Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2573

Search results for: quantitative easing

2573 Consequences of Transformation of Modern Monetary Policy during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Aleksandra Szunke

Abstract:

Monetary policy is an important pillar of the economy, directly affecting on the condition of banking sector. Depending on the strategy may both support functioning of banking institutions, as well as limit their excessively risky activities. The literature studies indicate a large number of publications, which include characteristics of initiatives, implemented by central banks during the global financial crisis and the potential effects of the use of non-standard monetary policy instruments. However, the empirical evidence about their effects and real consequences for the financial markets are still not final. Even before the escalation of instability, Bernanke, Reinhart, and Sack (2004) analyzed the effectiveness of various unconventional monetary tools in lowering long-term interest rates in the United States and Japan. The obtained results largely confirmed the effectiveness of the zero-interest-rate policy and Quantitative Easing (QE) in achieving the goal of reducing long-term interest rates. Japan, considered as the precursor of QE policy, also conducted research about the consequences of non-standard instruments, implemented to restore financial stability of the country. Although the literature about the effectiveness of Quantitative Easing in Japan is extensive, it does not uniquely specify whether it brought permanent effects. The main aim of the study is to identify the implications of non-standard monetary policy, implemented by selected central banks (the Federal Reserve System, Bank of England and European Central Bank), paying particular attention to the consequences into three areas: the size of money supply, financial markets, and the real economy.

Keywords: consequences of modern monetary policy, quantitative easing policy, banking sector instability, global financial crisis

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2572 Using a Quantitative Reasoning Framework to Help Students Understand Arc Measure Relationships

Authors: David Glassmeyer

Abstract:

Quantitative reasoning is necessary to robustly understand mathematical concepts ranging from elementary to university levels. Quantitative reasoning involves identifying and representing quantities and the relationships between these quantities. Without reasoning quantitatively, students often resort to memorizing formulas and procedures, which have negative impacts when they encounter mathematical topics in the future. This study investigated how high school students’ quantitative reasoning could be fostered within a unit on arc measure and angle relationships. Arc measure, or the measure of a central angle that cuts off a portion of a circle’s circumference, is often confused with arclength. In this study, the researcher redesigned an activity to clearly distinguish arc measure and arc length by using a quantitative reasoning framework. Data were collected from high school students to determine if this approach impacted their understanding of these concepts. Initial data indicates the approach was successful in supporting students’ quantitative reasoning of these topics. Implications for the work are that teachers themselves may also benefit from considering mathematical definitions from a quantitative reasoning framework and can use this activity in their own classrooms.

Keywords: arc length, arc measure, quantitative reasoning, student content knowledge

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2571 Supplier Selection by Considering Cost and Reliability

Authors: K. -H. Yang

Abstract:

Supplier selection problem is one of the important issues of supply chain problems. Two categories of methodologies include qualitative and quantitative approaches which can be applied to supplier selection problems. However, due to the complexities of the problem and lacking of reliable and quantitative data, qualitative approaches are more than quantitative approaches. This study considers operational cost and supplier’s reliability factor and solves the problem by using a quantitative approach. A mixed integer programming model is the primary analytic tool. Analyses of different scenarios with variable cost and reliability structures show that the effectiveness of this approach to the supplier selection problem.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, quantitative approach, supplier’s reliability, supplier selection

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2570 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini

Abstract:

Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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2569 Non-Standard Monetary Policy Measures and Their Consequences

Authors: Aleksandra Nocoń (Szunke)

Abstract:

The study is a review of the literature concerning the consequences of non-standard monetary policy, which are used by central banks during unconventional periods, threatening instability of the banking sector. In particular, the attention was paid to the effects of non-standard monetary policy tools for financial markets. However, the empirical evidence about their effects and real consequences for the financial markets are still not final. The main aim of the study is to survey the consequences of standard and non-standard monetary policy instruments, implemented during the global financial crisis in the United States, United Kingdom and Euroland, with particular attention to the results for the stabilization of global financial markets. The study analyses the consequences for short and long-term market interest rates, interbank interest rates and LIBOR-OIS spread. The study consists mainly of the empirical review, indicating the impact of the implementation of these tools for the financial markets. The following research methods were used in the study: literature studies, including domestic and foreign literature, cause and effect analysis and statistical analysis.

Keywords: asset purchase facility, consequences of monetary policy instruments, non-standard monetary policy, quantitative easing

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2568 Time Variance and Spillover Effects between International Crude Oil Price and Ten Emerging Equity Markets

Authors: Murad A. Bein

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines the time-varying relationship and spillover effects between the international crude oil price and ten emerging equity markets, namely three oil-exporting countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Russia) and seven Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The results revealed that there are spillover effects from oil markets into almost all emerging equity markets save Slovakia. Besides, the oil supply glut had a homogenous effect on the emerging markets, both net oil-exporting, and oil-importing countries (CEE). Further, the time variance drastically increased during financial turmoil. Indeed, the time variance remained high from 2009 to 2012 in response to aggregate demand shocks (global financial crisis and Eurozone debt crisis) and quantitative easing measures. Interestingly, the time variance was slightly higher for the oil-exporting countries than for some of the CEE countries. Decision-makers in emerging economies should therefore seek policy coordination when dealing with financial turmoil.

Keywords: crude oil, spillover effects, emerging equity, time-varying, aggregate demand shock

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2567 Quantitative Characterization of Single Orifice Hydraulic Flat Spray Nozzle

Authors: Y. C. Khoo, W. T. Lai

Abstract:

The single orifice hydraulic flat spray nozzle was evaluated with two global imaging techniques to characterize various aspects of the resulting spray. The two techniques were high resolution flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A CCD camera with 29 million pixels was used to capture shadowgraph images to realize ligament formation and collapse as well as droplet interaction. Quantitative analysis was performed to give the sizing information of the droplets and ligaments. This camera was then applied with a PIV system to evaluate the overall velocity field of the spray, from nozzle exit to droplet discharge. PIV images were further post-processed to determine the inclusion angle of the spray. The results from those investigations provided significant quantitative understanding of the spray structure. Based on the quantitative results, detailed understanding of the spray behavior was achieved.

Keywords: spray, flow visualization, PIV, shadowgraph, quantitative sizing, velocity field

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2566 Enabling Quantitative Urban Sustainability Assessment with Big Data

Authors: Changfeng Fu

Abstract:

Sustainable urban development has been widely accepted a common sense in the modern urban planning and design. However, the measurement and assessment of urban sustainability, especially the quantitative assessment have been always an issue obsessing planning and design professionals. This paper will present an on-going research on the principles and technologies to develop a quantitative urban sustainability assessment principles and techniques which aim to integrate indicators, geospatial and geo-reference data, and assessment techniques together into a mechanism. It is based on the principles and techniques of geospatial analysis with GIS and statistical analysis methods. The decision-making technologies and methods such as AHP and SMART are also adopted to address overall assessment conclusions. The possible interfaces and presentation of data and quantitative assessment results are also described. This research is based on the knowledge, situations and data sources of UK, but it is potentially adaptable to other countries or regions. The implementation potentials of the mechanism are also discussed.

Keywords: urban sustainability assessment, quantitative analysis, sustainability indicator, geospatial data, big data

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
2565 Qualitative and Quantitative Case Study Research Method on Social Science: Accounting Perspective

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to set the parameters within which the study is to be conducted, specifically justifying the use of qualitative research, informed by theory. This paper argues that the social world is subjective in nature and may be accessed through the interpretive approach provided by the people involved in the context of the study. The paper defines and distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, explores Burrell and Morgan's framework for social research, and presents the study's adopted methodology and methods, with the rationale for these choices.

Keywords: accounting, methodologies, qualitative, quantitative research

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2564 Quantitative Phase Imaging System Based on a Three-Lens Common-Path Interferometer

Authors: Alexander Machikhin, Olga Polschikova, Vitold Pozhar, Alina Ramazanova

Abstract:

White-light quantitative phase imaging is an effective technique for achieving sub-nanometer phase sensitivity. Highly stable interferometers based on common-path geometry have been developed in recent years to solve this task. Some of these methods also apply multispectral approach. The purpose of this research is to suggest a simple and effective interferometer for such systems. We developed a three-lens common-path interferometer, which can be used for quantitative phase imaging with or without multispectral modality. The lens system consists of two components, the first one of which is a compound lens, consisting of two lenses. A pinhole is placed between the components. The lens-in-lens approach enables effective light transmission and high stability of the interferometer. The multispectrality is easily implemented by placing a tunable filter in front of the interferometer. In our work, we used an acousto-optical tunable filter. Some design considerations are discussed and multispectral quantitative phase retrieval is demonstrated.

Keywords: acousto-optical tunable filter, common-path interferometry, digital holography, multispectral quantitative phase imaging

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2563 Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Kuwait: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Mitra Arami

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to identify the factors that influence Kuwaiti consumers’ behavior towards online shopping. A survey was conducted among B2C e-commerce customers using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The findings of this study show that B2C e-commerce customer behavior in Kuwait is strongly influenced by customer entertainment but weakly influenced by customer trust. While the overall research project involves exploratory research using mixed methods, the focus of this paper is on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of Kuwaiti customers, with the design of the questionnaire instrument being based on the findings of a qualitative analysis. The main findings of the analysis include a list of key factors that affect Kuwait online shoppers, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships. This study provides a basis for further research and more in depth studies to find the scope of online shopping in Kuwait especially, the influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement.

Keywords: e-commerce, online shopping, customer behavior, quantitative analysis, Kuwait

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2562 Procedure to Use Quantitative Bone-Specific SPECT/CT in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, P. Taskinen, P. Rautio

Abstract:

This study aimed to describe procedures that we developed to use in the quantitative, bone-specific SPECT/CT at our hospital. Our procedures included the following questions for choosing imaging protocols, which were based on a clinical doctor's referral: (1) Is she/he a cancer patient or not? (2) Are there any indications of inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis? We performed about 1,106 skeletal scintigraphies over two years. About 394 patients were studied with quantitative bone-specific single-photon emission computed tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) (i.e., about 36% of all bone scintigraphies). Approximately 64% of the patients were studied using the conventional Anterior-Posterior/Posterior-Anterior imaging. Our procedure has improved efficiency and decreased cycle times.

Keywords: skeletal scintigraphy, SPECT/CT, imaging, procedure

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2561 Supplier Selection by Bi-Objectives Mixed Integer Program Approach

Authors: K.-H. Yang

Abstract:

In the past, there was a lot of excellent research studies conducted on topics related to supplier selection. Because the considered factors of supplier selection are complicated and difficult to be quantified, most researchers deal supplier selection issues by qualitative approaches. Compared to qualitative approaches, quantitative approaches are less applicable in the real world. This study tried to apply the quantitative approach to study a supplier selection problem with considering operation cost and delivery reliability. By those factors, this study applies Normalized Normal Constraint Method to solve the dual objectives mixed integer program of the supplier selection problem.

Keywords: bi-objectives MIP, normalized normal constraint method, supplier selection, quantitative approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2560 Quantitative Analysis of Presence, Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Unconsciousness

Authors: Hooshmand Kalayeh

Abstract:

The human brain consists of reptilian, mammalian, and thinking brain. And mind consists of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious parallel neural-net programs. The primary objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for quantitative analysis of neural-nets associated with these mental activities in the neocortex. The secondary objective of this paper is to suggest a methodology for quantitative analysis of presence; the proposed methodologies can be used as a first-step to measure, monitor, and understand consciousness and presence. This methodology is based on Neural-Networks (NN), number of neuron in each NN associated with consciousness, subconsciouness, and unconsciousness, and number of neurons in neocortex. It is assumed that the number of neurons in each NN is correlated with the associated area and volume. Therefore, online and offline visualization techniques can be used to identify these neural-networks, and online and offline measurement methods can be used to measure areas and volumes associated with these NNs. So, instead of the number of neurons in each NN, the associated area or volume also can be used in the proposed methodology. This quantitative analysis and associated online and offline measurements and visualizations of different Neural-Networks enable us to rewire the connections in our brain for a more balanced living.

Keywords: brain, mind, consciousness, presence, sub-consciousness, unconsciousness, skills, concentrations, attention

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2559 Framework for Integrating Big Data and Thick Data: Understanding Customers Better

Authors: Nikita Valluri, Vatcharaporn Esichaikul

Abstract:

With the popularity of data-driven decision making on the rise, this study focuses on providing an alternative outlook towards the process of decision-making. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods rooted in the social sciences, an integrated framework is presented with a focus on delivering a much more robust and efficient approach towards the concept of data-driven decision-making with respect to not only Big data but also 'Thick data', a new form of qualitative data. In support of this, an example from the retail sector has been illustrated where the framework is put into action to yield insights and leverage business intelligence. An interpretive approach to analyze findings from both kinds of quantitative and qualitative data has been used to glean insights. Using traditional Point-of-sale data as well as an understanding of customer psychographics and preferences, techniques of data mining along with qualitative methods (such as grounded theory, ethnomethodology, etc.) are applied. This study’s final goal is to establish the framework as a basis for providing a holistic solution encompassing both the Big and Thick aspects of any business need. The proposed framework is a modified enhancement in lieu of traditional data-driven decision-making approach, which is mainly dependent on quantitative data for decision-making.

Keywords: big data, customer behavior, customer experience, data mining, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, thick data

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2558 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo

Abstract:

The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

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2557 Tumor Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) Based Neural Network

Authors: Vinai K. Singh

Abstract:

In Neural Network-based Learning techniques, there are several models of Convolutional Networks. Whenever the methods are deployed with large datasets, only then can their applicability and appropriateness be determined. Clinical and pathological pictures of lobular carcinoma are thought to exhibit a large number of random formations and textures. Working with such pictures is a difficult problem in machine learning. Focusing on wet laboratories and following the outcomes, numerous studies have been published with fresh commentaries in the investigation. In this research, we provide a framework that can operate effectively on raw photos of various resolutions while easing the issues caused by the existence of patterns and texturing. The suggested approach produces very good findings that may be used to make decisions in the diagnosis of cancer.

Keywords: lobular carcinoma, convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep learning, histopathological imagery scans

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2556 Circular Economy: Development of Quantitative Material Wastage Management Plan for Effective Waste Reduction in Building Construction Industry

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit

Abstract:

Combating climate change is becoming a hot topic in various sectors. Building construction and infrastructure sectors contributed a significant proportion of waste and GHGs emissions in the economy of different countries and cities. Many types of research had conducted and discussed the topic of waste management and waste management being a macro-level control is well developed in the building and construction industry. However, there is little research and studies on the micro-level of waste management, “building construction material wastage management,” and fewer reviews about regulatory control in the building construction sector. In this paper, we will focus on the potentialities and importance of material wastage management and review the deficiencies of the current standard to take into account the reduction of material wastage in a systematic and quantitative approach.

Keywords: quantitative measurement, material wastage management plan, waste management, uncalculated waste, circular economy

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2555 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

Abstract:

A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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2554 Ideal School of the Future from the Parents´ View: Quantitative Research of Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové

Authors: Yveta Pohnětalová

Abstract:

The topic of possible forms of future schools according to rapid changes of life in the 21st century has become to reach several economic and social prognoses. In our research, we have tried to find out what the future school form is according to pupils’ parent’s view. School is a part of life of each person and based on own experience there is a certain individual picture created about a possible look of future education. The aim of our quantitative research was to find out how parents of first grade primary school pupils see the ideal school of the future. The quantitative research realized at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic). By statistical analysis of gained data from 120 respondents, there have been several views of schools of future identified in terms of mission and also the way of education. But a common indicator according to addressed parents would be more focused on the overall personality development rather than the field practice which is related to a realistic idea that school of the future is not and will not be the only source of education.

Keywords: parents’ approach, school of the future, survey, ways of education

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2553 Characteristics of Successful Sales Interaction in B2B Sales Meetings

Authors: Ari Alamäki, Timo Kaski

Abstract:

The value of co-creation has gained much attention in sales research, but less is known about how salespeople and customers interact in the authentic business to business (B2B) sales meetings. The study presented in this paper empirically contributes to existing research by presenting authentic B2B sales meetings that were video recorded and analyzed using observation and qualitative content analysis methods. This paper aims to study key elements of successful sales interactions between salespeople and customers/buyers. This study points out that salespeople are selling value rather than the products or services themselves, which are only enablers in realizing business benefits. Therefore, our findings suggest that promoting and easing open discourse is an essential part of a successful sales encounter. A better understanding of how salespeople and customers successfully interact would help salespeople to develop their interpersonal sales skills.

Keywords: personal selling, relationship, sales management, value co-creation

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2552 The Promise of Social Enterprise to Improve Health Outcomes in Trafficking Survivors: A Quantitative Case Study

Authors: Sean Roy, Mercedes Miller

Abstract:

A study was conducted to assess the positive outcomes related to Filipino human trafficking survivors working at a social enterprise. As most existing research on human survivors pertains to the adverse outcomes of victims, the researchers were seeking to fill the dearth of existing data related to positive outcomes. A quantitative study was conducted using a convenience sample of 41 participants within three staggered cohorts of the social enterprise. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted and indicated that participants in the third cohort (who were employed at the social enterprise the longest) had significantly lower anxiety scores than participants in other cohorts. This study indicates that social enterprises hold the promise of positively impacting anxiety of human trafficking survivors and provides a starting point for researchers looking to assess ways to positively influence the lives of survivors.

Keywords: human trafficking, Philippines, quantitative analysis, self-identity

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2551 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Academic, Anxiety, Dyslexia, Quantitative

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2550 Reference Intensity Ratio Semi-Quantitative Analysis of Cordierite-Mullite Synthesis by a Solid State Method

Authors: D. Wattanasiriwech, S. Wattanasiriwech

Abstract:

In this paper, attempt to synthesize designed cordierite-mullite system with various ratios was performed using a solid-state method. Alumina, quartz, magnesia, and talc were used as starting materials for the synthesis. Talc was added for two purposes; to assist the reaction progress and to be the Mg source. The raw materials were mixed and fired at 1350°C for 2 h and 1400°C for 2 and 4 h. The resulting phase compositions were analysed using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) semi-quantitative analysis method. The highest amount of cordierite up to Cordierite phase 96% could be obtained at the firing scheme of 1400°C for 4 h in the C100-M0. Mullite could not be formed at the selected scheme if talc did not present so no pure mullite was observed in the selected firing regime. The highest amount of mullite co-existed with cordierite and other phases were 74%.

Keywords: RIR semi-quantitative analysis, cordierite-mullite system, solid state synthesis, X-Ray diffraction

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2549 Genetic Variability Studies of Some Quantitative Traits in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp.] ) under Water Stress

Authors: Auwal Ibrahim Magashi, Lawan Dan Larai Fagwalawa, Muhammad Bello Ibrahim

Abstract:

A research was conducted to study genetic variability of some quantitative traits in varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp]) under water stressed from Zaria, Nigeria. Seeds of seven varieties of cowpea (Sampea 1, Sampea 2, IAR1074, Sampea 7, Sampea 8, Sampea 10 and Sampea 12) collected from Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Zaria were screened for water stressed tolerance. The seeds were then sown in poly bags containing sandy-loam arranged in Completely Randomized Design with three replications for quantitative traits evaluation. The nutritional composition of the seeds obtained from the water stress tolerant varieties of cowpea were analyzed. The result obtained revealed highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the effects of water stress on the number of wilted and dead plants at 40 days after sowing (DAS) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) 34 DAS. However, sampea 10 has the highest mean performance in terms of number of wilted plants at 34 DAS while sampea 2 and IAR 1074 has the lowest mean performance. However, sampea 7 was found to have the highest mean performance for the number of wilted plants at 40 DAS and sampea 2 is lowest. The result for quantitative traits study indicated highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the plant height, number of days to 50% flowering, number of days to maturity, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight; and significant (P ≤ 0.05) at seedling height and number of branches per plant. Similarly, IAR1074 was found to have high performance in terms of most of the quantitative traits under study. However, sampea 8 has the highest mean performance at nutritional level. It was therefore concluded that, all the seven cowpea genotypes were water stress tolerant and produced considerable yield that contained significant nutrients. It was recommended that IAR1074 should be grown for yield while sampea 8 should be grown for protein supplements.

Keywords: cowpea, genetic variability, quantitative traits, water stress

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2548 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

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2547 Mindfulness and Employability: A Course on the Control of Stress during the Search for Work

Authors: O. Lasaga

Abstract:

Defining professional objectives and the search for work are some of the greatest stress factors for final year university students and recent graduates. To manage correctly the stress brought about by the uncertainty, confusion and frustration this process often generates, a course to control stress based on mindfulness has been designed and taught. This course provides tools based on relaxation, mindfulness and meditation that enable students to address personal and professional challenges in the transition to the job market, eliminating or easing the anxiety involved. The course is extremely practical and experiential, combining theory classes and practical classes of relaxation, meditation and mindfulness, group dynamics, reflection, application protocols and session integration. The evaluation of the courses highlighted on the one hand the high degree of satisfaction and, on the other, the usefulness for the students in becoming aware of stressful situations and how these affect them and learning new coping techniques that enable them to reach their goals more easily and with greater satisfaction and well-being.

Keywords: employability, meditation, mindfulness, relaxation techniques, stress

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2546 Investigating Transformative Processes through Personal, social, Professional and Educational Development of Adult Graduates in Second Chance Schools in Greece: a Quantitative and Qualitative Survey throughout the Country

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

Abstract:

The object of this research is to explore the views of Greek Second Chance Schools’ (SCS) graduates regarding their personal, social, professional and educational development after graduation. SCS are addressed to adults who had failed to complete their studies in the nine-year compulsory education. Furthermore, the research focuses on their motives as well as on any possible achievement of transformative processes. The quantitative survey involved in total 426 graduates while in the qualitative survey participated 38 persons, all of whom graduated in the period 2010-2012 from 27 schools throughout the country. The survey was conducted by filling in a structured questionnaire and by carrying out semi-structured interviews. As regards the results, the respondents decided to attend the SCS primarily to acquire knowledge while most of them feel that they managed to meet their goals. Also, graduates recognize that studying in SCS contributed primarily in their social and personal development. In addition, an encouraging fact is that some of the graduates recognize the transformative processes which they experienced during their studies in SCS.

Keywords: Adults Education, Motives of Attendance, Personal-Social-Professional-Educational Development, Transformative Processes, Quantitative and Qualitative Survey

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2545 A Qualitative Study Identifying the Complexities of Early Childhood Professionals' Use and Production of Data

Authors: Sara Bonetti

Abstract:

The use of quantitative data to support policies and justify investments has become imperative in many fields including the field of education. However, the topic of data literacy has only marginally touched the early care and education (ECE) field. In California, within the ECE workforce, there is a group of professionals working in policy and advocacy that use quantitative data regularly and whose educational and professional experiences have been neglected by existing research. This study aimed at analyzing these experiences in accessing, using, and producing quantitative data. This study utilized semi-structured interviews to capture the differences in educational and professional backgrounds, policy contexts, and power relations. The participants were three key professionals from county-level organizations and one working at a State Department to allow for a broader perspective at systems level. The study followed Núñez’s multilevel model of intersectionality. The key in Núñez’s model is the intersection of multiple levels of analysis and influence, from the individual to the system level, and the identification of institutional power dynamics that perpetuate the marginalization of certain groups within society. In a similar manner, this study looked at the dynamic interaction of different influences at individual, organizational, and system levels that might intersect and affect ECE professionals’ experiences with quantitative data. At the individual level, an important element identified was the participants’ educational background, as it was possible to observe a relationship between that and their positionality, both with respect to working with data and also with respect to their power within an organization and at the policy table. For example, those with a background in child development were aware of how their formal education failed to train them in the skills that are necessary to work in policy and advocacy, and especially to work with quantitative data, compared to those with a background in administration and/or business. At the organizational level, the interviews showed a connection between the participants’ position within the organization and their organization’s position with respect to others and their degree of access to quantitative data. This in turn affected their sense of empowerment and agency in dealing with data, such as shaping what data is collected and available. These differences reflected on the interviewees’ perceptions and expectations for the ECE workforce. For example, one of the interviewees pointed out that many ECE professionals happen to use data out of the necessity of the moment. This lack of intentionality is a cause for, and at the same time translates into missed training opportunities. Another interviewee pointed out issues related to the professionalism of the ECE workforce by remarking the inadequacy of ECE students’ training in working with data. In conclusion, Núñez’s model helped understand the different elements that affect ECE professionals’ experiences with quantitative data. In particular, what was clear is that these professionals are not being provided with the necessary support and that we are not being intentional in creating data literacy skills for them, despite what is asked of them and their work.

Keywords: data literacy, early childhood professionals, intersectionality, quantitative data

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2544 The Influence of Consumer and Brand-Oriented Capabilities on Business Performance in Young Firms: A Quantitative Causal Model Analysis

Authors: Katharina Buttenberg

Abstract:

Customer and brand-oriented capabilities have been identified as key influencing capabilities for business performance. Especially in the early years of the firm, it is crucial to develop and consciously manage these capabilities. In this paper, the results of a quantitative analysis, investigating the causal relationship between customer- and brand-oriented (marketing) capabilities and business performance will be presented. The research displays the dependencies between the constructs and will provide practical implications for young firms in the acquisition and management of these capabilities.

Keywords: brand-oriented capabilities, customer-oriented capabilities, entrepreneurship, resource-based theory, young firms

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