Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4548

Search results for: punjabi population

4548 Detonalization of Punjabi: Towards a Loss of Linguistic Indigeneity

Authors: Sukhvinder Singh

Abstract:

Punjabi language is related to the languages of New Indo-Aryan group that, in turn, is related to the branch of Indo-European language family. Punjabi language covers the areas of Western part (that is in Pakistan) and Eastern part (the Punjab state, Haryana, Delhi Himachal and J&K) and abroad (particularly Canada, USA, U.K. and Arab Emirates), where it is spoken widely. Besides India and Pakistan, Punjabi is the third language spoken in Canada after English, French having more than one hundred millions speakers worldwide. It is the fourth language spoken in Canada after English, French, and Chinese. It is also being taught as second language in most of the community school of British Columbia. The total number of Punjabi speakers is more than one hundred millions including India, Pakistan and abroad. Punjabi has a long tradition of linguistic tradition. A large number of scholars have studied Punjabi at different linguistic levels. Various studies are devoted to its special phonological characteristics, especially the tone, which has now started disappearing in favour of aspiration, a rare example of a language change in progress in its reversal direction. This process of language change in progress in reversal is dealt with in this paper a change towards a loss of linguistic indigeneity. The tone being a distinctive linguistic feature of Punjabi language is getting lost due to the increasing influence of Hindi and English particularly in the speech Urban Punjabi and Punjabi settled abroad. In this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the sociolinguistics and sociology of Punjabi language and Punjab to trace the initiation and progression of this change towards a loss of Linguistic Indigeneity.

Keywords: language change in reversal, reaspiration, detonalization, new Indo-Aryan group

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4547 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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4546 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

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4545 PH.WQT as a Web Quality Model for Websites of Government Domain

Authors: Rupinder Pal Kaur, Vishal Goyal

Abstract:

In this research, a systematic and quantitative engineering-based approach is followed by applying well-known international standards and guidelines to develop a web quality model (PH.WQT- Punjabi and Hindi Website Quality Tester) to measure external quality for websites of government domain that are developed in Punjabi and Hindi. Correspondingly, the model can be used for websites developed in other languages also. The research is valuable to researchers and practitioners interested in designing, implementing and managing websites of government domain Also, by implementing PH.WQT analysis and comparisons among web sites of government domain can be performed in a consistent way.

Keywords: external quality, PH.WQT, indian languages, punjabi and hindi, quality model, websites of government

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4544 Adolescent Obesity Leading to Adulthood Cardiovascular Diseases among Punjabi Population

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Badaruddoza, Sandeep Kaur Brar

Abstract:

The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity is one of the major causes to be hypertensive in adulthood. Various statistical methods have been applied to examine the performance of anthropometric indices for the identification of adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The present work was undertaken to determine the significant traditional risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA) among population based Punjabi adolescents aged 10-18 years. Data was collected among adolescent children from different schools situated in urban areas of Punjab, India. Principal component factor analysis (PCFA) was applied to extract orthogonal components from anthropometric and physiometric variables. Association between components were explained by factor loadings. The PCFA extracted four factors, which explained 84.21%, 84.06% and 83.15% of the total variance of the 14 original quantitative traits among boys, girls and combined subjects respectively. Factor 1 has high loading of the traits that reflect adiposity such as waist circumference, BMI and skinfolds among both sexes. However, waist circumference and body mass index are the indicator of abdominal obesity which increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The loadings of these two traits have found maximum in girls adolescents (WC=0.924; BMI=0.905). Therefore, factor 1 is the strong indicator of atherosclerosis in adolescents. Factor 2 is predominantly loaded with blood pressures and related traits (SBP, DBP, MBP and pulse rate) which reflect the risk of essential hypertension in adolescent girls and combined subjects, whereas, factor 2 loaded with obesity related traits in boys (weight and hip circumferences). Comparably, factor 3 is loaded with blood pressures in boys and with height and WHR in girls, while factor 4 contains high loading of pulse pressure among boys, girls and combined group of adolescents.

Keywords: adolescent obesity, cvd, hypertension, punjabi population

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4543 Punjabi Articulation Errors of Consonants among Children (Socio-Economic Criteria of Parents in North India)

Authors: Dharam Vir, L. Kaur, Joga Singh Virk, A. K. Gupta, A. N. Gill Naresh K. Panda, Shailendra Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Punjabi is the primary language of Punjab and is spoken by more than 27 million in India and by around 80 million people in Pakistan. Speakers of this language are also found in other countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, UK, U.S., and Canada. Need or Aims of the Study: To develop the Punjabi Articulation Test (PAT) as it is not available and apply it on socio-economic criteria of parents in North India. Material and Method: - Kaida of Punjabi and Punjabi Dictionary. Results: First Group: In this normal group, there is no single consonant error in the articulation of consonants involved in the words of PAT list. Second Group: In this group, i) on an average 45% words in the PAT are misarticulated. ii) s, S, k, kh, g, ch, t, and r are found to be significantly misarticulated. Third Group: It is observed that the percentage of pediatric population out of 200 school going normal children of low (SE1) and higher socio-economic (SE2) criteria of parents in North Indian families are 30.5 % and 69.5% respectively. Discussion: In a similar study, Shankar (1971) reported a cut off score of 100% for Hindi articulation test, and Bhavani (1995) reported a cut off score of 99.95% for Nepali articulation test in the age range of 6-7 years. At the second stage, in the clinical group, it is found that the maximum consonant errors are 45% which has been detected as the consonant articulation errors among the children who are diagnosed as the misarticulation of North Indian region. According to Templin (1986), the phonemes difficult to produce from the most to the least are /θ, S, l, r, t∫, s, f, k, t/. The major difference in this ranking as compared to present study is maximum involvement of velar plosives. The probable cause of this discrepancy may be the language difference. Thirdly, the consonant/articulation errors of normal school going children of SE1 and SE2 families are compared. The investigator noted that the consonant errors occur at the initial position of 61 children of low socio-economic criteria family among 1586 (61x26) sounds. This process is repeated separately for the 1647 (61x27) consonant sounds appearing at the medial and the 1525 (61x25) consonant sounds appearing at the final position. The consonant errors of higher socio-economic criteria families have been prepared on the similar lines as among the low socio-economic criteria families on the 139 children. No significance difference between above family system is observed as SPSS software shows the Z values at initial (-1.808685134), medial (1.482160047), final (-1.833512395), and p- values (p>0.5) at three positions. Conclusion: Developed a Punjabi Articulation Test that is not available till date according to researcher’s knowledge. No significant difference between the children whose parents have low Socio-Economic Criteria of Parents is found, however more errors in SE2.

Keywords: low socio economic status (SE1), high socio economic status (SE2), punjabi articulation test (PAT), punjabi

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4542 Gender Difference in the Use of Request Strategies by Urdu/Punjabi Native Speakers

Authors: Muzaffar Hussain

Abstract:

Requests strategies are considered as a part of the speech acts, which are frequently used in everyday communication. Each language provides speech acts to the speakers; therefore, the selection of appropriate form seems more culture-specific rather than language. The present paper investigates the gender-based difference in the use of request strategies by native speakers of Urdu/Punjabi male and female who are learning English as a second language. The data for the present study were collected from 68 graduate students, who are learning English as an L2 in Pakistan. They were given an online close-ended questionnaire, based on Discourse Completion Test (DCT). After analyzing the data, it was found that the L1 male Urdu/Punjabi speakers were inclined to use more direct request strategies while the female Urdu/Punjabi speakers used indirect request strategies. This paper also found that in some situations female participants used more direct strategies than male participants. The present study concludes that the use of request strategies is influenced by culture, social status, and power distribution in a society.

Keywords: gender variation, request strategies, face-threatening, second language pragmatics, language competence

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4541 Teaching Creative Thinking and Writing to Simultaneous Bilinguals: A Longitudinal Study of 6-7 Years Old English and Punjabi Language Learners

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Fazalehaq

Abstract:

This paper documents the results of a longitudinal study done on two bilingual children who speak English and Punjabi simultaneously. Their father is a native English speaker whereas their mother speaks Punjabi. Their mother can speak both the languages (English and Punjabi) whereas their father only speaks English. At the age of six, these children have difficulty in creative thinking and of course creative writing. So, the first task for the researcher is to impress and entice the children to think creatively. Various and different methodologies and techniques were used to entice them to start thinking creatively. Creative thinking leads to creative writing. These children were exposed to numerous sources including videos, photographs, texts and audios at first place in order to have a taste of creative genres (stories in this case). The children were encouraged to create their own stories sometimes with photographs and sometimes by using their favorite toys. At a second stage, they were asked to write about an event or incident. After that, they were motivated to create new stories and write them. Length of their creative writing varies from a few sentences to a two standard page. After this six months’ study, the researcher was able to develop a ten steps methodology for creating and improving/enhancing creative thinking and creative writing skills of the subjects understudy. This ten-step methodology entices and motivates the learner to think creatively for producing a creative piece.

Keywords: bilinguals, creative thinking, creative writing, simultaneous bilingual

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4540 Analyzing Use of Figurativeness, Visual Elements, Allegory, Scenic Imagery as Support System in Punjabi Contemporary Theatre for Escaping Censorship

Authors: Shazia Anwer

Abstract:

This paper has discussed the unusual form of resistance in theatre against censorship board in Pakistan. The atypical approach of dramaturgy created massive space for performers and audiences to integrate and communicate. The social and religious absolutes creates suffocation in Pakistani society, strict control over all Fine and Performing Art has made art political, contemporary dramatics has started an amalgamated theatre to avoid censorship. Contemporary Punjabi theatre techniques are directly dependent on human cognition. The idea of indirect thought processing is not unique but dependent on spectators. The paper has provided an account of these techniques and their specific use for conveying specific messages across the audiences. For the Dramaturge of today, theatre space is an expression representing a linguistic formulation that includes qualities of experimental and non-traditional use of classical theatrical space in the context of fulfilling the concept of open theatre. Paper has explained the transformation of the theatrical experience into an event where the actor and the audience are co-existing and co-experiencing the dramatical experience. The denial of the existence of the 4th -Wall made two-way communication possible. This paper has elaborated that the previously marginalized genres such as naach, jugat, miras, are extensively included to counter the censorship board. Figurativeness, visual elements, allegory, scenic imagery are basic support system for contemporary Punjabi theatre. The body of the actor is used as a source for non-verbal communication, and for an escape from traditional theatrical space which by every means has every element that could be controlled and reprimanded by the controlling authority.

Keywords: communication, Punjabi theatre, figurativeness, censorship

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4539 An Ecological Reading of Indian Regional Literature: A Comparative Ecocritical Analysis of Punjabi Poet Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar's Poetry

Authors: Zameerpal Kaur

Abstract:

Ecocriticism comes into existence in 1990s, it tries to explore the relationship of literature with the natural world and further it examines the role that natural surroundings and environment play in the minds of the creative writers during their imagination and creative process. The present study is an attempt to focus on the comparative ecocritical analysis of Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar’s selected poetry in the theoretical framework of ecocriticism in order to shed light on the poet’s vigilant views about the relationship of human life and nature. Shiv Kumar Batalvi is a renowned modern Punjabi poet. He is essentially a poet of nature and love. His opinions towards nature support his position to be considered as a major representative of recent environmental issues and ecocritical concerns in Punjabi literature. He is one of the most outstanding modern Punjabi poets, is endowed with the most artistic temperament in whose poetry nature always has a dominating existence. He seems to consciously portray the scenes of natural surroundings into his poetry; in fact the titles of his poems in themselves signify his love for the nature. Surjit Patar, an imminent modern Punjabi poet tries to present a different picture of nature into his poems; he also uses to write poems about contemporary problems. Surjit Patar’s radical quarrel with the modern cultural context makes him reject all the absolutes and finalities in the form of transcendental reason and religion, history and evolution, he freely writes about the deterioration of nature at selfish materialistic society. He is modern poet who weaves the natural imagery with the syntax of his poems. Patar’s work reflects a universal voice that is dribbled with nuanced humanism and a sense of modernity that seemed neither dated, nor trapped in regional boundaries. Through his poetry he has given a voice to the fragile, disrupting borders, disturbing the status quo. An attempt to analyse the poetic works of above said poets from ecocritical perspective as well as especially focussing on various aspects of ecocriticism like ecocentric ethics, ecoaesthetics, anthropomorphism etc. has been made throughout the comparative study of the selected works.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, degradation, environment and literature, nature

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4538 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah

Abstract:

The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

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4537 Changing Trends of Population in Nashik District, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Pager Mansaram Pandit

Abstract:

The present paper aims to changing trends of population in Nashik district. The spatial variation of changing trends of population from 1901 to 2011. Nasik, lying between 19° 33’ and 20° 53’ north latitude and 73° 16’ and 75° 16’, with an area of 15530 Sq. K.M.North South length is 120 km. East West length is 200 km. Nashik has a population of 6,109,052 of which 3,164,261 are males and 2,944,791 and females. Average literacy rate of Nashik district in 2011 was 82.91 compared to 80.96 in 2001. In 1901 the density was 52 and in 2011 the density was 393 per sq. km. The progressive growth rate from 1901 to 2012 was 11.25 to 642.22 percent, respectively. The population trend is calculated with the help of time series. In 1901 population was 45.44% more and less in 1941 i.e. -13.86. From 1921 to 1981 the population was below the population trend but after 1991 population it gradually increased. The average rainfall it receives is 1034 mm. In the present times, because of advances in good climate, industrialization, development of road, University level educational facilities, religious importance, cargo services, good quality of grapes, pomegranates and onions, more and more people are being attracted towards Nashik districts. Another cause for the increase in the population is the main attraction of Ramkund, Muktidham Temple, Kalaram Temple, Coin Museum, and Trimbakeshwar.

Keywords: density, growth, population, population trend

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4536 Modelling the Spread of HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Condom Campaign and Treatment

Authors: Marsudi, Noor Hidayat, Ratno Bagus Edy Wibowo

Abstract:

This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS in which condom campaign and treatment are both important for the disease management. In modelling of the spread of AIDS, the population is divided into six subpopulations, namely susceptible population, susceptible population who change their behavior due to education condom campaign, infected population, pre-AIDS population, treated population and full-blown AIDS population. We calculate the effective reproduction number using the next generation matrix method and investigate the existence and stability of the equilibrium points. A sensitivity analysis discovers parameters that have a high impact on effective reproduction number and should be targeted by intervention strategies. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate and verify our analytic results.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, condom campaign, antiretroviral treatment, effective reproduction number, stability and sensitivity analysis

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4535 Allele Frequency of HLA-DRB1* in Thai Population to Predict Factor for Severity of COVID-19 Infection

Authors: Siriniya Siribrahmanakul

Abstract:

Introduction:SARsCOVID-19 is rapidly spreading, and some people may exhibit severe symptoms. Mortality rate of 2.0–3.0% with COVID-19 infection atworldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), located on chromosome 6, consist of HLA class I and class II. HLA are used by the immune system to attach self-antigens. Previous studies, HLA-DRB1*01:01,HLA-DRB1*12:01and HLA-DRB1*14:04 were, showed significant difference with severe COVID-19 in the Chinese population by p-value < 0.05. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with severe COVID-19 in Thai population. Materials and Methods:200 DNA samples were isolated from EDTA blood using the MagNAprue Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation kits.HLA-DRB1alleles were genotyped using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). Results:The frequency of HLA-DRB1 alleles in Thai population wereHLA-DRB1*12:02 (15.75%), HLA-DRB1*15:02 (14.50%), HLA-DRB1*09:01 (11.50%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (9.50%), HLA-DRB1*03:01,HLA-DRB1*05:01 (5.75%), HLA-DRB1*14:01 (5.50%), HLA-DRB1*16:02 (4.50%), HLA-DRB1*04:05 (4.00%), HLA-DRB1*14:03 (3.25%), HLA-DRB1*10:01 (2.25%) and HLA-DRB1*13:02 (2.00%). Particularly, HLA-DRB1*12:02 allele was the highest allele frequency presented in the four regions groups of Thai population. Furthermore, the HLA-DRB1* alleles associated with severe COVID-19, which consists ofHLA-DRB1*14:04(2.00 %) and HLA-DRB1*12:01(0.50%) in Thai population, whereas HLA-DRB1*01:01 allele was not found in this population. HLA-DRB1*14:04 and HLA-DRB1*12:01alleles were similarly distributed in four regions populations in Thailand (p-value > 0.05). The alleles frequencies of HLA-DRB1*14:04 and HLA-DRB1*12:01, which associated with severe COVID-19, had no significant differences between Thai population, South China population, South Africa population, and South Koreapopulation (p-value > 0.05). Conclusions: Particularly, this study has focused on allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*14:04in a healthy Thai population to evaluating their impact on the severe COVID-19. Furthermore, our research needs to be done in larger numbers of Thai patients.

Keywords: HLA-DRB1, allele frequency, Thai population, COVID-19 marker

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4534 Energy Consumption, Population and Economic Development Dynamics in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Evelyn Nwamaka Ogbeide-Osaretin, Bright Orhewere

Abstract:

This study examined the role of the population in the linkage between energy consumption and economic development in Nigeria. Time series data on energy consumption, population, and economic development were used for the period 1995 to 2020. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag -Error Correction Model (ARDL-ECM) was engaged. Economic development had a negative substantial impact on energy consumption in the long run. Population growth had a positive significant effect on energy consumption. Government expenditure was also found to impact the level of energy consumption, while energy consumption is not a function of oil price in Nigeria.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, energy consumption, population, economic development, Nigeria

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4533 Analysis of Population and Growth Rate Methanotof Bateria as Reducers Methane Gases Emission in Rice Field

Authors: Maimuna Nontji

Abstract:

The life cycle of rice plant has three phases of growth; they are the vegetative, reproductive and maturation phase. They greatly affect the life of dynamics metanotrof bacterial as reducer methane emissions in the rice field, both of population and on the rate of growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the population and growth rate of methanotrof isolates which has been isolated in previous studies. Isolates were taken at all the life cycle of rice plant. Population of analysis was conducted by standard plate count method and growth rate was analysed by logarithmic calculation. The results showed that each isolate varied in population and growth rate. The highest population was obtained in the isolates Gowa Methanotrof Reproductive (GMR 8) about 7.06 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 3 days of incubation and the lowest population was obtained in the Gowa Methanotrof Maturation (GMP 5) about 0.27 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 7 day of incubation. Some isolate were demonstrated in long growth rate about 5 days of incubation and another are 3 days.

Keywords: emission, methanotrof, methane, population

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4532 Study on Rural Landscape Design Method under the Background of the Population Diversification

Authors: Ziyi Zhou, Qiuxiao Chen, Shuang Wu

Abstract:

Population diversification phenomena becomes quite common in villages located in China’s developed coastal area. Based on the analysis of the traditional rural society and its landscape characteristics, and in consideration of diversified landscape requirements due to the population diversification, with dual ideas of heritage and innovation, methods for rural landscape design were explored by taking Duxuao Village in Zhejiang Province of China as an example.

Keywords: rural landscape, population diversification, landscape design, urban management

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4531 Urban and Rural Population Pyramids in Georgia Since 1950’s

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri, Avtandil Sulaberidze, Nino Gomelauri

Abstract:

In the years followed independence, an economic crisis and some conflicts led to the displacement of many people inside Georgia. The growing poverty, unemployment, low income and its unequal distribution limited access to basic social service have had a clear direct impact on Georgian population dynamics and its age-sex structure. Factors influencing the changing population age structure and urbanization include mortality, fertility, migration and expansion of urban. In this paper presents the main factors of changing the distribution by urban and rural areas. How different are the urban and rural age and sex structures? Does Georgia have the same age-sex structure among their urban and rural populations since 1950s?

Keywords: age and sex structure of population, georgia, migration, urban-rural population

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4530 A Remote Sensing Approach to Calculate Population Using Roads Network Data in Lebanon

Authors: Kamel Allaw, Jocelyne Adjizian Gerard, Makram Chehayeb, Nada Badaro Saliba

Abstract:

In developing countries, such as Lebanon, the demographic data are hardly available due to the absence of the mechanization of population system. The aim of this study is to evaluate, using only remote sensing data, the correlations between the number of population and the characteristics of roads network (length of primary roads, length of secondary roads, total length of roads, density and percentage of roads and the number of intersections). In order to find the influence of the different factors on the demographic data, we studied the degree of correlation between each factor and the number of population. The results of this study have shown a strong correlation between the number of population and the density of roads and the number of intersections.

Keywords: population, road network, statistical correlations, remote sensing

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4529 Forensic Study on Personal Identification of Pakistani Population by Individualizing Characteristics of Footprints

Authors: Muneeba Butt

Abstract:

One of the most important physical evidence which leaves suspects at the crime scene is footprints. Analysis of footprints, which can provide useful information for personal identification, is helpful in crime scene investigation. For the current study, 200 samples collected (144 male and 56 female) from Pakistani population with a consent form. The footprints were collected by using black ink with an ink pad. The entire samples were photographed, and then the magnifying glass was used for visualization of individual characteristics including detail of toes, humps, phalange mark, and flat foot cracks in footprint patterns. The descriptive results of individualizing characteristics features were presented in tabular form with respective frequency and percentage. In the result in the male population, the prevalence of tibialis type (T-type) is highest. In the female population, the prevalence of midularis type (M-type) is highest. Humps on the first toe are more found in the male population rather than other humps. In the female population, humps on the third toe are more found rather than other humps. In the male population, the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 3, toe 5, toe 2, toe 4 and in female population the prevalence of phalange mark by toe 1 is highest followed by toe 5, 4, 3 and 2. Creases marks are found highest in male population as compared to the female population.

Keywords: foot prints, toes, humps, cracks

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4528 Spatial Resilience of the Ageing Population in the Romanian Functional Urban Areas

Authors: Marinela Istrate, Ionel Muntele, Alexandru Bănică

Abstract:

The authors propose the identification, analysis and prognosis of the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the elderly population in the functional urban areas. The present paper takes into account the analysis of some representative indicators (the weight of the elderly population, ageing index, dynamic index of economic ageing of productive population etc.) and the elaboration of an integrated indicator that would help differentiate the population ageing forms in the 48 functional urban areas that were defined based on demographic and social-economic criteria for all large and medium cities in Romania.

Keywords: ageing, demographic transition, functional urban areas, spatial resilience

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4527 Analysis of Economic Development Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in Nigeria: Way Forward

Authors: Sabiu Abdullahi Yau

Abstract:

Nigeria is a high fertility country that experiences eye-popping population growth, with no end in sight. However, there is evidence that its large population inhibits government’s efforts in meeting the basic needs of the people. Moreover, past and present governments of Nigeria have been committing huge amount of financial resources to meet the basic infrastructural requirements capable of propelling growth and development. Despite the country’s large population and abundant natural resources, poverty, unemployment, rural-urban migration, deforestation and inadequate infrastructural facilities have been persistently on the increase resulting in consistent failure of government policies to impact positively on the economy. This paper, however, identifies and critically analyses the major development challenges caused by population growth in Nigeria using secondary data. The paper concludes that for the Nigeria’s economy to develop, all the identified challenges posed by rapid population growth must be promptly and squarely addressed.

Keywords: economic development, population, growth, Nigeria

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4526 Rural Landscape Design-Method Researching Based on the Population Diversification

Authors: Zhou Ziyi, Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang

Abstract:

Population diversification is very common in villages located in the developed coastal areas of China. Based on the analyses of the characteristics of the traditional rural society and its landscape, also in consideration of the diversified landscape demand due to the population diversification of the village, with the dual ideas of heritage and innovation, the ideas and methods of rural landscape design were explored by taking Duxuao Village in Zhejiang Province of China as an example.

Keywords: rural landscape, population diversification, landscape design, architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
4525 A Flexible Bayesian State-Space Modelling for Population Dynamics of Wildlife and Livestock Populations

Authors: Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Joseph Ogutu, Hans-Peter Piepho

Abstract:

We aim to model dynamics of wildlife or pastoral livestock population for understanding of their population change and hence for wildlife conservation and promoting human welfare. The study is motivated by an age-sex structured population counts in different regions of Serengeti-Mara during the period 1989-2003. Developing reliable and realistic models for population dynamics of large herbivore population can be a very complex and challenging exercise. However, the Bayesian statistical domain offers some flexible computational methods that enable the development and efficient implementation of complex population dynamics models. In this work, we have used a novel Bayesian state-space model to analyse the dynamics of topi and hartebeest populations in the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem of East Africa. The state-space model involves survival probabilities of the animals which further depend on various factors like monthly rainfall, size of habitat, etc. that cause recent declines in numbers of the herbivore populations and potentially threaten their future population viability in the ecosystem. Our study shows that seasonal rainfall is the most important factors shaping the population size of animals and indicates the age-class which most severely affected by any change in weather conditions.

Keywords: bayesian state-space model, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, population dynamics, conservation

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4524 Estimation of the Mean of the Selected Population

Authors: Kalu Ram Meena, Aditi Kar Gangopadhyay, Satrajit Mandal

Abstract:

Two normal populations with different means and same variance are considered, where the variances are known. The population with the smaller sample mean is selected. Various estimators are constructed for the mean of the selected normal population. Finally, they are compared with respect to the bias and MSE risks by the method of Monte-Carlo simulation and their performances are analysed with the help of graphs.

Keywords: estimation after selection, Brewster-Zidek technique, estimators, selected populations

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4523 Healthy Thai Population and Distribution of HLA-B*57:01 Linked with Abacavir Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Authors: Boonyavee Uthaisang, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs) widely used for the treatment of HIV infection. However, abacavir can lead to hypersensitivity reactions with approximately 5% after initiation of treatment. The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction (AHR) is usually manifested within six weeks after initiation of treatment and is clinically characterized by fever, rash, gastrointestinal, neurological, and musculoskeletal symptoms. The mortality rate of AHR is 0.03%. In previous studies, it was found that HLA-B*57:01 has a strong association with AHR (p-value < 0.001) in the Caucasian population. Nevertheless, the pharmacogenetics marker and the distribution of HLA-B alleles might be different in other populations. Objective: This study aims to investigate the distribution of HLA-B*57:01 among the healthy Thai population. Materials and Methods: HLA-B genotypes of three-hundred healthy Thais were determined by the PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotides probe. Results: The frequency of the HLA-B alleles were HLA-B*46:01 (14.70%), HLA-B*58:01 (7.33%), HLA-B*15:02 (7.17%), HLA-B*40:01 (7.00%), and HLA-B*13:01 (5.83%). Among the healthy Thai population, 6 (1.00%) subjects carried HLA-B*57:01 allele. Moreover, the HLA-B*57:01 allele was similarly distributed in the Asian population (0.5-1%) but higher in the Caucasian population (3%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusions: Screening of HLA-B*57:01 should take place among HIV-infected patients who are diagnosed with abacavir in order to prevent AHR.

Keywords: abacavir, HLA-B*57:01, Thai population, hypersensitivity reactions

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4522 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Sahiwal cattle, polymorphic SNPs, genotyping, Pakistan

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4521 Cybersecurity Awareness Among Applied Sciences Student Population

Authors: Sanja Bracun, Nikolina Kasunic

Abstract:

After graduation, the student population of applied sciences will become the population of employees on IT experts’ positions or "just" business users of certain IT technologies for which the level of awareness of existing cybersecurity risks is extremely important. This research results define the current cybersecurity awareness level of students at Zagreb University of Applied Sciences (TVZ), what can be useful not only for teaching staff to form a curriculum related to cybersecurity more accurately but also to employers to know what to expect from their future employees regarding cybersecurity awareness level.

Keywords: student population cybersecurity awareness, cybersecurity awareness, cybersecurity, applied sciences students

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4520 Generalized Additive Model Approach for the Chilean Hake Population in a Bio-Economic Context

Authors: Selin Guney, Andres Riquelme

Abstract:

The traditional bio-economic method for fisheries modeling uses some estimate of the growth parameters and the system carrying capacity from a biological model for the population dynamics (usually a logistic population growth model) which is then analyzed as a traditional production function. The stock dynamic is transformed into a revenue function and then compared with the extraction costs to estimate the maximum economic yield. In this paper, the logistic population growth model for the population is combined with a forecast of the abundance and location of the stock by using a generalized additive model approach. The paper focuses on the Chilean hake population. This method allows for the incorporation of climatic variables and the interaction with other marine species, which in turn will increase the reliability of the estimates and generate better extraction paths for different conservation objectives, such as the maximum biological yield or the maximum economic yield.

Keywords: bio-economic, fisheries, GAM, production

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4519 Apolipoprotein A1 -75 G to a Substitution and Its Relationship with Serum ApoA1 Levels among Indian Punjabi Population

Authors: Savjot Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, AJS Bhanwer, Santokh Singh, Kawaljit Matharoo

Abstract:

Background: Disorders of lipid metabolism and genetic predisposition are CAD risk factors. ApoA1 is the apolipoprotein component of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The protective action of HDL and ApoA1 is attributed to their central role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Aim: This study was aimed at identifying sequence variations in ApoA1 (-75G>A) and its association with serum ApoA1 levels. Methods: A total of 300 CAD patients and 300 Normal individuals (controls) were analyzed. PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the ApoA1 gene, PCR products digested with restriction enzyme MspI, followed by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Serum apolipoprotein A1 concentration was estimated with immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Deviation from Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was observed for this gene variant. The A- allele frequency was higher among Coronary Artery disease patients (53.8) compared to controls (45.5), p= 0.004, O.R= 1.38(1.11-1.75). Under recessive model analysis (AA vs. GG+GA) AA genotype of ApoA1 G>A substitution conferred ~1 fold increased risk towards CAD susceptibility (p= 0.002, OR= 1.72(1.2-2.43). With serum ApoA1 levels < 107 A allele frequency was higher among CAD cases (50) as compared to controls (43.4) [p=0.23, OR= 1.2(0.84-2)] and there was zero % occurrence of A allele frequency in individuals with ApoA1 levels > 177. Conclusion: Serum ApoA1 levels were associated with ApoA1 promoter region variation and influence CAD risk. The individuals with the APOA1 -75 A allele confer excess hazard of developing CAD as a result of its effect on low serum concentrations of ApoA1.

Keywords: apolipoprotein A1 (G>A) gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease (CAD), reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 236