Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5172

Search results for: power clamp

5172 Design and Finite Element Analysis of Clamp Cylinder for Capacity Augmentation of Injection Moulding Machine

Authors: Vimal Jasoliya, Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah

Abstract:

The Injection Moulding is one of the principle methods of conversions of plastics into various end products using a very wide range of plastics materials from commodity plastics to specialty engineering plastics. Injection Moulding Machines are rated as per the tonnage force applied. The work present includes Design & Finite Element Analysis of a structure component of injection moulding machine i.e. clamp cylinder. The work of the project is to upgrade the 1300T clamp cylinder to 1500T clamp cylinder for injection moulding machine. The design of existing clamp cylinder of 1300T is checked. Finite Element analysis is carried out for 1300T clamp cylinder in ANSYS Workbench, and the stress values are compared with acceptance criteria and theoretical calculation. The relation between the clamp cylinder diameter and the tonnage capacity has been derived and verified for 1300T clamp cylinder. The same correlation is used to find out the thickness for 1500T clamp cylinder. The detailed design of 1500T cylinder is carried out based on calculated thickness.

Keywords: clamp cylinder, fatigue analysis, finite element analysis, injection moulding machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
5171 Analysis of Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuits with Electrical Characteristics for the 5V Power Clamp

Authors: Jun-Geol Park, Kyoung-Il Do, Min-Ju Kwon, Kyung-Hyun Park, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper analyzed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuits with the turn-on time characteristics. The structures are the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Triggered SCR), the ZTSCR (Zener Triggered SCR) and the PTSCR (P-Substrate Triggered SCR). The three structures are for the 5V power clamp. In general, the structures with the low trigger voltage structure can have the fast turn-on characteristics than other structures. All the ESD protection circuits have the low trigger voltage by using the N+ bridge region of LVTSCR, by using the zener diode structure of ZTSCR, by increasing the trigger current of PTSCR. The simulation for the comparison with the turn-on time was conducted by the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As the simulation results, the LVTSCR has the turn-on time of 2.8 ns, ZTSCR of 2.1 ns and the PTSCR of 2.4 ns. The HBM simulation results, however, show that the PTSCR is the more robust structure of 430K in HBM 8kV standard than 450K of LVTSCR and 495K of ZTSCR. Therefore the PTSCR is the most effective ESD protection circuit for the 5V power clamp.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, turn-on time, trigger voltage, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5170 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
5169 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: boost converter, current sensing, power-on protection, step-up converter, soft-start

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
5168 A pilot Study of Umbilical Cord Mini-Clamp

Authors: Seng Sing Tan

Abstract:

Clamping of the umbilical cord after birth is widely practiced as a part of labor management. Further improvements were proposed to produce a smaller, lighter and more comfortable clamp while still maintaining current standards of clamping. A detachable holder was also developed to facilitate the clamping process. This pilot study on the efficacy of the mini-clamp was conducted to evaluate a tightness of the seal and a firm grip of the clamp on the umbilical cord. The study was carried out at National University Hospital, using 5 sets of placental cord. 18 samples of approximate 10 cm each were harvested. The test results showed that the mini-clamp was able to stop the flow through the cord after clamping without rupturing the cord. All slip tests passed with a load of 0.2 kg. In the pressure testing, 30kPa of saline was exerted into the umbilical veins. Although there was no physical sign of fluid leaking through the end secured by the mini-clamp, the results showed the pressure was not able to sustain the pressure set during the tests. 12 out of the 18 test samples have more than 7% of pressure drop in 30 seconds. During the pressure leak test, it was observed on several samples that when pressurized, small droplets of saline were growing on the outer surface of the cord lining membrane. It was thus hypothesized that the pressure drop was likely caused by the perfusion of the injected saline through the Wharton’s jelly and the cord lining membrane. The average pressure in the umbilical vein is roughly 2.67kPa (20 mmHg), less than 10% of 30kPa (~225mmHg), set for the pressure testing. As such, the pressure set could be over-specified, leading to undesirable outcomes. The development of the mini-clamp was an attempt to increase the comfort of newly born babies while maintaining the usability and efficacy of hospital grade umbilical cord clamp. The pressure leak in this study would be unfair to fully attribute it to the design and efficacy of the mini-clamp. Considering the unexpected leakage of saline through the umbilical membrane due to over-specified pressure exerted on the umbilical veins, improvements can definitely be made to the existing experimental setup to obtain a more accurate and conclusive outcome. If proven conclusive and effective, the mini-clamp with a detachable holder could be a smaller and potentially cheaper alternative to existing umbilical cord clamps. In addition, future clinical trials could be conducted to determine the user-friendliness of the mini-clamp and evaluate its practicality in the clinical setting by labor ward clinicians. A further potential improvement could be proposed on the sustainability factor of the mini-clamp. A biodegradable clamp would revolutionise the industry in this increasingly environmentally sustainability world.

Keywords: leak test, mini-clamp, slip test, umbilical cord

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
5167 Indigenous Patch Clamp Technique: Design of Highly Sensitive Amplifier Circuit for Measuring and Monitoring of Real Time Ultra Low Ionic Current through Cellular Gates

Authors: Moez ul Hassan, Bushra Noman, Sarmad Hameed, Shahab Mehmood, Asma Bashir

Abstract:

The importance of Noble prize winning “Patch Clamp Technique” is well documented. However, Patch Clamp Technique is very expensive and hence hinders research in developing countries. In this paper, detection, processing and recording of ultra low current from induced cells by using transimpedence amplifier is described. The sensitivity of the proposed amplifier is in the range of femto amperes (fA). Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The circuit designed by the authors was able to measure current in the rangeof 300fA to 100pA. Adequate performance shown by the amplifier with different input current and outcome result was found to be within the acceptable error range. Results were recorded using LabVIEW 8.5®for further research.

Keywords: drug discovery, ionic current, operational amplifier, patch clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
5166 Intramuscular Heat Shock Protein 72 and Heme Oxygenase-1 mRNA are Reduced in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Evidence That Insulin Resistance is Associated with a Disturbed Antioxidant Defense Mechanism

Authors: Ghibeche Abderrahmane

Abstract:

To examine whether genes associated with cellular defense against oxidative stress are associated with insulin sensitivity, patients with type 2 diabetes (n=7) and age-matched (n=5) and young (n=9) control subjects underwent a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for 120 min. Muscle samples were obtained before and after the clamp and analyzed for heat shock protein (HSP)72 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA, intramuscular triglyceride content, and the maximal activities of β-hyroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) and citrate synthase (CS). Basal expression of both HSP72 and HO-1 mRNA were lower (P < 0.05) by 33 and 55%, respectively, when comparing diabetic patients with age-matched and young control subjects, with no differences between the latter groups. Both basal HSP72 (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and HO-1 (r = 0.50,P < 0.05) mRNA expression correlated with the glucose infusion rate during the clamp. Significant correlations were also observed between HSP72 mRNA and both β-HAD (r = 0.61, P < 0.01) and CS (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). HSP72 mRNA was induced (P < 0.05) by the clamp in all groups. Although HO-1 mRNA was unaffected by the clamp in both the young and age-matched control subjects, it was increased (P < 0.05) ∼70-fold in the diabetic patients after the clamp. These data demonstrate that genes involved in providing cellular protection against oxidative stress are defective in patients with type 2 diabetes and correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and markers of muscle oxidative capacity. The data provide new evidence that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves perturbations to the antioxidant defense mechanism within skeletal muscle.

Keywords: euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic, HSP72, mRNA, diabete

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
5165 Life Time Improvement of Clamp Structural by Using Fatigue Analysis

Authors: Pisut Boonkaew, Jatuporn Thongsri

Abstract:

In hard disk drive manufacturing industry, the process of reducing an unnecessary part and qualifying the quality of part before assembling is important. Thus, clamp was designed and fabricated as a fixture for holding in testing process. Basically, testing by trial and error consumes a long time to improve. Consequently, the simulation was brought to improve the part and reduce the time taken. The problem is the present clamp has a low life expectancy because of the critical stress that occurred. Hence, the simulation was brought to study the behavior of stress and compressive force to improve the clamp expectancy with all probability of designs which are present up to 27 designs, which excluding the repeated designs. The probability was calculated followed by the full fractional rules of six sigma methodology which was provided correctly. The six sigma methodology is a well-structured method for improving quality level by detecting and reducing the variability of the process. Therefore, the defective will be decreased while the process capability increasing. This research focuses on the methodology of stress and fatigue reduction while compressive force still remains in the acceptable range that has been set by the company. In the simulation, ANSYS simulates the 3D CAD with the same condition during the experiment. Then the force at each distance started from 0.01 to 0.1 mm will be recorded. The setting in ANSYS was verified by mesh convergence methodology and compared the percentage error with the experimental result; the error must not exceed the acceptable range. Therefore, the improved process focuses on degree, radius, and length that will reduce stress and still remain in the acceptable force number. Therefore, the fatigue analysis will be brought as the next process in order to guarantee that the lifetime will be extended by simulating through ANSYS simulation program. Not only to simulate it, but also to confirm the setting by comparing with the actual clamp in order to observe the different of fatigue between both designs. This brings the life time improvement up to 57% compared with the actual clamp in the manufacturing. This study provides a precise and trustable setting enough to be set as a reference methodology for the future design. Because of the combination and adaptation from the six sigma method, finite element, fatigue and linear regressive analysis that lead to accurate calculation, this project will able to save up to 60 million dollars annually.

Keywords: clamp, finite element analysis, structural, six sigma, linear regressive analysis, fatigue analysis, probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
5164 Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Samuel Adeoye

Abstract:

Ekiti State is an agrarian state located in south western part of Nigeria. The injected power to the Ado-Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6 MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively. The distributed power to the consumers is characterized with shortcomings which include: in-adequate supply, poor voltage regulation, improper usage, illiteracy and wastage. The power generation in Nigeria is presently 1680.60MW which does not match the estimated power demand of 15,000MW with a population of over 170 million citizens. This paper evaluates the energy utilization in Ado Ekiti metropolis, the wastage and its economic implication as well as effective means of its management. The use of direct interviews, administration of questionnaires, measurements of current and voltage with clamp multimeter, and simple mathematical approach were used for the purpose of evaluation. Recommendations were made with the view of reducing energy waste from mean value of 10.84% to 2% in order to reduce the cost implication such that the huge financial waste can be injected to other parts of the economy as well as the management of energy in Ekiti state.

Keywords: consumers, demand, energy, management, power supply, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5163 Mooring Analysis of Duct-Type Tidal Current Power System in Shallow Water

Authors: Chul H. Jo, Do Y. Kim, Bong K. Cho, Myeong J. Kim

Abstract:

The exhaustion of oil and the environmental pollution from the use of fossil fuel are increasing. Tidal current power (TCP) has been proposed as an alternative energy source because of its predictability and reliability. By applying a duct and single point mooring (SPM) system, a TCP device can amplify the generating power and keep its position properly. Because the generating power is proportional to cube of the current stream velocity, amplifying the current speed by applying a duct to a TCP system is an effective way to improve the efficiency of the power device. An SPM system can be applied at any water depth and is highly cost effective. Simple installation and maintenance procedures are also merits of an SPM system. In this study, we designed an SPM system for a duct-type TCP device for use in shallow water. Motions of the duct are investigated to obtain the response amplitude operator (RAO) as the magnitude of the transfer function. Parameters affecting the stability of the SPM system such as the fairlead departure angle, current velocity, and the number of clamp weights are analyzed and/or optimized. Wadam and OrcaFlex commercial software is used to design the mooring line.

Keywords: mooring design, parametric analysis, RAO (Response Amplitude Operator), SPM (Single Point Mooring)

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
5162 Design, Control and Implementation of 3.5 kW Bi-Directional Energy Harvester for Intelligent Green Energy Management System

Authors: P. Ramesh, Aby Joseph, Arya G. Lal, U. S. Aji

Abstract:

Integration of distributed green renewable energy sources in addition with battery energy storage is an inevitable requirement in a smart grid environment. To achieve this, an Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) needs to be incorporated to ensure coordinated operation between supply and load demand based on the hierarchy of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), battery energy storage and distribution grid. A bi-directional energy harvester is an integral component facilitating Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) and it is required to meet the technical challenges mentioned as follows: (1) capability for bi-directional mode of operation (buck/boost) (2) reduction of circuit parasitic to suppress voltage spikes (3) converter startup problem (4) high frequency magnetics (5) higher power density (6) mode transition issues during battery charging and discharging. This paper is focused to address the above mentioned issues and targeted to design, develop and implement a bi-directional energy harvester with galvanic isolation. In this work, the hardware architecture for bi-directional energy harvester rated 3.5 kW is developed with Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter (IFBBC) as well as Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Converter configuration using modular power electronics hardware which is identical for both solar PV array and battery energy storage. In IFBBC converter, the current fed full bridge circuit is enabled and voltage fed full bridge circuit is disabled through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulses for boost mode of operation and vice-versa for buck mode of operation. In DAB converter, all the switches are in active state so as to adjust the phase shift angle between primary full bridge and secondary full bridge which in turn decides the power flow directions depending on modes (boost/buck) of operation. Here, the control algorithm is developed to ensure the regulation of the common DC link voltage and maximum power extraction from the renewable energy sources depending on the selected mode (buck/boost) of operation. The circuit analysis and simulation study are conducted using PSIM 9.0 in three scenarios which are - 1.IFBBC with passive clamp, 2. IFBBC with active clamp, 3. DAB converter. In this work, a common hardware prototype for bi-directional energy harvester with 3.5 kW rating is built for IFBBC and DAB converter configurations. The power circuit is equipped with right choice of MOSFETs, gate drivers with galvanic isolation, high frequency transformer, filter capacitors, and filter boost inductor. The experiment was conducted for IFBBC converter with passive clamp under boost mode and the prototype confirmed the simulation results showing the measured efficiency as 88% at 2.5 kW output power. The digital controller hardware platform is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the bi-directional energy harvester is written in C language and developed using code composer studio. The comprehensive analyses of the power circuit design, control strategy for battery charging/discharging under buck/boost modes and comparative performance evaluation using simulation and experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: bi-directional energy harvester, dual active bridge, isolated full bridge boost converter, intelligent green energy management system, maximum power point tracking, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
5161 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
5160 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
5159 The Response of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid on Kv1.4 Potassium Channel Subunit Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

Authors: Fatin H. Mohamad, Jia H. Wong, Muhammad Bilal, Abdul A. Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri M. Abdullah, Jingli Zhang

Abstract:

Kv1.4 is a Shaker-related member of voltage-gated potassium channel which can be associated with cardiac action potential but can also be found in Schaffer collateral and dentate gyrus. It has two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. Kv1.4 produces rapid current inactivation. This A type potential of Kv1.4 makes it as a target in antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) selection. In this study, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which can be naturally found in bamboo shoots, were tested on its enhancement effect on potassium current of Kv1.4 channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp method. Current obtained were recorded and analyzed with pClamp software whereas statistical analysis were done by student t-test. The ratio of final / peak amplitude is an index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channel. The less the ratio, the greater the function of Kv1.4. The decrease of ratio of which by 1µM 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (n= 7), compared with 0.1% DMSO (vehicle), was mean= 47.62%, SE= 13.76%, P= 0.026 (statistically significant). It indicated more opening of Kv1.4 channels under 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In conclusion, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid can enhance the function of Kv1.4 potassium channels, which is regarded as one of the mechanisms of antiepileptic treatment.

Keywords: antiepileptic, Kv1.4 potassium channel, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, Xenopus laevis oocytes, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5158 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5157 Soft Power: Concept and Role in Country Policy

Authors: Talip Turkmen

Abstract:

From the moment the first beats, the first step into the world mankind finds him in a struggle to survive. Most important case to win this fight is power. Power is one of the most common concepts which we encounter in our life. Mainly power is ability to reach desired results on someone else or ability to penetrate into the behavior of others. Throughout history merging technology and changing political trade-offs caused the change of concept of power. Receiving a state of multipolar new world order in the 21st century and increasing impacts of media have narrowed the limits of military power. With increasing globalization and peaceful diplomacy this gap, left by military power, has filled by soft power which has ability to persuade and attract. As concepts of power soft power also has not compromised yet. For that reason it is important to specify, sources of soft power, soft power strategies and limits of soft power. The purpose of this study was to analyze concept of soft power and importance of soft power in foreign relations. This project focuses on power, hard power and soft power relations, sources of soft power and strategies to gain soft power. Datas in this project was acquired from other studies on soft power and foreign relations. This paper was prepared in terms of concept and research techniques. As a result of data gained in this study the one of important topics in international relations is balance between soft power.

Keywords: soft power, foreign policy, national power, hard power

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5156 Reactive Power Cost Evaluation with FACTS Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: A. S. Walkey, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

It is not always economical to provide reactive power using synchronous alternators. The cost of reactive power can be minimized by optimal placing of FACTS devices in power systems. In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization- Sequential Quadratic Programming (PSO-SQP) algorithm is applied to minimize the cost of reactive power generation along with real power generation to alleviate the bus voltage violations. The effectiveness of proposed approach tested on IEEE-14 bus systems. In this paper in addition to synchronous generators, an opportunity of FACTS devices are also proposed to procure the reactive power demands in the power system.

Keywords: reactive power, reactive power cost, voltage security margins, capability curve, FACTS devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
5155 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5154 The Using of Smart Power Concepts in Military Targeting Process

Authors: Serdal AKYUZ

Abstract:

The smart power is the use of soft and hard power together in consideration of existing circumstances. Soft power can be defined as the capability of changing perception of any target mass by employing policies based on legality. The hard power, generally, uses military and economic instruments which are the concrete indicator of general power comprehension. More than providing a balance between soft and hard power, smart power creates a proactive combination by assessing existing resources. Military targeting process (MTP), as stated in smart power methodology, benefits from a wide scope of lethal and non-lethal weapons to reach intended end state. The Smart powers components can be used in military targeting process similar to using of lethal or non-lethal weapons. This paper investigates the current use of Smart power concept, MTP and presents a new approach to MTP from smart power concept point of view.

Keywords: future security environment, hard power, military targeting process, soft power, smart power

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
5153 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: power quality disturbances, power quality evaluation, statistical analysis, electrical distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
5152 A Succinct Method for Allocation of Reactive Power Loss in Deregulated Scenario

Authors: J. S. Savier

Abstract:

Real power is the component power which is converted into useful energy whereas reactive power is the component of power which cannot be converted to useful energy but it is required for the magnetization of various electrical machineries. If the reactive power is compensated at the consumer end, the need for reactive power flow from generators to the load can be avoided and hence the overall power loss can be reduced. In this scenario, this paper presents a succinct method called JSS method for allocation of reactive power losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment. The proposed method has the advantage that no assumptions are made while deriving the reactive power loss allocation method.

Keywords: deregulation, reactive power loss allocation, radial distribution systems, succinct method

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5151 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
5150 An Adder with Novel PMOS and NMOS for Ultra Low Power Applications in Deep Submicron Technology

Authors: Ch. Ashok Babu, J. V. R. Ravindra, K. Lalkishore

Abstract:

Power has became a burning issue in modern VLSI design. As the technology advances especially below 45nm, technology of leakage power became a big problem apart of the dynamic power. This paper presents a full adder with novel PMOS and NMOS which consume less power compare to conventional full adder, DTMOS full adder. This paper shows different types of adders and their power consumption, area, and delay. All the experiments have been carried out using Cadence® Virtuoso® design lay out editor which shows power consumption of different types of adders.

Keywords: average power, leakage power, delay, DTMOS, PDP

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5149 Transfigurative Changes of Governmental Responsibility

Authors: Ákos Cserny

Abstract:

The unequivocal increase of the area of operation of the executive power can happen with the appearance of new areas to be influenced and its integration in the power, or at the expense of the scopes of other organs with public authority. The extension of the executive can only be accepted within the framework of the rule of law if parallel with this process we get constitutional guarantees that the exercise of power is kept within constitutional framework. Failure to do so, however, may result in the lack, deficit of democracy and democratic sense, and may cause an overwhelming dominance of the executive power. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present executive power and responsibility in the context of different dimensions.

Keywords: confidence, constitution, executive power, liabiliy, parliamentarism

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
5148 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: power integrity, power-aware signal integrity analysis, electromagnetic simulation, channel simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
5147 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh

Abstract:

We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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5146 Carrier Communication through Power Lines

Authors: Pavuluri Gopikrishna, B. Neelima

Abstract:

Power line carrier communication means audio power transmission via power line and reception of the amplified audio power at the receiver as in the form of speaker output signal using power line as the channel medium. The main objective of this suggested work is to transmit our message signal after frequency modulation by the help of FM modulator IC LM565 which gives output proportional to the input voltage of the input message signal. And this audio power is received from the power line by the help of isolation circuit and demodulated from IC LM565 which uses the concept of the PLL and produces FM demodulated signal to the listener. Message signal will be transmitted over the carrier signal that will be generated from the FM modulator IC LM565. Using this message signal will not damage because of no direct contact of message signal from the power line, but noise can disturb our information.

Keywords: amplification, fm demodulator ic 565, fm modulator ic 565, phase locked loop, power isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
5145 Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Charger Efficiency for Mobile Device

Authors: SeungHee Ryu, Junil Moon

Abstract:

The magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system is widely researched due to its benefits such as spatial freedom. In this paper, power transmitting unit and power receiving unit of wireless battery charger for mobile devices is presented. Power transmitting unit efficiency is measured under different test conditions with power receiving units.

Keywords: magnetic resonance coupling, wireless power transfer, power transfer efficiency.

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5144 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer

Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar

Abstract:

In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.

Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
5143 High-Efficiency Comparator for Low-Power Application

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, dynamic comparator structure employing two methods for power consumption reduction with applications in low-power high-speed analog-to-digital converters have been presented. The proposed comparator has low consumption thanks to power reduction methods. They have the ability for offset adjustment. The comparator consumes 14.3 μW at 100 MHz which is equal to 11.8 fJ. The comparator has been designed and simulated in 180 nm CMOS. Layouts occupy 210 μm2.

Keywords: efficiency, comparator, power, low

Procedia PDF Downloads 267