Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5237

Search results for: quantum phase transition

5237 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
5236 Pressure Induced Phase Transition of Semiconducting Alloy TlxGa1-xAs

Authors: Madhu Sarwan, Ritu Dubey, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

We have investigated the structural phase transition from Zinc-Blende (ZB) to Rock-Salt (RS) structure of TlxGa1-xAs by using Interaction Potential Model (IPM). The IPM consists of Coulomb interaction, Three-Body Interaction (TBI), Van Der Wall (vdW) interaction and overlap repulsive short range interaction. The structural phase transition has been computed by using the vegard’s law. The volume collapse is also computed for this alloy. We have also investigated the second order elastic constants with composition for the alloy TlxGa1-xAs.

Keywords: III-V alloy, elastic moduli, phase transition, semiconductors

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
5235 Thermodynamics during the Deconfining Phase Transition

Authors: Amal Ait El Djoudi

Abstract:

A thermodynamical model of coexisting hadronic and quark–gluon plasma (QGP) phases is used to study the thermally driven deconfining phase transition occurring between the two phases. A color singlet partition function is calculated for the QGP phase with two massless quarks, as in our previous work, but now the finite extensions of the hadrons are taken into account in the equation of state of the hadronic phase. In the present work, the finite-size effects on the system are examined by probing the behavior of some thermodynamic quantities, called response functions, as order parameter, energy density and their derivatives, on a range of temperature around the transition at different volumes. It turns out that the finiteness of the system size has as effects the rounding of the transition and the smearing of all the singularities occurring in the thermodynamic limit, and the additional finite-size effect introduced by the requirement of exact color-singletness involves a shift of the transition point. This shift as well as the smearing of the transition region and the maxima of both susceptibility and specific heat show a scaling behavior with the volume characterized by scaling exponents. Another striking result is the large similarity noted between the behavior of these response functions and that of the cumulants of the probability density. This similarity is worked to try to extract information concerning the occurring phase transition.

Keywords: equation of state, thermodynamics, deconfining phase transition, quark–gluon plasma (QGP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
5234 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: phase transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
5233 Superconductor-Insulator Transition in Disordered Spin-1/2 Systems

Authors: E. Cuevas, M. Feigel'man, L. Ioffe, M. Mezard

Abstract:

The origin of continuous energy spectrum in large disordered interacting quantum systems is one of the key unsolved problems in quantum physics. While small quantum systems with discrete energy levels are noiseless and stay coherent forever in the absence of any coupling to external world, most large-scale quantum systems are able to produce thermal bath, thermal transport and excitation decay. This intrinsic decoherence is manifested by a broadening of energy levels which acquire a finite width. The important question is: What is the driving force and mechanism of transition(s) between two different types of many-body systems - with and without decoherence and thermal transport? Here, we address this question via two complementary approaches applied to the same model of quantum spin-1/2 system with XY-type exchange interaction and random transverse field. Namely, we develop analytical theory for this spin model on a Bethe lattice and implement numerical study of exact level statistics for the same spin model on random graph. This spin model is relevant to the study of pseudogaped superconductivity and S-I transition in some amorphous materials.

Keywords: strongly correlated electrons, quantum phase transitions, superconductor, insulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
5232 Enhancement of Mechanical and Biological Properties in Wollastonite Bioceramics by MgSiO3 Addition

Authors: Jae Hong Kim, Sang Cheol Um, Jong Kook Lee

Abstract:

Strong and biocompatible wollastonite (CaSiO3) was fabricated by pressureless sintering at temperature range of 1250~ 1300 ℃ and phase transition of to β-wollastonite with an addition of MgSiO3. Starting pure α-wollastonite powder were prepared by solid state reaction, and MgSiO3 powder was added to α-wollastonite powder to induce the phase transition α to β-wollastonite over 1250℃. Sintered wollastonite samples at 1250℃ with 5 and 10 wt% MgSiO3 were α+β phase and β phase respectively, and showed higher densification rate than that of α or β-wollastonite, which are almost the same as the theoretical density. Hardness and Young’s modulus of sintered wollastonite were dependent on the apparent density and the amount of β-wollastonite. Young’s modulus (78GPa) of β-wollastonite added 10 wt% MgSiO3 was almost double time of sintered α-wollastonite. From the in-vitro test, biphasic (α+β) wollastonite with 5wt% MgSiO3 addition had good bioactivity in simulated body fluid solution.

Keywords: β-wollastonite, high density, MgSiO3, phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
5231 The Influence of Structural Disorder and Phonon on Metal-To-Insulator Transition of VO₂

Authors: Sang-Wook Han, In-Hui Hwang, Zhenlan Jin, Chang-In Park

Abstract:

We used temperature-dependent X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements to examine the local structural properties around vanadium atoms at the V K edge from VO₂ films. A direct comparison of simultaneously-measured resistance and XAFS from the VO₂ films showed that the thermally-driven structural phase transition (SPT) occurred prior to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) during heating, whereas these changed simultaneously during cooling. XAFS revealed a significant increase in the Debye-Waller factors of the V-O and V-V pairs in the {111} direction of the R-phase VO₂ due to the phonons of the V-V arrays along the direction in a metallic phase. A substantial amount of structural disorder existing on the V-V pairs along the c-axis in both M₁ and R phases indicates the structural instability of V-V arrays in the axis. The anomalous structural disorder observed on all atomic sites at the SPT prevents the migration of the V 3d¹ electrons, resulting in a Mott insulator in the M₂-phase VO₂. The anomalous structural disorder, particularly, at vanadium sites, effectively affects the migration of metallic electrons, resulting in the Mott insulating properties in M₂ phase and a non-congruence of the SPT, MIT, and local density of state. The thermally-induced phonons in the {111} direction assist the delocalization of the V 3d¹ electrons in the R phase VO₂ and the electrons likely migrate via the V-V array in the {111} direction as well as the V-V dimerization along the c-axis. This study clarifies that the tetragonal symmetry is essentially important for the metallic phase in VO₂.

Keywords: metal-insulator transition, XAFS, VO₂, structural-phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
5230 Coexistence of Superconductivity and Spin Density Wave in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

Authors: Tadesse Desta Gidey, Gebregziabher Kahsay, Pooran Singh

Abstract:

This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and Spin Density Wave (SDW)in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and by using quantum field theory Green’s function formalism, we have obtained mathematical expressions for superconducting transition temperature TC), spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), superconductivity order parameter (Sc), and spin density wave order parameter (sdw). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature (TC) versus superconducting order parameter (Sc) and spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), versus spin density wave order parameter (sdw) have been plotted. By combining the two phase diagrams, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and spin density wave (SDW) in ferropnictide Ba1−xKxFe2As2.

Keywords: Superconductivity, Spin density wave, Coexistence, Green function, Pnictides, Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
5229 Cellular Automata Model for Car Accidents at a Signalized Intersection

Authors: Rachid Marzoug, Noureddine Lakouari, Beatriz Castillo Téllez, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Gerardo Alberto Mejía Pérez

Abstract:

This paper developed a two-lane cellular automata model to explain the relationship between car accidents at a signalized intersection and traffic-related parameters. It is found that the increase of the lane-changing probability P?ₕ? increases the risk of accidents, besides, the inflow α and the probability of accidents Pₐ? exhibit a nonlinear relationship. Furthermore, depending on the inflow, Pₐ? exhibits three different phases. The transition from phase I to phase II is of first (second) order when P?ₕ?=0 (P?ₕ?>0). However, the system exhibits a second (first) order transition from phase II to phase III when P?ₕ?=0 (P?ₕ?>0). In addition, when the inflow is not very high, the green light length of one road should be increased to improve road safety. Finally, simulation results show that the traffic at the intersection is safer adopting symmetric lane-changing rules than asymmetric ones.

Keywords: two-lane intersection, accidents, fatality risk, lane-changing, phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
5228 Anonymous Gel-Fluid Transition of Solid Supported Lipids

Authors: Asma Poursoroush

Abstract:

Solid-supported lipid bilayers are often used as a simple model for studies of biological membranes. The presence of a solid substrate that interacts attractively with lipid head-groups is expected to affect the phase behavior of the supported bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model are thus performed to investigate the phase behavior of supported one-component lipid bilayer membranes. Our results show that the attraction of the lipid head groups to the substrate leads to a phase behavior that is different from that of a free standing lipid bilayer. In particular, we found that the phase behaviors of the two leaflets are decoupled in the presence of a substrate. The proximal leaflet undergoes a clear gel-to-fluid phase transition at a temperature lower than that of a free standing bilayer, and that decreases with increasing strength of the substrate-lipid attraction. The distal leaflet, however, undergoes a change from a homogeneous liquid phase at high temperatures to a heterogeneous state consisting of small liquid and gel domains, with the average size of the gel domains that increases with decreasing temperature. While the chain order parameter of the proximal leaflet clearly shows a gel-fluid phase transition, the chain order parameter of the distal leaflet does not exhibit a clear phase transition. The decoupling in the phase behavior of the two leaflets is due to a non-symmteric lipid distribution in the two leaflets resulting from the presence of the substrate.

Keywords: membrane, substrate, molecular dynamics, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
5227 Crystal Structures and High-Temperature Phase Transitions of the New Ordered Double Perovskites SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6

Authors: Asmaa Zaraq

Abstract:

In the present work we report X-ray powder diffraction measurements of SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, at different temperatures. The crystal structures at room temperature of both compounds are determined; and results showing the existence of high-temperature phase transitions in them are presented. Both compounds have double perovskite structure with 1:1 ordered arrangement of the B site cations. At room temperature their symmetries are described with the P21/n space group, that correspond to the (a+b-b-) tilt system. The evolution with temperature of the structure of both compounds shows the presence of three phase transitions: a continuous one, at 450 and 500 K, a discontinuous one, at 700 and 775 K, and a continuous one at 900 and 950 K for SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, respectively with the following phase-transition sequence: P21/n → I2/m → I4/m → Fm-3m.

Keywords: double perovskites, caracterisation DRX, transition de phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
5226 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam

Abstract:

Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5225 Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models

Authors: Suren Chilingaryan

Abstract:

We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.

Keywords: quantum optics, quantum phase transition, cavity QED, circuit QED

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5224 An Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Li Dan, Zhao Junsuo, Zhang Wenjun

Abstract:

Aiming at the shortcomings of the Quantum Genetic Algorithm such as the multimodal function optimization problems easily falling into the local optimum, and vulnerable to premature convergence due to no closely relationship between individuals, the paper presents an Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IMWQGA). The paper using the concept of Many Worlds; using the derivative way of parallel worlds’ parallel evolution; putting forward the thought which updating the population according to the main body; adopting the transition methods such as parallel transition, backtracking, travel forth. In addition, the algorithm in the paper also proposes the quantum training operator and the combinatorial optimization operator as new operators of quantum genetic algorithm.

Keywords: quantum genetic algorithm, many worlds, quantum training operator, combinatorial optimization operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 640
5223 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
5222 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

Abstract:

The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

Procedia PDF Downloads 656
5221 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic GaBi

Authors: M. Zemouli, K. Amara, M. Elkeurti, Y. Benallou

Abstract:

We present the molecular dynamic simulations results of the structural and dynamical properties of the zinc-blende GaBi over a wide range of temperature (300-1000) K. Our simulation where performed in the framework of the three-body Tersoff potential, which accurately reproduces the lattice constants and elastic constants of the GaBi. A good agreement was found between our calculated results and the available theoretical data of the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and the cohesive energy. Our study allows us to predict the thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: Gallium compounds, molecular dynamics simulations, interatomic potential thermodynamic properties, structural phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
5220 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic AlBi

Authors: M. Zemouli, K. Amara, M. Elkeurti, Y. Benallou

Abstract:

We present a theoretical study of the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the zinc-blende AlBi for a wide temperature range. The simulation calculation is performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using the three-body Tersoff potential which reproduces provide, with reasonable accuracy, the lattice constants and elastic constants. Our results for the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are in good agreement with other theoretical available works. Other thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion can also be predicted. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: aluminium compounds, molecular dynamics simulations, interatomic potential, thermodynamic properties, structural phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5219 Assessment of Exploitation Vulnerability of Quantum Communication Systems with Phase Encryption

Authors: Vladimir V. Nikulin, Bekmurza H. Aitchanov, Olimzhon A. Baimuratov

Abstract:

Quantum communication technology takes advantage of the intrinsic properties of laser carriers, such as very high data rates and low power requirements, to offer unprecedented data security. Quantum processes at the physical layer of encryption are used for signal encryption with very competitive performance characteristics. The ultimate range of applications for QC systems spans from fiber-based to free-space links and from secure banking operations to mobile airborne and space-borne networking where they are subjected to channel distortions. Under practical conditions, the channel can alter the optical wave front characteristics, including its phase. In addition, phase noise of the communication source and photo-detection noises alter the signal to bring additional ambiguity into the measurement process. If quantized values of photons are used to encrypt the signal, exploitation of quantum communication links becomes extremely difficult. In this paper, we present the results of analysis and simulation studies of the effects of noise on phase estimation for quantum systems with different number of encryption bases and operating at different power levels.

Keywords: encryption, phase distortion, quantum communication, quantum noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
5218 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: R. Dubey, M. Sarwan, S. Singh

Abstract:

We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: elastic constants, high pressure, phase transition, rare earth compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
5217 Enthalpies of Formation of Equiatomic Binary Hafnium Transition Metal Compounds HfM (M=Co, Ir, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru)

Authors: Hadda Krarcha, S. Messaasdi

Abstract:

In order to investigate Hafnium transition metal alloys HfM (M= Co, Ir, Os,Pt, Rh, Ru) phase diagrams in the region of 50/50% atomic ratio, we performed ab initio Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves calculations of the enthalpies of formation of HfM compounds at B2 (CsCl) structure type. The obtained enthalpies of formation are discussed and compared to some of the existing models and available experimental data.

Keywords: enthalpy of formation, transition metal, binarry compunds, hafnium

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
5216 Microstructural Origin of Morphotropic Phase Boundary and Magnetic Ordering in the Multiferroic BiFeO3-PbTiO3

Authors: Bastola Narayan, Rajeev Ranjan

Abstract:

The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the magnetoelectric (1-x)BiFeO3-(x)PbTiO3 has remained a matter of controversy ever since its discovery in 1964. The nature of the phase stabilized (single phase tetragonal or coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases) is very sensitive to the slight changes in the synthesis conditions. It thus remained an enigma as to what is the essential physical factor which is controlled by the slight difference in the synthesis conditions that finally determines, whether the phase formed will be single phase or coexistence of phases. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nature of the phase stabilized in this system is uniquely dependent on the crystallite size. The system is shown to exhibit features of abnormal grain growth (AGG) during sintering with abrupt increase in the grain size from ~ 1 micron to ~ 10 microns. The 10 micron grains exhibit pure tetragonal phase while the 1 micron grains exhibit coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal ferroelectric phases. The Rietveld analysis of powder neutron diffraction shows a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic order transition inducing with crystalline size reduction from 10 micron to 1 micron. Since tetragonal phase is known to have paramagnetic order and rhombohedral phase has antiferromagnetic order in room temperature, this further strengthens our argument of size induced structure transition.

Keywords: size driven MPB, size driven magnetic ordering, abnormal grain growth, phase formation in BF-PT system

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5215 Effect of Yttrium Doping on Properties of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ (Bi-2202) Cuprate Ceramics

Authors: Y. Boudjadja, A. Amira, A. Saoudel, A. Varilci, S. P. Altintas, C. Terzioglu

Abstract:

In this work, we report the effect of Y3+ doping on structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Bi-2202 phase. Samples of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 are elaborated in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDS spectroscopy, density, Vickers micro-hardness and resistivity measurements. A good correlation between the variations of the bulk density and the Vickers micro-hardness with doping is obtained. The SEM photograph shows that the samples are composed of grains with a flat shape that characterizes the Bi-based cuprates. Quantitative EDS analysis confirms the reduction of Ca content and the increase of Y content when x is increased. The variation of resistivity with temperature shows that only samples with x = 0, 0.025 and 0.05 present an onset transition to the superconducting state. The higher onset transition temperature is obtained for x = 0.025 and is about 93.62 K. The transition is wide and is realized in two steps confirming then the presence of the low Tc Bi-2201 phase in the samples. For x = 0.075 and 0.1, a transition to a semiconducting state is seen at low temperatures. Some physical parameters are extracted from these curves and discussed.

Keywords: Bi-2202 phase, doping, structure, mechanical and electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
5214 On the Quantum Behavior of Nanoparticles: Quantum Theory and Nano-Pharmacology

Authors: Kurudzirayi Robson Musikavanhu

Abstract:

Nanophase particles exhibit quantum behavior by virtue of their small size, being particles of gamma to x-ray wavelength [atomic range]. Such particles exhibit high frequencies, high energy/photon, high penetration power, high ionization power [atomic behavior] and are stable at low energy levels as opposed to bulk phase matter [macro particles] which exhibit higher wavelength [radio wave end] properties, hence lower frequency, lower energy/photon, lower penetration power, lower ionizing power and are less stable at low temperatures. The ‘unique’ behavioral motion of Nano systems will remain a mystery as long as quantum theory remains a mystery, and for pharmacology, pharmacovigilance profiling of Nano systems becomes virtually impossible. Quantum theory is the 4 – 3 – 5 electromagnetic law of life and life motion systems on planet earth. Electromagnetic [wave-particle] properties of all particulate matter changes as mass [bulkiness] changes from one phase to the next [Nano-phase to micro-phase to milli-phase to meter-phase to kilometer phase etc.] and the subsequent electromagnetic effect of one phase particle on bulk matter [different phase] changes from one phase to another. All matter exhibit electromagnetic properties [wave-particle duality] in behavior and the lower the wavelength [and the lesser the bulkiness] the higher the gamma ray end properties exhibited and the higher the wavelength [and the greater the bulkiness], the more the radio-wave end properties are exhibited. Quantum theory is the 4 [moon] – 3[sun] – [earth] 5 law of the Electromagnetic spectrum [solar system]. 4 + 3 = 7; 4 + 3 + 5 = 12; 4 * 3 * 5 = 60; 42 + 32 = 52; 43 + 33 + 53 = 63. Quantum age is overdue.

Keywords: electromagnetic solar system, nano-material, nano pharmacology, pharmacovigilance, quantum theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
5213 Structural and Phase Transformations of Pure and Silica Treated Nanofibrous Al₂O₃

Authors: T. H. N. Nguyen, A. Khodan, M. Amamra, J-V. Vignes, A. Kanaev

Abstract:

The ultraporous nanofibrous alumina (NOA, Al2O3·nH2O) was synthesized by oxidation of laminated aluminium plates through a liquid mercury-silver layer in a humid atmosphere ~80% at 25°C. The material has an extremely high purity (99%), porosity (90%) and specific area (300 m2/g). The subsequent annealing of raw NOA permits obtaining pure transition phase (γ and θ) nanostructured materials. In this combination, we report on chemical, structural and phase transformations of pure and modified NOA by an impregnation of trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) during thermal annealing in the temperature range between 20 and 1650°C. The mass density, specific area, average diameter and specific area are analysed. The 3D model of pure NOA monoliths and silica modified NOA is proposed, which successfully describes the evolution of specific area, mass density and phase transformations. Activation energies of the mass transport in two regimes of surface diffusion and bulk sintering were obtained based on this model. We conclude about a common origin of modifications of the NOA morphology, chemical composition and phase transition.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, alumina (Al₂O₃), morphology, phase transitions

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
5212 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5211 Observation of a Phase Transition in Adsorbed Hydrogen at 101 Kelvin

Authors: Raina J. Olsen, Andrew K. Gillespie, John W. Taylor, Cristian I. Contescu, Peter Pfeifer, James R. Morris

Abstract:

While adsorbent surfaces such as graphite are known to increase the melting temperature of solid H2, this effect is normally rather small, increasing to 20 Kelvin (K) relative to 14 K in the bulk. An as-yet unidentified phase transition has been observed in a system of H2 adsorbed in a porous, locally graphitic, Saran carbon with sub-nanometer sized pores at temperatures (74-101 K) and pressures ( > 76 bar) well above the critical point of bulk H2 using hydrogen adsorption and neutron scattering experiments. Adsorption data shows a discontinuous pressure jump in the kinetics at 76 bar after nearly an hour of equilibration time, which is identified as an exothermic phase transition. This discontinuity is observed in the 87 K isotherm, but not the 77 K isotherm. At higher pressures, the measured isotherms show greater excess adsorption at 87 K than 77 K. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements also show a striking phase transition, with the amount of high angle scattering (corresponding to large momentum transfer/ large effective mass) increasing by up to a factor of 5 in the novel phase. During the course of the neutron scattering experiment, three of these reversible spectral phase transitions were observed to occur in response to only changes in sample temperature. The novel phase was observed by neutron scattering only at high H2 pressure (123 bar and 187 bar) and temperatures between 74-101 K in the sample of interest, but not at low pressure (30 bar), or in a control activated carbon at 186 bar of H2 pressure. Based on several of the more unusual observations, such as the slow equilibration and the presence of both an upper and lower temperature bound, a reasonable hypothesis is that this phase forms only in the presence of a high concentration of ortho-H2 (nuclear spin S=1). The increase in adsorption with temperature, temperatures which cross the lower temperature bound observed by neutron scattering, indicates that this novel phase is denser. Structural characterization data on the adsorbent shows that it may support a commensurate solid phase denser than those known to exist on graphite at much lower temperatures. Whatever this phase is eventually proven to be, these results show that surfaces can have a more striking effect on hydrogen phases than previously thought.

Keywords: adsorbed phases, hydrogen, neutron scattering, nuclear spin

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
5210 Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure

Authors: Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Ze Xiang Shen

Abstract:

The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.

Keywords: 2D TMDs, electronic property, high pressure, first-principles calculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
5209 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation

Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu

Abstract:

Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.

Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
5208 Quantum Statistical Mechanical Formulations of Three-Body Problems via Non-Local Potentials

Authors: A. Maghari, V. M. Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a quantum statistical mechanical formulation from our recently analytical expressions for partial-wave transition matrix of a three-particle system. We report the quantum reactive cross sections for three-body scattering processes 1 + (2,3)-> 1 + (2,3) as well as recombination 1 + (2,3) -> 2 + (3,1) between one atom and a weakly-bound dimer. The analytical expressions of three-particle transition matrices and their corresponding cross-sections were obtained from the three-dimensional Faddeev equations subjected to the rank-two non-local separable potentials of the generalized Yamaguchi form. The equilibrium quantum statistical mechanical properties such partition function and equation of state as well as non-equilibrium quantum statistical properties such as transport cross-sections and their corresponding transport collision integrals were formulated analytically. This leads to obtain the transport properties, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient of a moderate dense gas.

Keywords: statistical mechanics, nonlocal separable potential, three-body interaction, faddeev equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 315