Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: J. V. R. Ravindra

23 An Adder with Novel PMOS and NMOS for Ultra Low Power Applications in Deep Submicron Technology

Authors: Ch. Ashok Babu, J. V. R. Ravindra, K. Lalkishore


Power has became a burning issue in modern VLSI design. As the technology advances especially below 45nm, technology of leakage power became a big problem apart of the dynamic power. This paper presents a full adder with novel PMOS and NMOS which consume less power compare to conventional full adder, DTMOS full adder. This paper shows different types of adders and their power consumption, area, and delay. All the experiments have been carried out using Cadence® Virtuoso® design lay out editor which shows power consumption of different types of adders.

Keywords: average power, leakage power, delay, DTMOS, PDP

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22 Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study

Authors: Ravindra Gohane, S. V. Deshmukh


The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.

Keywords: coal handling plant, wet coal, v-type, generation

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21 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar


For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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20 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai


The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication

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19 Gaussian Mixture Model Based Identification of Arterial Wall Movement for Computation of Distension Waveform

Authors: Ravindra B. Patil, P. Krishnamoorthy, Shriram Sethuraman


This work proposes a novel Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based approach for accurate tracking of the arterial wall and subsequent computation of the distension waveform using Radio Frequency (RF) ultrasound signal. The approach was evaluated on ultrasound RF data acquired using a prototype ultrasound system from an artery mimicking flow phantom. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing with existing wall tracking algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides 20% reduction in the error margin compared to the existing approaches in tracking the arterial wall movement. This approach coupled with ultrasound system can be used to estimate the arterial compliance parameters required for screening of cardiovascular related disorders.

Keywords: distension waveform, Gaussian Mixture Model, RF ultrasound, arterial wall movement

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18 Performance Analysis of Curved U-Slot Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth and Isolation for Mimo Systems

Authors: Umesh Kumar, Arun Kumar Shukla, B. V. V. Ravindra Babu


The paper presents a compact tri band Curved U-Slot patch antenna with improved bandwidth and isolation characteristics. The proposed antenna excited by coaxial feed resonates at tri band of 2.8 GHz, 4.1 GHz and 5.7 GHz for VSWR ≤ 1.5 with an improved bandwidth of 99.7% and also for getting high gain antenna of 11.31 dB. A 2×2 MIMO is developed using the proposed antenna giving an excellent isolation of 28 dB between the two antennas. The simulation results of return loss, Mutual Coupling, Gain, VSWR, Surface Current Distribution and Electrical Distribution are presented. By keeping the substrate thickness constant over various dielectric constants, simulations were carried out using MATLAB® and HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software.

Keywords: performance analysis, curved U-slot patch, antenna with enhanced bandwidth, isolation for mimo systems

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17 High-Intensity, Short-Duration Electric Pulses Induced Action Potential in Animal Nerves

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi


The use of high-intensity, short-duration electric pulses is a promising development with many biomedical applications. The uses include irreversible electroporation for killing abnormal cells, reversible poration for drug and gene delivery, neuromuscular manipulation, and the shrinkage of tumors, etc. High intensity, short-duration electric pulses result in the creation of high-density, nanometer-sized pores in the cellular membrane. This electroporation amounts to localized modulation of the transverse membrane conductance, and effectively provides a voltage shunt. The electrically controlled changes in the trans-membrane conductivity could be used to affect neural traffic and action potential propagation. A rat was taken as the representative example in this research. The simulation study shows the pathway from the sensorimotor cortex down to the spinal motoneurons, and effector muscles could be reversibly blocked by using high-intensity, short-duration electrical pulses. Also, actual experimental observations were compared against simulation predictions.

Keywords: action potential, electroporation, high-intensity, short-duration

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16 Energy Analysis of an Ejector Based Solar Assisted Trigeneration System for Dairy Application

Authors: V. Ravindra, P. A. Saikiran, M. Ramgopal


This paper presents an energy analysis of a solar assisted trigeneration system using an Ejector for dairy applications. The working fluid in the trigeneration loop is Supercritical CO₂. The trigeneration system is a combination of Brayton cycle and ejector based vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The heating and cooling outputs are used for simultaneous pasteurization and chilling of the milk. The electrical power is used to drive the auxiliary equipment in the dairy plant. A numerical simulation is done with Engineering Equation Solver (EES), and a parametric analysis is performed by varying the operating variables over a meaningful range. The results show that the overall performance index decreases with increase in ambient temperature. For an ejector based system, the compressor work and cooling output are significant output quantities. An increase in total mass flow rate of the refrigerant (primary + secondary) results in an increase in the compressor work and cooling output.

Keywords: trigeneration, solar thermal, supercritical CO₂, ejector

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15 Evaluation of a Hybrid Configuration for Active Space Radiation Bio-Shielding

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi


One of the biggest obstacles to human space exploration of the solar system is the risk posed by prolonged exposure to space radiation. It is generally agreed that particles with energies around 1-2 GeV per nucleon are the most damaging to humans. Passive shielding techniques entail using solid material to create a shield that prevents particles from penetrating a given region by absorbing the energy of incident particles. Previous techniques resulted in adding ‘dead mass’ to spacecraft, which is not an economically viable solution. Additionally, collisions of the incoming ionized particles with traditional passive protective material lead to secondary radiation. This study develops an enhanced hybrid active space radiation bio-shielding concept, a combination of the electrostatic and magnetostatic shielding, by varying the size of the magnetic ring, and by having multiple current-carrying rings, to mitigate the biohazards of severe space radiation for the success of deep-space explorations. The simulation results show an unprecedented reduction of 1GeV GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) proton transmission to about 15%.

Keywords: bio-shielding, electrostatic, magnetostatic, radiation

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14 Modeling User Context Using CEAR Diagram

Authors: Ravindra Dastikop, G. S. Thyagaraju, U. P. Kulkarni


Even though the number of context aware applications is increasing day by day along with the users, till today there is no generic programming paradigm for context aware applications. This situation could be remedied by design and developing the appropriate context modeling and programming paradigm for context aware applications. In this paper, we are proposing the static context model and metrics for validating the expressiveness and understandability of the model. The proposed context modeling is a way of describing a situation of user using context entities , attributes and relationships .The model which is an extended and hybrid version of ER model, ontology model and Graphical model is specifically meant for expressing and understanding the user situation in context aware environment. The model is useful for understanding context aware problems, preparing documentation and designing programs and databases. The model makes use of context entity attributes relationship (CEAR) diagram for representation of association between the context entities and attributes. We have identified a new set of graphical notations for improving the expressiveness and understandability of context from the end user perspective .

Keywords: user context, context entity, context entity attributes, situation, sensors, devices, relationships, actors, expressiveness, understandability

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13 Model Evaluation of Nanosecond, High-Intensity Electric Pulses Induced Cellular Apoptosis

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra Joshi


High-intensity, nanosecond, pulsed electric fields have been shown to be useful non-thermal tools capable of producing a variety of specific cellular responses. While reversible and temporary changes are often desired based on electromanipulation, irreversible effects can also be important objectives. These include elimination of tumor cells and bacterial decontamination. A simple model-based rate-equation treatment of the various cellular biochemical processes was used to qualitatively predict the pulse number-dependent caspase activation and cell survival trends. The model incorporated the caspase-8 associated extrinsic pathway, the delay inherent in its activation, cytochrome c release, and the internal feedback mechanism between caspase-3 and Bid. Results were roughly in keeping with the experimental cell-survival data. A pulse-number threshold was predicted followed by a near-exponential fall-off. The intrinsic pathway was shown to be much weaker as compared to the extrinsic mechanism for electric pulse induced cell apoptosis. Also, delays of about an hour are predicted for detectable molecular concentration increases following electrical pulsing.

Keywords: apoptosis, cell survival, model, pathway

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12 A Note on Metallurgy at Khanak: An Indus Site in Tosham Mining Area, Haryana

Authors: Ravindra N. Singh, Dheerendra P. Singh


Recent discoveries of Bronze Age artefacts, tin slag, furnaces and crucibles, together with new geological evidence on tin deposits in Tosham area of Bhiwani district in Haryana (India) provide the opportunity to survey the evidence for possible sources of tin and the use of bronze in the Harappan sites of north western India. Earlier, Afghanistan emerged as the most promising eastern source of tin utilized by Indus Civilization copper-smiths. Our excavations conducted at Khanak near Tosham mining area during 2014 and 2016 revealed ample evidence of metallurgical activities as attested by the occurrence of slag, ores and evidences of ashes and fragments of furnaces in addition to the bronze objects. We have conducted petrological, XRD, EDAX, TEM, SEM and metallography on the slag, ores, crucible fragments and bronze objects samples recovered from Khanak excavations. This has given positive indication of mining and metallurgy of poly-mettalic Tin at the site; however, it can only be ascertained after the detailed scientific examination of the materials which is underway. In view of the importance of site, we intend to excavate the site horizontally in future so as to obtain more samples for scientific studies.

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, problem of tin, metallography, indus civilization

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11 Parametric Influence and Optimization of Wire-EDM on Oil Hardened Non-Shrinking Steel

Authors: Nixon Kuruvila, H. V. Ravindra


Wire-cut Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a special form of conventional EDM process in which electrode is a continuously moving conductive wire. The present study aims at determining parametric influence and optimum process parameters of Wire-EDM using Taguchi’s Technique and Genetic algorithm. The variation of the performance parameters with machining parameters was mathematically modeled by Regression analysis method. The objective functions are Dimensional Accuracy (DA) and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Experiments were designed as per Taguchi’s L16 Orthogonal Array (OA) where in Pulse-on duration, Pulse-off duration, Current, Bed-speed and Flushing rate have been considered as the important input parameters. The matrix experiments were conducted for the material Oil Hardened Non Shrinking Steel (OHNS) having the thickness of 40 mm. The results of the study reveals that among the machining parameters it is preferable to go in for lower pulse-off duration for achieving over all good performance. Regarding MRR, OHNS is to be eroded with medium pulse-off duration and higher flush rate. Finally, the validation exercise performed with the optimum levels of the process parameters. The results confirm the efficiency of the approach employed for optimization of process parameters in this study.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy (DA), regression analysis (RA), Taguchi method (TM), volumetric material removal rate (VMRR)

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10 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Suyash Garg, Ravindra Nagar, Vinay Chandwani


Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, floating column, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, shear wall, stiffness irregularity

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9 Hydro-Chemical Characterization of Glacial Melt Waters Draining from Shaune Garang Glacier, Himachal Himalaya

Authors: Ramesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Shaktiman Singh, Atar Singh, Anshuman Bhardwaj, Ravindra Kumar Sinha, Anupma Kumari


A detailed study of the ion chemistry of the Shaune Garnag glacier meltwater has been carried out to assess the role of active glacier in the chemical denudation rate. The chemical compositions of various ions in meltwater of the Shaune Garang glacier were analyzed during the melting period 2015 and 2016. Total 112 of melt water samples twice in a day were collected during ablation season of 2015 and 2016. To identify various factors controlling the dissolved ionic strength of Shaune Garang Glacier meltwater statistical analysis such as correlation matrix, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and factor analysis were applied to deduce the result. Cation concentration for Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺ in the meltwater for both the years can be arranged in the order as Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺. Study showed that Ca²⁺ and HCO₃⁻ found to be dominant on the both melting period. Carbonate weathering identified as the dominant process controlling the dissolved ion chemistry of meltwater due to the high ratios of (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus TZ+ and (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus (Na⁺ + K⁺) in the study area. The cation denudation rate of the Shaune Garnag catchment is 3412.2 m⁻² a⁻¹, i.e. higher than the other glacierised catchment in the Himalaya, indicating intense chemical erosion in this catchment.

Keywords: Shaune Garang glacier, Hydrochemistry, chemical composition, cation denudation rate, carbonate weathering

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8 Numerical and Simulation Analysis of Composite Friction Materials Using Single Plate Clutch Pad in Agricultural Tractors

Authors: Ravindra Raju, Vidhu Kampurath


For smooth transition of the power from the engine to the transmission system, a clutch is used. In agricultural tractors, friction clutches are widely used in power transmission applications. To transmit the maximum torque in friction clutches, selection of materials is one of the important tasks. The present used material for friction disc is Asbestos, Ceramic etc. In this study, analysis is performed using composites materials. The composite materials are considered due to their high strength to weight ratio. Composite materials like kevlar49, kevlar 29U were used in the study. The paper presents a systematic approach to optimize the structural and thermal characteristics of the clutch friction pad. A single plate clutch is modeled using Creo 2.0 software and analyzed using ANSYS. Thermal analysis considers the reduction of heat generated between the friction surfaces and reducing the temperature rise during the steady state period. Structural analysis is done to minimize the stresses developed as a result of the loading contact between friction surfaces. Also, modal analysis is done to optimize the natural frequency of the friction plate to avoid being in resonance with the engine frequency range. The analysis carried out on ANSYS workbench to get the foremost appropriate friction material for clutch. From the analyzed results stress, strain / total deformation values and natural frequency of the materials were compared for all the composite materials and the best one was taken out. For the study purpose, specifications of the clutch are obtained from the MF1035 (47KW) Tractor model.

Keywords: ANSYS, clutch, composite materials, creo

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7 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta


Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, sol-gel, hydrothermal method, TEM, XRD

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6 A Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV Method for Determination of Malondialdehyde-Application to Study in Chronic Ciprofloxacin Treated Rats

Authors: Anil P. Dewani, Ravindra L. Bakal, Anil V. Chandewar


Present work demonstrates the applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection for the determination of malondialdehyde as malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid complex (MDA-TBA) in-vivo in rats. The HPLC-UV method for MDA-TBA was achieved by isocratic mode on a reverse-phase C18 column (250mm×4.6mm) at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin−1 followed by UV detection at 278 nm. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by varying the concentration and pH followed by changes in percentage of organic phase optimal mobile phase consisted of mixture of water (0.2% Triethylamine pH adjusted to 2.3 by ortho-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in ratio (80:20 % v/v). The retention time of MDA-TBA complex was 3.7 min. The developed method was sensitive as limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) for MDA-TBA complex were (standard deviation and slope of calibration curve) 110 ng/ml and 363 ng/ml respectively. The method was linear for MDA spiked in plasma and subjected to derivatization at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1000 ng/ml. The precision of developed method measured in terms of relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day studies was 1.6–5.0% and 1.9–3.6% respectively. The HPLC method was applied for monitoring MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of ciprofloxacin (CFL) (5mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Results were compared by findings in control group rats. Mean peak areas of both study groups was subjected for statistical treatment to unpaired student t-test to find p-values. The p value was < 0.001 indicating significant results and suggesting increased MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of CFL of 21 days.

Keywords: MDA, TBA, ciprofloxacin, HPLC-UV

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5 In vitro Analysis of the Effect of Supplementation Oils on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyvibrio Fibrisolvense

Authors: B. D. Ravindra, A. K. Tyagi, C. Kathirvelan


Some micronutrients in food (milk and meat), called ‘functional food components’ exert beneficial effects other than their routine nutrient function and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid of ruminant origin, an example of this category. However, recently the fear of hypercholesterolemia due to saturated fats has led to the avoidance of dietary fat especially of animal origin despite its advantages such as lowering blood cholesterol, immuno-modulation and anticarcinogenic property due to the presence of CLA. The dietary increase of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) is one of the feeding strategies for increasing the CLA concentration in milk. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the one potential rumen bacteria, which has high potential to isomerize LA to CLA. The study was conducted to screen the different oils for CLA production, selected based on their LA concentration. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens culture (strain 49, MZ3, 30/10) were isolated from the rumen liquor of fistulated Buffalo (age ≈ 3 years; weight ≈ 250 kg) were used in in-vitro experiments, further work was carried out with three oils viz., sunflower, mustard and soybean oil at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 g/L of media) to study the growth of bacteria and CLA production at different incubation period (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 h). In the present study, growth of the bacteria was decreased linearly with increase in concentration of three oils. However, highest decrease in growth was recorded at the concentration of 0.30 g of three oils per litre of the media. Highest CLA production was 51.96, 42.08 and 25.60 µg/ml at 0.25 g and it decreased to 48.19, 39.35 and 23.41 µg/ml at 0.3 g supplementation of sunflower, soybean, and mustard oil per litre of the media, respectively at 18 h incubation period. The present study indicates the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria involves in the biohydrogenation process, and LA rich sunflower meal can be used to improve the CLA production in rumen and thereby increasing the CLA concentration of milk.

Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, CLA, fatty acids, sunflower oil

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4 Sustainable Approach to Fabricate Titanium Nitride Film on Steel Substrate by Using Automotive Plastics Waste

Authors: Songyan Yin, Ravindra Rajarao, Veena Sahajwalla


Automotive plastics waste (widely known as auto-fluff or ASR) is a complicated mixture of various plastics incorporated with a wide range of additives and fillers like titanium dioxide, magnesium oxide, and silicon dioxide. Automotive plastics waste is difficult to recycle and its landfilling poses the significant threat to the environment. In this study, a sustainable technology to fabricate protective nanoscale TiN thin film on a steel substrate surface by using automotive waste plastics as titanium and carbon resources is suggested. When heated automotive plastics waste with steel at elevated temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere, titanium dioxide contented in ASR undergo carbothermal reduction and nitridation reactions on the surface of the steel substrate forming a nanoscale thin film of titanium nitride on the steel surface. The synthesis of TiN film on steel substrate under this technology was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, high resolution X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, a high resolution transmission electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. This sustainably fabricated TiN film was verified of dense, well crystallized and could provide good oxidation resistance to the steel substrate. This sustainable fabrication technology is maneuverable, reproducible and of great economic and environmental benefit. It not only reduces the fabrication cost of TiN coating on steel surface, but also provides a sustainable environmental solution to recycling automotive plastics waste. Moreover, high value copper droplets and char residues were also extracted from this unique fabrication process.

Keywords: automotive plastics waste, carbonthermal reduction and nitirdation, sustainable, TiN film

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3 Cost Effective Microfabrication Technique for Lab on Chip (LOC) Devices Using Epoxy Polymers

Authors: Charmi Chande, Ravindra Phadke


Microfluidics devices are fabricated by using multiple fabrication methods. Photolithography is one of the common methods wherein SU8 is widely used for making master which in turn is used for making working chip by the process of soft lithography. The high-aspect ratio features of SU-8 makes it suitable to be used as micro moulds for injection moulding, hot embossing, and moulds to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures for bioMEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) applications. But due to high cost, difficulty in procuring and need for clean room, restricts the use of this polymer especially in developing countries and small research labs. ‘Bisphenol –A’ based polymers in mixture with curing agent are used in various industries like Paints and coatings, Adhesives, Electrical systems and electronics, Industrial tooling and composites. We present the novel use of ‘Bisphenol – A’ based polymer in fabricating micro channels for Lab On Chip(LOC) devices. The present paper describes the prototype for production of microfluidics chips using range of ‘Bisphenol-A’ based polymers viz. GY 250, ATUL B11, DER 331, DER 330 in mixture with cationic photo initiators. All the steps of chip production were carried out using an inexpensive approach that uses low cost chemicals and equipment. This even excludes the need of clean room. The produced chips using all above mentioned polymers were validated with respect to height and the chip giving least height was selected for further experimentation. The lowest height achieved was 7 micrometers by GY250. The cost of the master fabricated was $ 0.20 and working chip was $. 0.22. The best working chip was used for morphological identification and profiling of microorganisms from environmental samples like soil, marine water and salt water pan sites. The current chip can be adapted for various microbiological screening experiments like biochemical based microbial identification, studying uncultivable microorganisms at single cell/community level.

Keywords: bisphenol–A based epoxy, cationic photoinitiators, microfabrication, photolithography

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2 CRM Cloud Computing: An Efficient and Cost Effective Tool to Improve Customer Interactions

Authors: Gaurangi Saxena, Ravindra Saxena


Lately, cloud computing is used to enhance the ability to attain corporate goals more effectively and efficiently at lower cost. This new computing paradigm “The Cloud Computing” has emerged as a powerful tool for optimum utilization of resources and gaining competitiveness through cost reduction and achieving business goals with greater flexibility. Realizing the importance of this new technique, most of the well known companies in computer industry like Microsoft, IBM, Google and Apple are spending millions of dollars in researching cloud computing and investigating the possibility of producing interface hardware for cloud computing systems. It is believed that by using the right middleware, a cloud computing system can execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from most simple generic word processing software to highly specialized and customized programs designed for specific company could work successfully on a cloud computing system. A Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources. Clouds are not limited to grid environments, but also support “interactive user-facing applications” such as web applications and three-tier architectures. Cloud Computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm. It draws on existing technologies and approaches, such as utility Computing, Software-as-a-service, distributed computing, and centralized data centers. Some companies rent physical space to store servers and databases because they don’t have it available on site. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else’s hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end. Prominent service providers like Amazon, Google, SUN, IBM, Oracle, Salesforce etc. are extending computing infrastructures and platforms as a core for providing top-level services for computation, storage, database and applications. Application services could be email, office applications, finance, video, audio and data processing. By using cloud computing system a company can improve its customer relationship management. A CRM cloud computing system may be highly useful in delivering a sales team a blend of unique functionalities to improve agent/customer interactions. This paper attempts to first define the cloud computing as a tool for running business activities more effectively and efficiently at a lower cost; and then it distinguishes cloud computing with grid computing. Based on exhaustive literature review, authors discuss application of cloud computing in different disciplines of management especially in the field of marketing with special reference to use of cloud computing in CRM. Study concludes that CRM cloud computing platform helps a company track any data, such as orders, discounts, references, competitors and many more. By using CRM cloud computing, companies can improve its customer interactions and by serving them more efficiently that too at a lower cost can help gaining competitive advantage.

Keywords: cloud computing, competitive advantage, customer relationship management, grid computing

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1 Development & Standardization of a Literacy Free Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients Post Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Ashima Nehra, Sumit Sinha, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra Mohan Pandey


Background: Cognitive rehabilitation aims to retrain brain injured individuals with cognitive deficits to restore or compensate lost functions. As illiterates or people with low literacy levels represent a significant proportion of the world, specific rehabilitation modules for such populations are indispensable. Literacy is significantly associated with all neuropsychological measures and retraining programs widely use written or spoken techniques which essentially require the patient to read or write. So, the aim of the study was to develop and standardize a literacy free neuropsychological rehabilitation program for improving cognitive functioning in patients with mild and moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Several studies have pointed out to the impairments seen in memory, executive functioning, and attention and concentration post-TBI, so the rehabilitation program focussed on these domains. Visual item memorization, stick constructions, symbol cancellations, and colouring techniques were used to construct the retraining program. Methodology: The development of the program consisted of planning, preparing, analyzing, and revising the different modules. The construction focussed on areas of retraining immediate and delayed visual memory, planning ability, focused and divided attention, concentration, and response inhibition (to control irritability and aggression). A total of 98 home based retraining modules were prepared in the 4 domains (42 for memory, 42 for executive functioning, 7 for attention and concentration, and 7 for response inhibition). The standardization was done on 20 healthy controls to review, select and edit items. For each module, the time, errors made and errors per second were noted down, to establish the difficulty level of each module and were arranged in increasing level of difficulty over a period of 6 weeks. The retraining tasks were then administered on 11 brain injured individuals (5 after Mild TBI and 6 after Moderate TBI). These patients were referred from the Trauma Centre to Clinical Neuropsychology OPD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Results: The time was taken, errors made and errors per second were analysed for all domains. Education levels were divided into illiterates, up to 10 years, 10 years to graduation and graduation and above. Mean and standard deviations were calculated. Between group and within group analysis was done using the t-test. The performance of 20 healthy controls was analyzed and only a significant difference was observed on the time taken for the attention tasks and all other domains had non-significant differences in performance between different education levels. Comparing the errors, time taken between patient and control group, there was a significant difference in all the domains at the 0.01 level except the errors made on executive functioning, indicating that the tool can successfully differentiate between healthy controls and patient groups. Conclusions: Apart from the time taken for symbol cancellations, the entire cognitive rehabilitation program is literacy free. As it taps the major areas of impairment post-TBI, it could be a useful tool to rehabilitate the patient population with low literacy levels across the world. The next step is already underway to test its efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in a randomized clinical controlled trial.

Keywords: cognitive rehabilitation, illiterates, India, traumatic brain injury

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