Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Eser Cakti

9 Assessment of Seismic Behavior of Masonry Minarets by Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


Mosques and minarets can be severely damaged as a result of earthquakes. Non-linear behavior of minarets of Mihrimah Sultan and Süleymaniye Mosques and the minaret of St. Sophia are analyzed to investigate seismic response, damage and failure mechanisms of minarets during earthquake. Selected minarets have different height and diameter. Discrete elements method was used to create the numerical minaret models. Analyses were performed using sine waves. Two parameters were used for evaluating the results: the maximum relative dislocation of adjacent drums and the maximum displacement at the top of the minaret. Both parameters were normalized by the drum diameter. The effects of minaret geometry on seismic behavior were evaluated by comparing the results of analyses.

Keywords: discrete element method, earthquake safety, nonlinear analysis, masonry structures

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8 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests, masonry

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7 Optimization of Cutting Forces in Drilling of Polimer Composites via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Eser Yarar, Fahri Vatansever, A. Tamer Erturk, Sedat Karabay


In this study, drilling behavior of multi-layer orthotropic polyester composites reinforced with woven polyester fiber and PTFE particle was investigated. Conventional drilling methods have low cost and ease of use. Therefore, it is one of the most preferred machining methods. The increasing range of use of composite materials in many areas has led to the investigation of the machinability performance of these materials. The drilling capability of the synthetic polymer composite material was investigated by measuring the cutting forces using different tool diameters, feed rate and high cutting speed parameters. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer in the experiments. In order to evaluate the results of the experiment, the Taguchi experimental design method was used. According to the results, the optimum cutting parameters were obtained for 0.1 mm/rev, 1070 rpm and 2 mm diameter drill bit. Verification tests were performed for the optimum cutting parameters obtained according to the model. Verification experiments showed the success of the established model.

Keywords: cutting force, drilling, polimer composite, Taguchi

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6 A Leadership Approach for the Sake of Organizations: Human-Oriented Leadership

Authors: Eser Bingül


The leadership and leaders, also having been a privileged subject of scientific researches in the last century, have become influential in shaping the destiny of the states since the first examples of the warfare history. The issue of leadership, finding a place in the management science, can also be defined as an integration of function within the aspect of leader. In this description, the relationship has come to the foreground which is established between the development of leadership theories and the elements of function which are leader, followers, and condition. While one reason of this analysis in leadership is to keep a lens to the historical background, the main reason has been a questioning the traits and education of leaders who have still affected the nation’s and organization’s fate. The links and analysis established in the definition of leadership have put forward the necessity of solving the unpredictable structure of human nature and behaviors in the focus of leadership approach. On the other hand becoming a model that meets the today’s needs of any system has given a clue that the leaders should turn towards the people. Being aware of this necessity, human-oriented leadership approach aims to gain both followers and their abilities to the system with giving them a deserved esteem and create the team spirit based on mutual trust. Ultimately this approach, with the determined leadership qualities consisting of charisma, ability of communication and trust, will be able to produce the solutions to the instant and long-term problems and uncertainties, derived from the variables of function, for the sake of systems.

Keywords: human nature, leadership, human-oriented approach, social sciences and humanities

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5 The Misuse of Social Media in Order to Exploit "Generation Y"; The Tactics of IS

Authors: Ali Riza Perçin, Eser Bingül


Internet technologies have created opportunities with which people share their ideologies, thoughts and products. This virtual world, named social media has given the chance of gathering individual users and people from the world's remote locations and establishing an interaction between them. However, to an increasingly higher degree terrorist organizations today use the internet and most notably social-network media to create the effects they desire through a series of on-line activities. These activities, designed to support their activities, include information collection (intelligence), target selection, propaganda, fundraising and recruitment to name a few. Meanwhile, these have been used as the most important tool for recruitment especially from the different region of the world, especially disenfranchised youth, in the West in order to mobilize support and recruit “foreign fighters.” The recruits have obtained the statue, which is not accessible in their society and have preferred the style of life that is offered by the terrorist organizations instead of their current life. Like other terrorist groups, for a while now the terrorist organization Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and Syria has employed a social-media strategy in order to advance their strategic objectives. At the moment, however, IS seems to be more successful in their on-line activities than other similar organizations. IS uses social media strategically as part of its armed activities and for the sustainability of their military presence in Syria and Iraq. In this context, “Generation Y”, which could exist at the critical position and undertake active role, has been examined. Additionally, the explained characteristics of “Generation Y” have been put forward and the duties of families and society have been stated as well.

Keywords: social media, "generation Y", terrorist organization, islamic state IS

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4 High Aspect Ratio Micropillar Array Based Microfluidic Viscometer

Authors: Ahmet Erten, Adil Mustafa, Ayşenur Eser, Özlem Yalçın


We present a new viscometer based on a microfluidic chip with elastic high aspect ratio micropillar arrays. The displacement of pillar tips in flow direction can be used to analyze viscosity of liquid. In our work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze pillar displacement of various micropillar array configurations in flow direction at different viscosities. Following CFD optimization, micro-CNC based rapid prototyping is used to fabricate molds for microfluidic chips. Microfluidic chips are fabricated out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography methods with molds machined out of aluminum. Tip displacements of micropillar array (300 µm in diameter and 1400 µm in height) in flow direction are recorded using a microscope mounted camera, and the displacements are analyzed using image processing with an algorithm written in MATLAB. Experiments are performed with water-glycerol solutions mixed at 4 different ratios to attain 1 cP, 5 cP, 10 cP and 15 cP viscosities at room temperature. The prepared solutions are injected into the microfluidic chips using a syringe pump at flow rates from 10-100 mL / hr and the displacement versus flow rate is plotted for different viscosities. A displacement of around 1.5 µm was observed for 15 cP solution at 60 mL / hr while only a 1 µm displacement was observed for 10 cP solution. The presented viscometer design optimization is still in progress for better sensitivity and accuracy. Our microfluidic viscometer platform has potential for tailor made microfluidic chips to enable real time observation and control of viscosity changes in biological or chemical reactions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), high aspect ratio, micropillar array, viscometer

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3 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya


In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis

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2 An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach

Authors: Berkan Ural, Arif Eser, Sinan Apaydin


Medical image processing is generally become a challenging task nowadays. Indeed, processing of brain MRI images is one of the difficult parts of this area. This study proposes a hybrid well-defined approach which is consisted from tumor detection, extraction and analyzing steps. This approach is mainly consisted from a computer aided diagnostics system for identifying and detecting the tumor formation in any region of the brain and this system is commonly used for early prediction of brain tumor using advanced image processing and probabilistic neural network methods, respectively. For this approach, generally, some advanced noise removal functions, image processing methods such as automatic segmentation and morphological operations are used to detect the brain tumor boundaries and to obtain the important feature parameters of the tumor region. All stages of the approach are done specifically with using MATLAB software. Generally, for this approach, firstly tumor is successfully detected and the tumor area is contoured with a specific colored circle by the computer aided diagnostics program. Then, the tumor is segmented and some morphological processes are achieved to increase the visibility of the tumor area. Moreover, while this process continues, the tumor area and important shape based features are also calculated. Finally, with using the probabilistic neural network method and with using some advanced classification steps, tumor area and the type of the tumor are clearly obtained. Also, the future aim of this study is to detect the severity of lesions through classes of brain tumor which is achieved through advanced multi classification and neural network stages and creating a user friendly environment using GUI in MATLAB. In the experimental part of the study, generally, 100 images are used to train the diagnostics system and 100 out of sample images are also used to test and to check the whole results. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Finally, according to the results, this situation also motivates us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.

Keywords: image processing algorithms, magnetic resonance imaging, neural network, pattern recognition

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1 Rheological Properties of Thermoresponsive Poly(N-Vinylcaprolactam)-g-Collagen Hydrogel

Authors: Serap Durkut, A. Eser Elcin, Y. Murat Elcin


Stimuli-sensitive polymeric hydrogels have received extensive attention in the biomedical field due to their sensitivity to physical and chemical stimuli (temperature, pH, ionic strength, light, etc.). This study describes the rheological properties of a novel thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-g-collagen hydrogel. In the study, we first synthesized a facile and novel synthetic carboxyl group-terminated thermo-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-COOH (PNVCL-COOH) via free radical polymerization. Further, this compound was effectively grafted with native collagen, by utilizing the covalent bond between the carboxylic acid groups at the end of the chains and amine groups of the collagen using cross-linking agent (EDC/NHS), forming PNVCL-g-Col. Newly-formed hybrid hydrogel displayed novel properties, such as increased mechanical strength and thermoresponsive characteristics. PNVCL-g-Col showed low critical solution temperature (LCST) at 38ºC, which is very close to the body temperature. Rheological studies determine structural–mechanical properties of the materials and serve as a valuable tool for characterizing. The rheological properties of hydrogels are described in terms of two dynamic mechanical properties: the elastic modulus G′ (also known as dynamic rigidity) representing the reversible stored energy of the system, and the viscous modulus G″, representing the irreversible energy loss. In order to characterize the PNVCL-g-Col, the rheological properties were measured in terms of the function of temperature and time during phase transition. Below the LCST, favorable interactions allowed the dissolution of the polymer in water via hydrogen bonding. At temperatures above the LCST, PNVCL molecules within PNVCL-g-Col aggregated due to dehydration, causing the hydrogel structure to become dense. When the temperature reached ~36ºC, both the G′ and G″ values crossed over. This indicates that PNVCL-g-Col underwent a sol-gel transition, forming an elastic network. Following temperature plateau at 38ºC, near human body temperature the sample displayed stable elastic network characteristics. The G′ and G″ values of the PNVCL-g-Col solutions sharply increased at 6-9 minute interval, due to rapid transformation into gel-like state and formation of elastic networks. Copolymerization with collagen leads to an increase in G′, as collagen structure contains a flexible polymer chain, which bestows its elastic properties. Elasticity of the proposed structure correlates with the number of intermolecular cross-links in the hydrogel network, increasing viscosity. However, at 8 minutes, G′ and G″ values sharply decreased for pure collagen solutions due to the decomposition of the elastic and viscose network. Complex viscosity is related to the mechanical performance and resistance opposing deformation of the hydrogel. Complex viscosity of PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel was drastically changed with temperature and the mechanical performance of PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel network increased, exhibiting lesser deformation. Rheological assessment of the novel thermo-responsive PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel, exhibited that the network has stronger mechanical properties due to both permanent stable covalent bonds and physical interactions, such as hydrogen- and hydrophobic bonds depending on temperature.

Keywords: poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-g-collagen, thermoresponsive polymer, rheology, elastic modulus, stimuli-sensitive

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