Quantum internet protocol which is much faster, safer and secure in microwave propagation than the present Internet Protocol v6, which forms the aspect of our study. Assimilation of hardware, Quantum dots with Quantum protocol theory beautifies the aspect of the study. So far to author’s best knowledge, the study on mobile telephony with Quantum dots long-term evolution (QDLTE) has not been studied earlier, which forms the aspect of the study found that the Bitrate comes out to be 102.4 Gbps.

Keywords: encryption, decryption, internet protocol, microwave, mobile telephony, quantum key encryption, quantum dots

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518 Secure Optical Communication System Using Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ehab AbdulRazzaq Hussein


Quantum cryptography (QC) is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions. In contrast to classical cryptographic schemes, the security of QC schemes is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature. Their security stems from the impossibility to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states with certainty. A potential eavesdropper introduces errors in the transmissions, which can later be discovered by the legitimate participants of the communication. In this paper, the modeling approach is proposed for QC protocol BB84 using polarization coding. The single-photon system is assumed to be used in the designed models. Thus, Eve cannot use beam-splitting strategy to eavesdrop on the quantum channel transmission. The only eavesdropping strategy possible to Eve is the intercept/resend strategy. After quantum transmission of the QC protocol, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is estimated and compared with a threshold value. If it is above this value the procedure must be stopped and performed later again.

Keywords: security, key distribution, cryptography, quantum protocols, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).

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517 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira


Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

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516 Network Connectivity Knowledge Graph Using Dwave Quantum Hybrid Solvers

Authors: Nivedha Rajaram


Hybrid Quantum solvers have been given prime focus in recent days by computation problem-solving domain industrial applications. D’Wave Quantum Computers are one such paragon of systems built using quantum annealing mechanism. Discrete Quadratic Models is a hybrid quantum computing model class supplied by D’Wave Ocean SDK - a real-time software platform for hybrid quantum solvers. These hybrid quantum computing modellers can be employed to solve classic problems. One such problem that we consider in this paper is finding a network connectivity knowledge hub in a huge network of systems. Using this quantum solver, we try to find out the prime system hub, which acts as a supreme connection point for the set of connected computers in a large network. This paper establishes an innovative problem approach to generate a connectivity system hub plot for a set of systems using DWave ocean SDK hybrid quantum solvers.

Keywords: quantum computing, hybrid quantum solver, DWave annealing, network knowledge graph

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515 Quantum Entangled States and Image Processing

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Sushil Kumar, Rashmi Jain


Quantum registering is another pattern in computational hypothesis and a quantum mechanical framework has a few helpful properties like Entanglement. We plan to store data concerning the structure and substance of a basic picture in a quantum framework. Consider a variety of n qubits which we propose to use as our memory stockpiling. In recent years classical processing is switched to quantum image processing. Quantum image processing is an elegant approach to overcome the problems of its classical counter parts. Image storage, retrieval and its processing on quantum machines is an emerging area. Although quantum machines do not exist in physical reality but theoretical algorithms developed based on quantum entangled states gives new insights to process the classical images in quantum domain. Here in the present work, we give the brief overview, such that how entangled states can be useful for quantum image storage and retrieval. We discuss the properties of tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states and their usefulness to store the shapes which may consist three vertices. We also propose the techniques to store shapes having more than three vertices.

Keywords: Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, image storage and retrieval, quantum entanglement, W states

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514 Impact of Different Modulation Techniques on the Performance of Free-Space Optics

Authors: Naman Singla, Ajay Pal Singh Chauhan


As the demand for providing high bit rate and high bandwidth is increasing at a rapid rate so there is a need to see in this problem and finds a technology that provides high bit rate and also high bandwidth. One possible solution is by use of optical fiber. Optical fiber technology provides high bandwidth in THz. But the disadvantage of optical fiber is of high cost and not used everywhere because it is not possible to reach all the locations on the earth. Also high maintenance required for usage of optical fiber. It puts a lot of cost. Another technology which is almost similar to optical fiber is Free Space Optics (FSO) technology. FSO is the line of sight technology where modulated optical beam whether infrared or visible is used to transfer information from one point to another through the atmosphere which works as a channel. This paper concentrates on analyzing the performance of FSO in terms of bit error rate (BER) and quality factor (Q) using different modulation techniques like non return to zero on off keying (NRZ-OOK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) using OptiSystem software. The findings of this paper show that FSO system based on DQPSK modulation technique performs better.

Keywords: attenuation, bit rate, free space optics, link length

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513 Tailoring the Parameters of the Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

Authors: Jaskarn Singh Bhullar, Divya Taneja, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Narula


The existence conditions of dual containing constacyclic codes have opened a new path for finding quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes. Using these conditions parameters of length n=(q²+1)/2 quantum MDS codes were improved. A class of quantum MDS codes of length n=(q²+q+1)/h, where h>1 is an odd prime, have also been constructed having large minimum distance and these codes are new in the sense as these are not available in the literature.

Keywords: hermitian construction, constacyclic codes, cyclotomic cosets, quantum MDS codes, singleton bound

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512 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

Authors: Natarajan Venkatachalam, Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao, Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani, Swaminathan Saravanavel


The quantum communication technology is an evolving design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices will increase immensely making them an integral part of present communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of information through quantum channel which gives better solutions for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight, scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing overheads.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, wireless quantum communication, authentication protocol, quantum enabled device, trusted third party

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511 Quantum Technologies, the Practical Challenges to It, and Ideas to Build an Inclusive Quantum Platform, Shoonya Ecosystem (Zero-Point Energy)

Authors: Partha Pratim Kalita


As sound can be converted to light, light can also be deduced to sound. There are technologies to convert light to sound, but there are not many technologies related to the field where sound can be converted to a distinct vibrational sequence of light. Like the laws under which the principles of sound work, there are principles for the light to become quantum in nature. Thus, as we move from sound to the subtler aspects of light, we are moving from 3D to 5D. Either we will be making technologies of 3D in today’s world, or we will be really interested in making technologies of the 5D, depends on our understanding of how quantum 5D works. Right now, the entire world is talking about quantum, which is about the nature and behavior of subatomic particles, which is 5D. In practice, they are using metals and machines based on atomic structures. If we talk of quantum without taking note of the technologies of 5D and beyond, we will only be reinterpreting relative theories in the name of quantum. This paper, therefore, will explore the possibilities of moving towards quantum in its real essence with the Shoonya ecosystem (zero-point energy). In this context, the author shall highlight certain working models developed by him, which are currently in discussion with the Indian government.

Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum technologies, healthcare, shoonya ecosystem, energy, human consciousness

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510 Portfolio Risk Management Using Quantum Annealing

Authors: Thomas Doutre, Emmanuel De Meric De Bellefon


This paper describes the application of local-search metaheuristic quantum annealing to portfolio opti- mization. Heuristic technics are particularly handy when Markowitz’ classical Mean-Variance problem is enriched with additional realistic constraints. Once tailored to the problem, computational experiments on real collected data have shown the superiority of quantum annealing over simulated annealing for this constrained optimization problem, taking advantages of quantum effects such as tunnelling.

Keywords: optimization, portfolio risk management, quantum annealing, metaheuristic

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509 An Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Li Dan, Zhao Junsuo, Zhang Wenjun


Aiming at the shortcomings of the Quantum Genetic Algorithm such as the multimodal function optimization problems easily falling into the local optimum, and vulnerable to premature convergence due to no closely relationship between individuals, the paper presents an Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IMWQGA). The paper using the concept of Many Worlds; using the derivative way of parallel worlds’ parallel evolution; putting forward the thought which updating the population according to the main body; adopting the transition methods such as parallel transition, backtracking, travel forth. In addition, the algorithm in the paper also proposes the quantum training operator and the combinatorial optimization operator as new operators of quantum genetic algorithm.

Keywords: quantum genetic algorithm, many worlds, quantum training operator, combinatorial optimization operator

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508 Deep Reinforcement Learning Model Using Parameterised Quantum Circuits

Authors: Lokes Parvatha Kumaran S., Sakthi Jay Mahenthar C., Sathyaprakash P., Jayakumar V., Shobanadevi A.


With the evolution of technology, the need to solve complex computational problems like machine learning and deep learning has shot up. But even the most powerful classical supercomputers find it difficult to execute these tasks. With the recent development of quantum computing, researchers and tech-giants strive for new quantum circuits for machine learning tasks, as present works on Quantum Machine Learning (QML) ensure less memory consumption and reduced model parameters. But it is strenuous to simulate classical deep learning models on existing quantum computing platforms due to the inflexibility of deep quantum circuits. As a consequence, it is essential to design viable quantum algorithms for QML for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. The proposed work aims to explore Variational Quantum Circuits (VQC) for Deep Reinforcement Learning by remodeling the experience replay and target network into a representation of VQC. In addition, to reduce the number of model parameters, quantum information encoding schemes are used to achieve better results than the classical neural networks. VQCs are employed to approximate the deep Q-value function for decision-making and policy-selection reinforcement learning with experience replay and the target network.

Keywords: quantum computing, quantum machine learning, variational quantum circuit, deep reinforcement learning, quantum information encoding scheme

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507 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: Nour Hassan Ismail, Abdelmonem Nassar, Khaled Baz


Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper, new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: quantum dots, nano-particles, LSPR

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506 Application of Compressed Sensing Method for Compression of Quantum Data

Authors: M. Kowalski, M. Życzkowski, M. Karol


Current quantum key distribution systems (QKD) offer low bit rate of up to single MHz. Compared to conventional optical fiber links with multiple GHz bitrates, parameters of recent QKD systems are significantly lower. In the article we present the conception of application of the Compressed Sensing method for compression of quantum information. The compression methodology as well as the signal reconstruction method and initial results of improving the throughput of quantum information link are presented.

Keywords: quantum key distribution systems, fiber optic system, compressed sensing

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505 CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene

Authors: Zhengyu Yan, Yan Yu, Jianqiu Chen


A novel sensing system has been designed for naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism. Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as 97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.

Keywords: CdS quantum dots, modification, detection, naphthalene

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504 Autonomous Quantum Competitive Learning

Authors: Mohammed A. Zidan, Alaa Sagheer, Nasser Metwally


Real-time learning is an important goal that most of artificial intelligence researches try to achieve it. There are a lot of problems and applications which require low cost learning such as learn a robot to be able to classify and recognize patterns in real time and real-time recall. In this contribution, we suggest a model of quantum competitive learning based on a series of quantum gates and additional operator. The proposed model enables to recognize any incomplete patterns, where we can increase the probability of recognizing the pattern at the expense of the undesired ones. Moreover, these undesired ones could be utilized as new patterns for the system. The proposed model is much better compared with classical approaches and more powerful than the current quantum competitive learning approaches.

Keywords: competitive learning, quantum gates, quantum gates, winner-take-all

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503 Experimental Device for Fluorescence Measurement by Optical Fiber Combined with Dielectrophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Chips

Authors: Jan Jezek, Zdenek Pilat, Filip Smatlo, Pavel Zemanek


We present a device that combines fluorescence spectroscopy with fiber optics and dielectrophoretic micromanipulation in PDMS (poly-(dimethylsiloxane)) microfluidic chips. The device allows high speed detection (in the order of kHz) of the fluorescence signal, which is coming from the sample by an inserted optical fiber, e.g. from a micro-droplet flow in a microfluidic chip, or even from the liquid flowing in the transparent capillary, etc. The device uses a laser diode at a wavelength suitable for excitation of fluorescence, excitation and emission filters, optics for focusing the laser radiation into the optical fiber, and a highly sensitive fast photodiode for detection of fluorescence. The device is combined with dielectrophoretic sorting on a chip for sorting of micro-droplets according to their fluorescence intensity. The electrodes are created by lift-off technology on a glass substrate, or by using channels filled with a soft metal alloy or an electrolyte. This device found its use in screening of enzymatic reactions and sorting of individual fluorescently labelled microorganisms. The authors acknowledge the support from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA16-07965S) and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LO1212) together with the European Commission (ALISI No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0017).

Keywords: dielectrophoretic sorting, fiber optics, laser, microfluidic chips, microdroplets, spectroscopy

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502 Wireless Optic Last Mile Multi-Gbit/s Communication System

Authors: Manea Viorel, Puscoci Sorin, Stoichescu Dan Alexandru


Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical telecommunication system that uses laser beam to transmit data at high bit rates via terrestrial atmosphere. This article describes a method to obtain higher bit rates, under unfavorable weather conditions using multiple optical beams, which carry information with low optical power. Optical link quality assessment is given by the attenuation on different weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to compare two transmission techniques: mono and multi beam, both affected by atmospheric attenuation, using OOK and L-PPM modulation. Link availability is evaluated using eye-diagram that provides information about the overall bit error rate of the system.

Keywords: free space optics, wireless optic, laser communication, spatial diversity

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501 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

Authors: H. Paredes Gutiérrez, S. T. Pérez-Merchancano


Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

Keywords: quantum semiconductors, nanostructures, quantum dots, spin polarization

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