Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1746

Search results for: electrical resistivity

1746 Prediction of Index-Mechanical Properties of Pyroclastic Rock Utilizing Electrical Resistivity Method

Authors: İsmail İnce


The aim of this study is to determine index and mechanical properties of pyroclastic rock in a practical way by means of electrical resistivity method. For this purpose, electrical resistivity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, P-wave velocity, density and porosity values of 10 different pyroclastic rocks were measured in the laboratory. A simple regression analysis was made among the index-mechanical properties of the samples compatible with electrical resistivity values. A strong exponentially relation was found between index-mechanical properties and electrical resistivity values. The electrical resistivity method can be used to assess the engineering properties of the rock from which it is difficult to obtain regular shaped samples as a non-destructive method.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, index-mechanical properties, pyroclastic rocks, regression analysis

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1745 Electrical Resistivity of Solid and Liquid Pt: Insight into Electrical Resistivity of ε-Fe

Authors: Innocent C. Ezenwa, Takashi Yoshino


Knowledge of the transport properties of Fe and its alloys at extreme high pressure (P), temperature (T) conditions are essential for understanding the generation and sustainability of the magnetic field of the rocky planets with a metallic core. Since Pt, an unfilled d-band late transition metal with an electronic structure of Xe4f¹⁴5d⁹6s¹, is paramagnetic and remains close-packed structure at ambient conditions and high P-T, it is expected that its transport properties at these conditions would be similar to those of ε-Fe. We investigated the T-dependent electrical resistivity of solid and liquid Pt up to 8 GPa and found it constant along its melting curve both on the liquid and solid sides in agreement with theoretical prediction and experimental results estimated from thermal conductivity measurements. Our results suggest that the T-dependent resistivity of ε-Fe is linear and would not saturate at high P, T conditions. This, in turn, suggests that the thermal conductivity of liquid Fe at Earth’s core conditions may not be as high as previously suggested by models employing saturation resistivity. Hence, thermal convection could have powered the geodynamo before the birth of the inner core. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity on the liquid and solid sides of the inner core boundary of the Earth would be significantly different in values.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, transport properties, geodynamo and geomagnetic field

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1744 Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. M. Abu-Heleika, M. A. Hassan, A. E. Sidhom


Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, clayey soil, physical properties, shear properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1743 Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs

Authors: L. O. A. Oyinkanola, J.A. Fajemiroye


Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.

Keywords: Corrosion, resistivity, clay, hydraulic conductivity

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1742 Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys

Authors: Hasan Kaya


Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.

Keywords: content elements, solidification, microhardness, strength

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1741 Umm Arrazam, Libyan Driling Fluid Resistivity Evaluation

Authors: Omar Hussein El Ayadi, Ali Mustafa Alkekly, Nader Ahmad Musa


Search and evaluate locale source of raw material which can be used as drilling fluid is one of most important economical target. Hopefully, to use Libyan clay that cost less than importing it from outside. Resistivity measurement and control is of primary concern in connection with electrical logging. The influences of resistivity utilizing Umm Arrazam clay were laboratory investigated at ambient condition (room temperature, atmospheric pressure) to fulfill the aim of the study. Several tests were carried-out on three sets of mud mixture with different densities (8.7, 9.0, and 9.3 ppg) as base mud. The resistivity of mud, mud filtrate, and mud cake were measured using resistivity- meter. Mud water losses were also measured. Several results obtained to describe the relationship between the resistivity ratios of mud filtrate to the mud, and the mud cake to mud. The summary of conclusion is that there are no great differences were obtained during comparison of resistivity and water loss of Umm Arrazam and Wyoming Clay.

Keywords: petroleum, drilling, mug, geological engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1740 Preliminary Geophysical Assessment of Soil Contaminants around Wacot Rice Factory Argungu, North-Western Nigeria

Authors: A. I. Augie, Y. Alhassan, U. Z. Magawata


Geophysical investigation was carried out at wacot rice factory Argungu north-western Nigeria, using the 2D electrical resistivity method. The area falls between latitude 12˚44′23ʺN to 12˚44′50ʺN and longitude 4032′18′′E to 4032′39′′E covering a total area of about 1.85 km. Two profiles were carried out with Wenner configuration using resistivity meter (Ohmega). The data obtained from the study area were modeled using RES2DIVN software which gave an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity data. The inverse resistivity models of the profiles show the high resistivity values ranging from 208 Ωm to 651 Ωm. These high resistivity values in the overburden were due to dryness and compactness of the strata that lead to consolidation, which is an indication that the area is free from leachate contaminations. However, from the inverse model, there are regions of low resistivity values (1 Ωm to 18 Ωm), these zones were observed and identified as clayey and the most contaminated zones. The regions of low resistivity thereby indicated the leachate plume or the highly leachate concentrated zones due to similar resistivity values in both clayey and leachate. The regions of leachate are mainly from the factory into the surrounding area and its groundwater. The maximum leachate infiltration was found at depths 1 m to 15.9 m (P1) and 6 m to 15.9 m (P2) vertically, as well as distance along the profiles from 67 m to 75 m (P1), 155 m to 180 m (P1), and 115 m to 192 m (P2) laterally.

Keywords: contaminant, leachate, soil, groundwater, electrical, resistivity

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1739 Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: Al-Si-Cu alloy, microstructures, micro-hardness, tensile stress electrical resistivity, enthalpy

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1738 Geoelectical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria

Authors: B. R. Faleye, M. I. Titocan, M. P. Ibitola


Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into a fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581 m, 664 m and 830 m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by lowelectrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some regionfresh water is existent at depth greater than 200 m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solid and Conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200 m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunkbeyond 220 m for the possible procurement of portable fresh water.

Keywords: 2D electrical resistivity, aquifer, brackish water, lithologies

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1737 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Sevda Engin, Ugur Buyuk, Necmettin Marasli


Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: directional solidification, aluminum alloy, microstructure, electrical properties, tensile test, hardness test

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1736 Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm

Authors: Yiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhao, Jingjing Ding


Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, finite element simulation, image optimization, parallel electrode linear back projection

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1735 Bulk Electrical Resistivity of Geopolymer Mortars: The Effect of Binder Composition and Alkali Concentration

Authors: Mahdi Babaee, Arnaud Castel


One of the main hurdles for commercial adaptation of geopolymer concrete (GPC) as a low-embodied-carbon alternative for Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the durability aspects and its long-term performance in aggressive/corrosive environments. GPC is comparatively a new engineering material and in the absence of a track record of successful durability performance, proper experimental studies to investigate different durability-related characteristics of GPC seem inevitable. In this context, this paper aims to study the bulk electrical resistivity of geopolymer mortars fabricated of blends of low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). Bulk electrical resistivity is recognized as one of the most important parameters influencing the rate of corrosion of reinforcing bars during the propagation phase of corrosion. To investigate the effect of alkali concentration on the resistivity of the samples, 100x200 mm mortar cylinders were cast at different alkali concentration levels, whereas the modulus ratio (the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O) was fixed for the mixes, and the bulk electrical resistivity was then measured. Also, the effect of the binder composition was assessed with respect to the ratio of FA to GGBS used. Results show a superior performance of samples with higher GGBS content. Lower concentration of the solution has increased the resistivity by reducing the amount of mobile alkali ions in the pore solution. Moreover, GGBS-based samples showed a much sharper increase in the electrical resistivity with decreasing the moisture content.

Keywords: bulk resistivity, corrosion, durability, geopolymer concrete

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1734 Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review

Authors: Shrey Sharma, Gunjan Kumar Verma


High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.

Keywords: inversion, limitations, optimization, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1733 Preparation and Study Corrosion and Electrical Resistivity of Al-Ni-Cr Alloy

Authors: Khalid H. Abass


Al-Ni-Cr alloy contains different ratios of Ni and Cr was prepared by mixing Al, Ni and Cr at 800oC under an argon atmosphere. The prepared alloys were heated for 1300 hr to 560oC, and then cooled rapidly by water at the ambient temperature. Surface morphology for alloys is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The resultant homogeneous surface is a result of heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed (111), (200), and (220) diffraction lines from cubic Al crystal structure, and suggested that the intensity of peak (111) orientation is predominant. Three binary phases were observed and grown in alloys: Al3Ni (Orthorhombic, a = 6.598Ǻ, b = 7.352 Ǻ, c = 4.802 Ǻ), Cr9Al17 (Rhombohedra, a = 12.910 Ǻ, c = 15.677), and Ni2Cr3 (Tetragonal, a = 8.82 Ǻ, c = 4.58 Ǻ). The average crystallite sizes of the prepared samples were found to be from 3000 to 3094 nm by SEM, which is much smaller than that estimated from XRD data. Corrosion resistance increases with increasing Ni-Cr content in Al alloys. The electrical volume resistivity decreased with increasing Ni-Cr content at low frequency. This behavior can be seen generally at 50Hz, where the electrical volume resistivity reached the value of 3.98×10-8Ω.cm for the ratio Al-1.8 at.%Ni-0.18at.%Cr.

Keywords: Al-Ni-Cr alloy, corrosion current, electrical volume resistivity, binary phase, homogeneous surface

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1732 Geoelectrical Investigation Around Bomo Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: B. S. Jatau, Baba Adama, S. I. Fadele


Electrical resistivity investigation was carried out around Bomo area, Zaria, Kaduna state in order to study the subsurface geologic layer with a view of determining the depth to the bedrock and thickness of the geologic layers. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fifteen (15) VES stations. ABEM terrameter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analyzed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The VES results revealed heterogeneous nature of the subsurface geological sequence. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of hard pan top soil (clayey and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered or fractured basement and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 40Ωm to 450Ωm with thickness ranging from 1.25 to 7.5 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 50Ωm to 593Ωm and thickness between 1.37 and 20.1 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 218Ωm to 520Ωm and thickness of between 12.9 and 26.3 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1215Ωm to 2150Ωm with infinite depth. However, the depth of the earth’s surface to the bedrock surface varies between 2.63 and 34.99 m. The study further stressed the importance of the findings in civil engineering structures and groundwater prospecting.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, CERT (CT), vertical electrical sounding (VES), top soil (TP), weathered basement (WB), partly weathered basement (PWB), fresh basement (FB)

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1731 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: resistivity, Schlumberger, phosphate, wavelet, Morocco

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1730 Directional Solidification of Al–Cu–Mg Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Yusuf Kaygısız, Necmetti̇n Maraşlı


Aluminum alloys are produced and used at various areas of industry and especially in the aerospace industry. The advantages of these alloys over traditional iron-based alloys are lightweight, corrosion resistance, and very good thermal and electrical conductivity. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of growth rates on the eutectic spacings (λ), microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity in Al–30wt.%Cu–6wt.%Mg eutectic alloy. Al–Cu–Mg eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at a constant temperature gradient (G=8.55 K/mm) with different growth rates, 9.43 to 173.3 µm/s by using a Bridgman-type furnace. The dependency of microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified the Al-Cu-Mg eutectic alloy were investigated. Eutectic microstructure is consisting of regular Al2CuMg lamellar and Al2Cu rod phases with in the α (Al) solid solution matrix. The lamellar eutectic spacings were measured from transverse sections of the samples. It was found that the value of microstructures decrease with the increase the value the growth rates. The microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the alloy also were measured from sample and relationships between them were experimentally analyzed by using regression analysis. According to present results, values tensile strength and electrical resistivity increase with increasing growth rates.

Keywords: directional solidification, aluminum alloys, microstructure, electrical properties, hardness test

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1729 The Use of Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and Ansys Simulation to Predict Concrete Hydration Behavior and Crack Tendency

Authors: Samaila Bawa Muazu


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, setting time, simulation

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1728 Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation

Authors: Samaila Muazu Bawa


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, ANSYS simulation

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1727 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate (V) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The microstructures (flake spacings, λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity and thermal properties enthalpy of fusion and specific heat and melting temperature) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and flake spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity for cast samples with the temperature in the range of 300-1200 K were also measured by using a standard dc four-point probe technique. The enthalpy of fusion and specific heat for the same alloy was also determined by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, enthalpy, microhardness, solidification, tensile stress

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1726 Geophysical Exploration of Aquifer Zones by (Ves) Method at Ayma-Kharagpur, District Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal

Authors: Mayank Sharma


Groundwater has been a matter of great concern in the past years due to the depletion in the water table. This has resulted from the over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Sub-surface exploration of groundwater is a great way to identify the groundwater potential of an area. Thus, in order to meet the water needs for irrigation in the study area, there was a need for a tube well to be installed. Therefore, a Geophysical investigation was carried out to find the most suitable point of drilling and sinking of tube well that encounters an aquifer. Hence, an electrical resistivity survey of geophysical exploration was used to know the aquifer zones of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method was employed to know the subsurface geology of the area. Seven vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array were carried out, having the maximum AB electrode separation of 700m at selected points in Ayma, Kharagpur-1 block of Paschim Midnapore district, West Bengal. The VES was done using an IGIS DDR3 Resistivity meter up to an approximate depth of 160-180m. The data was interpreted, processed and analyzed. Based on all the interpretations using the direct method, the geology of the area at the points of sounding was interpreted. It was established that two deeper clay-sand sections exist in the area at a depth of 50-70m (having resistivity range of 40-60ohm-m) and 70-160m (having resistivity range of 25-35ohm-m). These aquifers will provide a high yield of water which would be sufficient for the desired irrigation in the study area.

Keywords: VES method, Schlumberger method, electrical resistivity survey, geophysical exploration

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1725 The Predicted Values of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) by Using the Measurements of the Soil Resistivity Method (DC)

Authors: Fathi Ali Swaid


The CBR test is widely used in the assessment of granular materials in base, subbase and subgrade layers of road and airfield pavements. Despite the success of this method, but it depends on a limited numbers of soil samples. This limitation do not adequately account for the spatial variability of soil properties. Thus, assessment is derived using these cursory soil data are likely to contain errors and thus make interpretation and soil characterization difficult. On the other hand quantitative methods of soil inventory at the field scale involve the design and adoption of sampling regimes and laboratory analysis that are time consuming and costly. In the latter case new technologies are required to efficiently sample and observe the soil in the field. This is particularly the case where soil bearing capacity is prevalent, and detailed quantitative information for determining its cause is required. In this paper, an electrical resistivity method DC is described and its application in Elg'deem Dirt road, located in Gasser Ahmad - Misurata, Libya. Results from the DC instrument were found to be correlated with the CBR values (r2 = 0.89). Finally, it is noticed that, the correlation can be used with experience for determining CBR value using basic soil electrical resistivity measurements and checked by few CBR test representing a similar range of CBR.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, basic soil electrical resistivity, CBR, soil, subgrade, new technologies

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1724 Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements

Authors: Sabiu Bala Muhammad, Rosli Saad


Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.

Keywords: apparent resistivity, depth, horizontal location, multiple linear regression, true resistivity

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1723 Effect of Al Contents on Magnetic Domains of {100} Grains in Electrical Steels

Authors: Hyunseo Choi, Jaewan Hong, Seil Lee, Yang Mo Koo


Non-oriented (NO) electrical steel is one of the most important soft magnetic materials for rotating machines. Si has usually been added to electrical steels to reduce eddy current loss by increasing the electrical resistivity. Si content more than 3.5 wt% causes cracks during cold rolling due to increase of brittleness. Al also increases the electrical resistivity of the materials as much as Si. In addition, cold workability of Fe-Al is better than Fe-Si, so that Al can be added up to 6.0 wt%. However, the effect of Al contents on magnetic properties of electrical steels has not been studied in detail. Magnetic domains of {100} grains in electrical steels, ranging from 1.85 to 6.54 wt% Al, were observed by magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. Furthermore, the correlation of magnetic domains with magnetic properties was investigated. As Al contents increased, the magnetic domain size of {100} grains decreased due to lowered domain wall energy. Reorganization of magnetic domain structure became more complex as domain size decreased. Therefore, the addition of Al to electrical steel caused hysteresis loss to increase. Anomalous loss decreased and saturated after 4.68% Al.

Keywords: electrical steel, magnetic domain structure, Al addition, core loss, rearrangement of domains

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1722 Transient Electrical Resistivity and Elastic Wave Velocity of Sand-Cement-Inorganic Binder Mixture

Authors: Kiza Rusati Pacifique, Ki-il Song


The cement milk grout has been used for ground improvement. Due to the environmental issues related to cement, the reduction of cement usage is requesting. In this study, inorganic binder is introduced to reduce the use of cement contents for ground improvement. To evaluate transient electrical and mechanical properties of sand-cement-inorganic binder mixture, two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Free Free Resonant Column (FFRC) tests were adopted in addition to unconfined compressive strength test. Electrical resistivity, longitudinal wave velocity and damping ratio of sand-cement admixture samples improved with addition of inorganic binders were measured. Experimental tests were performed considering four different mixing ratios and three different cement contents depending on the curing time. Results show that mixing ratio and curing time have considerable effects on electrical and mechanical properties of mixture. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases as the cement content decreases. However, sufficient grout strength can be obtained with increase of content of inorganic binder. From the results, it is found that the inorganic binder can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of mixture and reduce the cement content. It is expected that data and trends proposed in this study can be used as reference in predicting grouting quality in the field.

Keywords: damping ratio, electrical resistivity, ground improvement, inorganic binder, longitudinal wave velocity, unconfined compression strength

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1721 Determining Water Infiltration Zone Using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Technique

Authors: Azim Hilmy Mohamad Yusof, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail


Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces. This paper explains how the water infiltration will be identified using 2-D resistivity imaging. Padang Minden, in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang has been chosen as the survey area during this study. The study area consists of microcline granite with grain size of medium to coarse. 2-D Resistivity Imaging survey is used to detect subsurface layer for many years by making measurements on the ground surface. The result shows that resistivity value of 0.015 Ωm - 10 Ωm represent the salt water intrusion zone while the resistivity value of 11 Ωm - 100 Ωm is suggested as the boundary zone between the salt water intrusion zone and low saturated zone.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity imaging, microcline granite, salt water intrusion, water infiltration

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1720 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom


The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

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1719 Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field

Authors: Maysoon Khalil Askar


The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.

Keywords: soil resistivity, corrosion, cathodic protection, chloride concentration, water content

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1718 Low Resistivity Pay Identification in Carbonate Reservoirs of Yadavaran Oilfield

Authors: Mohammad Mardi


Generally, the resistivity is high in oil layer and low in water layer. Yet there are intervals of oil-bearing zones showing low resistivity, high porosity, and low resistance. In the typical example, well A (depth: 4341.5-4372.0m), both Spectral Gamma Ray (SGR) and Corrected Gamma Ray (CGR) are relatively low; porosity varies from 12-22%. Above 4360 meters, the reservoir shows the conventional positive difference between deep and shallow resistivity with high resistance; below 4360m, the reservoir shows a negative difference with low resistance, especially at depths of 4362.4 meters and 4371 meters, deep resistivity is only 2Ω.m, and the CAST-V imaging map shows that there are low resistance substances contained in the pores or matrix in the reservoirs of this interval. The rock slice analysis data shows that the pyrite volume is 2-3% in the interval 4369.08m-4371.55m. A comprehensive analysis on the volume of shale (Vsh), porosity, invasion features of resistivity, mud logging, and mineral volume indicates that the possible causes for the negative difference between deep and shallow resistivities with relatively low resistance are erosional pores, caves, micritic texture and the presence of pyrite. Full-bore Drill Stem Test (DST) verified 4991.09 bbl/d in this interval. To identify and thoroughly characterize low resistivity intervals coring, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging and further geological evaluation are needed.

Keywords: low resistivity pay, carbonates petrophysics, microporosity, porosity

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1717 Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Tunnel Seismic Prediction 303 Methods for Detection Fracture Zones Ahead of Tunnel: A Case Study

Authors: Nima Dastanboo, Xiao-Qing Li, Hamed Gharibdoost


The purpose of this study is to investigate about the geological properties ahead of a tunnel face with using Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT and Tunnel Seismic Prediction TSP303 methods. In deep tunnels with hydro-geological conditions, it is important to study the geological structures of the region before excavating tunnels. Otherwise, it would lead to unexpected accidents that impose serious damage to the project. For constructing Nosoud tunnel in west of Iran, the ERT and TSP303 methods are employed to predict the geological conditions dynamically during the excavation. In this paper, based on the engineering background of Nosoud tunnel, the important results of applying these methods are discussed. This work demonstrates seismic method and electrical tomography as two geophysical techniques that are able to detect a tunnel. The results of these two methods were being in agreement with each other but the results of TSP303 are more accurate and quality. In this case, the TSP 303 method was a useful tool for predicting unstable geological structures ahead of the tunnel face during excavation. Thus, using another geophysical method together with TSP303 could be helpful as a decision support in excavating, especially in complicated geological conditions.

Keywords: tunnel seismic prediction (TSP303), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic wave, velocity analysis, low-velocity zones

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