Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10493

Search results for: radial distribution systems

10493 DG Power Plants Placement and Evaluation of its Effect on Improving Voltage Security Margin in Radial Distribution Networks

Authors: Atabak Faramarzpour, Mohsen Mohammadian

Abstract:

In this article, we introduce the stability of power system voltage and state DG power plants placement and its effect on improving voltage security margin in radial distribution networks. For this purpose, first, important definitions in voltage stability area such as small and big voltage disturbances, instability, and voltage collapse, and voltage security definitions are stated. Then, according to voltage collapse time, voltage stability is classified and each one's characteristics are stated.

Keywords: DG power plants, evaluation, voltage security, radial distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
10492 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems

Authors: Sana Ansari, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) has been used to solve the maximization modules using the MINOS optimization software with Linear Programming (LP). The proposed method is tested on 33 node distribution system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 563
10491 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV, Velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10490 Optimization Method of Dispersed Generation in Electrical Distribution Systems

Authors: Mahmoud Samkan

Abstract:

Dispersed Generation (DG) is a promising solution to many power system problems such as voltage regulation and power loss. This paper proposes a heuristic two-step method to optimize the location and size of DG for reducing active power losses and, therefore, improve the voltage profile in radial distribution networks. In addition to a DG placed at the system load gravity center, this method consists in assigning a DG to each lateral of the network. After having determined the central DG placement, the location and size of each lateral DG are predetermined in the first step. The results are then refined in the second step. This method is tested for 33-bus system for 100% DG penetration. The results obtained are compared with those of other methods found in the literature.

Keywords: optimal location, optimal size, dispersed generation (DG), radial distribution networks, reducing losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
10489 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei

Abstract:

In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
10488 A Multi Agent Based Protection Scheme for Smart Distribution Network in Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

Authors: M. R. Ebrahimi, B. Mahdaviani

Abstract:

Conventional electric distribution systems are radial in nature, supplied at one end through a main source. These networks generally have a simple protection system usually implemented using fuses, re-closers, and over-current relays. Recently, great attention has been paid to applying Distributed energy resources (DERs) throughout electric distribution systems. Presence of such generation in a network leads to losing coordination of protection devices. Therefore, it is desired to develop an algorithm which is capable of protecting distribution systems that include DER. On the other hand smart grid brings opportunities to the power system. Fast advancement in communication and measurement techniques accelerates the development of multi agent system (MAS). So in this paper, a new approach for the protection of distribution networks in the presence of DERs is presented base on MAS. The proposed scheme has been implemented on a sample 27-bus distribution network.

Keywords: distributed energy resource, distribution network, protection, smart grid, multi agent system

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10487 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda

Abstract:

The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
10486 A Succinct Method for Allocation of Reactive Power Loss in Deregulated Scenario

Authors: J. S. Savier

Abstract:

Real power is the component power which is converted into useful energy whereas reactive power is the component of power which cannot be converted to useful energy but it is required for the magnetization of various electrical machineries. If the reactive power is compensated at the consumer end, the need for reactive power flow from generators to the load can be avoided and hence the overall power loss can be reduced. In this scenario, this paper presents a succinct method called JSS method for allocation of reactive power losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment. The proposed method has the advantage that no assumptions are made while deriving the reactive power loss allocation method.

Keywords: deregulation, reactive power loss allocation, radial distribution systems, succinct method

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10485 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay

Abstract:

Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
10484 Distribution System Planning with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placements

Authors: Nattachote Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents a feeder reconfiguration problem in distribution systems. The objective is to minimize the system power loss and to improve bus voltage profile. The optimization problem is subjected to system constraints consisting of load-point voltage limits, radial configuration format, no load-point interruption, and feeder capability limits. A method based on genetic algorithm, a search algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics, is proposed to determine the optimal pattern of configuration. The developed methodology is demonstrated by a 33-bus radial distribution system with distributed generations and feeder capacitors. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the minimum power loss while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: network reconfiguration, distributed generation capacitor placement, loss reduction, genetic algorithm

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10483 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: C. Pislaru, A. Shebani

Abstract:

This paper uses the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for system identification of nonlinear systems. Five nonlinear systems are used to examine the activity of RBFNN in system modeling of nonlinear systems; the five nonlinear systems are dual tank system, single tank system, DC motor system, and two academic models. The feed forward method is considered in this work for modelling the non-linear dynamic models, where the K-Means clustering algorithm used in this paper to select the centers of radial basis function network, because it is reliable, offers fast convergence and can handle large data sets. The least mean square method is used to adjust the weights to the output layer, and Euclidean distance method used to measure the width of the Gaussian function.

Keywords: system identification, nonlinear systems, neural networks, radial basis function, K-means clustering algorithm

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10482 Extrudate Swell under the Effect of Radial Flow and Intrinsic Factors to the Polymer Upstream of the Die

Authors: Hela Krir, Abdelhak Ayadi, Chedly Bradaii

Abstract:

The influence of both intrinsic factors, elastic energy and memory effect, and radial flow on the appearance and the evolution of the extrudate swelling are investigated in the present work. The experiments have been performed with linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via a capillary rheometer in which a convergent radial flow was created upstream the contraction. The correspondence between the effects of radial flow, entry elastic stored energy and memory effect is discussed. In particular, as the influence of the considered radial flow, extrudate photographs showed that when the gap ratio is reduced, the extrudate swell is lessened than what it is when radial flow geometry is not installed. Moreover, with a narrower gap, the polymer stores less energy during its passage through the die which implies a lower extrudate swelling at the outlet of the die. Results previously mentioned may be related both to shear and elongational components of radial flow.

Keywords: elastic energy, extrudate swell, memory effect, radial flow

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10481 Calculation the Left Ventricle Wall Radial Strain and Radial SR Using Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data (tMRI)

Authors: Mohammed Alenezy

Abstract:

The function of cardiac motion can be used as an indicator of the heart abnormality by evaluating longitudinal, circumferential, and Radial Strain of the left ventricle. In this paper, the Radial Strain and SR is studied using tagged MRI (tMRI) data during the cardiac cycle on the mid-ventricle level of the left ventricle. Materials and methods: The short-axis view of the left ventricle of five healthy human (three males and two females) and four healthy male rats were imaged using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI) technique covering the whole cardiac cycle on the mid-ventricle level. Images were processed using Image J software to calculate the left ventricle wall Radial Strain and radial SR. The left ventricle Radial Strain and radial SR were calculated at the mid-ventricular level during the cardiac cycle. The peak Radial Strain for the human and rat heart was 40.7±1.44, and 46.8±0.68 respectively, and it occurs at 40% of the cardiac cycle for both human and rat heart. The peak diastolic and systolic radial SR for human heart was -1.78 s-1 ± 0.02 s-1 and 1.10±0.08 s-1 respectively, while for rat heart it was -5.16± 0.23s-1 and 4.25±0.02 s-1 respectively. Conclusion: This results show the ability of the tMRI data to characterize the cardiac motion during the cardiac cycle including diastolic and systolic phases which can be used as an indicator of the cardiac dysfunction by estimating the left ventricle Radial Strain and radial SR at different locations of the cardiac tissue. This study approves the validity of the tagged MRI data to describe accurately the cardiac radial motion.

Keywords: left ventricle, radial strain, tagged MRI, cardiac cycle

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10480 Rotor Radial Vent Pumping in Large Synchronous Electrical Machines

Authors: Darren Camilleri, Robert Rolston

Abstract:

Rotor radial vents make use of the pumping effect to increase airflow through the active material thus reduce hotspot temperatures. The effect of rotor radial pumping in synchronous machines has been studied previously. This paper presents the findings of previous studies and builds upon their theories using a parametric numerical approach to investigate the rotor radial pumping effect. The pressure head generated by the poles and radial vent flow-rate were identified as important factors in maximizing the benefits of the pumping effect. The use of Minitab and ANSYS Workbench to investigate the key performance characteristics of radial pumping through a Design of Experiments (DOE) was described. CFD results were compared with theoretical calculations. A correlation for each response variable was derived through a statistical analysis. Findings confirmed the strong dependence of radial vent length on vent pressure head, and radial vent cross-sectional area was proved to be significant in maximising radial vent flow rate.

Keywords: CFD, cooling, electrical machines, regression analysis

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10479 Radial Distribution Network Reliability Improvement by Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Azim Khodadadi, Sahar Sadaat Vakili, Ebrahim Babaei

Abstract:

This study presents a numerical method to optimize the failure rate and repair time of a typical radial distribution system. Failure rate and repair time are effective parameters in customer and energy based indices of reliability. Decrease of these parameters improves reliability indices. Thus, system stability will be boost. The penalty functions indirectly reflect the cost of investment which spent to improve these indices. Constraints on customer and energy based indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS have been considered by using a new method which reduces optimization algorithm controlling parameters. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) used as main optimization technique and particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA) and differential evolution (DE) has been applied for further investigation. These algorithms have been implemented on a test system by MATLAB. Obtained results have been compared with each other. The optimized values of repair time and failure rate are much lower than current values which this achievement reduced investment cost and also ICA gives better answer than the other used algorithms.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, failure rate, repair time, radial distribution network

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10478 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina

Abstract:

The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
10477 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ali Ravangard, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Shunt Capacitors have several uses in the electric power systems. They are utilized as sources of reactive power by connecting them in line-to-neutral. Electric utilities have also connected capacitors in series with long lines in order to reduce its impedance. This is particularly common in the transmission level, where the lines have length in several hundreds of kilometers. However, this post will generally discuss shunt capacitors. In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. For solving the problem, a new enhanced cuckoo optimization algorithm is presented.The proposed method is tested on distribution test system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: capacitor placement, power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
10476 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
10475 Unusual High Origin and Superficial Course of Radial Artery: A Case Report with Embryological Explanation

Authors: Anasuya Ghosh, Subhramoy Chaudhury

Abstract:

During routine cadaveric dissection at gross anatomy lab of our institution, a radial artery was found with unusual origin and superficial course. Normally the radial artery takes its origin as one of the terminal branches of brachial artery at the level of the neck of radius. It usually lies along the lateral border of fore arm deep to the brachioradialis muscle. While dissecting a 72-year-old Caucasian female cadaver, it was found that the right sided radial artery originated from the upper part of brachial artery of arm, 2 cm below the lower border of teres major muscle, from the lateral aspect of brachial artery. Then the radial artery superficially crossed the brachial artery and median nerve from lateral to medial direction and rested superficially at the cubital fossa. Embryologically, it can be explained as a failure of disappearance, or abnormal persistence of some insignificant embryonic vessels may give rise to this kind of vascular anomalies. As radial artery is one of the most important upper limb arteries, its variation and related complications are clinically significant. This unusual origin and course of radial artery should be kept in mind by all healthcare providers including surgeons and radiologists during routine venipuncture, orthopedic and plastic surgeries of arm, coronary angiographic procedures in radial approach etc. to prevent unwanted complications.

Keywords: brachial artery anomalies, brachio-radial artery, high origin radial artery, superficial radial artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
10474 Water Leakage Detection System of Pipe Line using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: A. Ejah Umraeni Salam, M. Tola, M. Selintung, F. Maricar

Abstract:

Clean water is an essential and fundamental human need. Therefore, its supply must be assured by maintaining the quality, quantity and water pressure. However the fact is, on its distribution system, leakage happens and becomes a common world issue. One of the technical causes of the leakage is a leaking pipe. The purpose of the research is how to use the Radial Basis Function Neural (RBFNN) model to detect the location and the magnitude of the pipeline leakage rapidly and efficiently. In this study the RBFNN are trained and tested on data from EPANET hydraulic modeling system. Method of Radial Basis Function Neural Network is proved capable to detect location and magnitude of pipeline leakage with of the accuracy of the prediction results based on the value of RMSE (Root Meant Square Error), comparison prediction and actual measurement approaches 0.000049 for the whole pipeline system.

Keywords: radial basis function neural network, leakage pipeline, EPANET, RMSE

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10473 Intelligent Minimal Allocation of Capacitors in Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam

Abstract:

A distribution system is an interface between the bulk power system and the consumers. Among these systems, radial distributions system is popular because of low cost and simple design. In distribution systems, the voltages at buses reduces when moved away from the substation, also the losses are high. The reason for a decrease in voltage and high losses is the insufficient amount of reactive power, which can be provided by the shunt capacitors. But the placement of the capacitor with an appropriate size is always a challenge. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement problem is to determine the location and size of capacitors to be placed in distribution networks in an efficient way to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the system. For this purpose, in this paper, two stage methodologies are used. In the first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out using ‘dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm (DRDLFA)’. On the basis of this load flow the potential locations of compensation are computed. In the second stage, Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is used to determine the optimal location and size of the capacitors such that the cost of the energy loss and capacitor cost to be a minimum. The above method is tested on IEEE 9 and 34 bus system and compared with other methods in the literature.

Keywords: dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm, DRDLFA, genetic algorithm, electrical distribution network, optimal capacitors placement, voltage profile improvement, loss reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
10472 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta

Abstract:

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

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10471 Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Sani M. Lawal, Idris Musa, Aliyu D. Usman

Abstract:

The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.

Keywords: distributed generation, pareto, particle swarm optimization, power loss, voltage deviation

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10470 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
10469 The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact

Authors: H. Aissa, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.

Keywords: splash distribution, water drop, slope steepness, soil detachment

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10468 DG Allocation to Reduce Production Cost by Reducing Losses in Radial Distribution Systems Using Fuzzy

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Electrical energy is vital in every aspect of day-to-day life. Keen interest is taken on all possible sources of energy from which it can be generated and this led to the encouragement of generating electrical power using renewable energy resources such as solar, tidal waves and wind energy. Due to the increasing interest on renewable sources in recent times, the studies on integration of distributed generation to the power grid have rapidly increased. Distributed Generation (DG) is a promising solution to many power system problems such as voltage regulation, power loss and reduction in operational cost, etc. To reduce production cost, it is important to minimize the losses by determining the location and size of local generators to be placed in the radial distribution systems. In this paper, reduction of production cost by optimal size of DG unit operated at optimal power factor is dealt. The optimal size of the DG unit is calculated analytically using approximate reasoning suitable nodes and DG placement to minimize production cost with minimum loss is determined by fuzzy technique. Total Cost of Power generation is compared with and without DG unit for 1 year duration. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: distributed generation, operational cost, exact loss formula, optimum size, optimum location

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10467 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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10466 Nonuniformity of the Piston Motion in a Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, M. Bialy, M. Duk

Abstract:

One of the main disadvantages of radial engines is non-uniformity of operating cycles of each cylinder. This paper discusses the results of the kinematic analysis of pistons motion of the ASz-62IR radial engine. The ASz-62IR engine is produced in Poland and mounted in the M-18 Dromader and the An-2. The results are shown as the courses of the motion of the pistons. The discrepancies in the courses for individual pistons can result in different masses of the charge to fill the cylinders. Besides, pistons acceleration of individual cylinders is different, which triggers an additional vibration in the engine.

Keywords: nonuniformity, kinematic analysis, piston motion, radial engine

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10465 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile

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10464 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah

Abstract:

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

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