Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: naphthoquinones

3 The Growth Reaction, Membrane Potential and Oxidative Stress of Maize Coleoptile Cells Incubated in the Presence of the Naphthoquinones

Authors: Malgorzata Rudnicka, Waldemar Karcz

Abstract:

Introduction: Naphthoquinones are widely occurring organic compounds produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. They can act as the functional components of biochemical systems (plastoquinone) as well as biologically active substances, which have a negative impact on environmental processes. Naphthoquinones seem to act through two mechanisms: a covalent modification of biological molecules at their nucleophilic sites or by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) connected with redox cycling. Investigating the effect of naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin) on the elongation growth, membrane potential and the level of oxidative stress of maize cells seems to be important due to the possibility of using these substances as herbicides. Methods: All experiments were performed on etiolated maize coleoptile segments. Simultaneous measurements of elongation growth and pH of the incubation medium were carried out using an angular position transducer, allowing a precise record of the growth kinetics. To compare the oxidative stress level induced by all tested naphthoquinones, the changes in malondialdehyde content, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. In order to measure the membrane potential of parenchymal cells the standard electrophysiology technique was used. Results: Naphthoquinones such as: 1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin were studied. It was found that all of the naphthoquinones diminished the growth of the maize coleoptile cells depending on the type of naphthoquinones and their concentration. Interestingly, naphthazarin at the intermediate concentration was less toxic compared to the others. In addition, the effect of naphthoquinones on the oxidative stress was dependent on their concentration as well. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were changed in the presence of higher concentrations of naphthoquinones. Similar interrelations were observed for membrane potential changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that naphthoquinones tested differ in their toxic effect on the growth of maize coleoptile cells. Furthermore, naphthoquinones can be distinguish considering the oxidative stress level and membrane potential changes. The results presented here give new insight into the possible opportunities of practical usage of naphthoquinones for herbicides improvement.

Keywords: growth rate, membrane potential, naphthoquinones, oxidative stress

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2 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri

Abstract:

Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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1 Spinochromes: Kairomones Involved in the Symbiosis between the Shrimp Tuleariocaris holthuisi and Echinometra mathaei

Authors: Lola Brasseur, Guillaume Caulier, Marie Demeyer, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut

Abstract:

Seawater being an ideal dispersing agent, chemical communication stays predominant in marine ecosystems. However, if many molecules acting in chemical heterospecific communication have already been well described in terrestrial ecosystems, only three of these molecules were identified in marine ecosystems. Echinoderms and their symbiotic organisms constitute very good models to study heterospecific chemical communication because each class synthesizes a specific type of molecules and symbioses with echinoderms as hosts are very usual. In this study, the chemical communication that allows the commensal shrimps Tuleariocaris holthuisi Hipeau-Jacquotte, 1965 to live with their host Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) was investigated. The chemoreception of the shrimp was characterized using olfactometers and it was demonstrated that hosts and synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinones are attractive to the symbiotic shrimps. Hydroxynaphthoquinonic pigments also known as spinochromes are by the way synthesized by sea urchin and involved in all probability in a lot of mechanisms. To our knowledge, this study is the first highlighting the ecological function of naphthoquinones as kairomones. Chemical extractions were also performed on sea urchins in order to analyze and identify their specific hydroxynaphthoquinones using HPLC-ESI-MS. Accurate mass identification and elemental composition have been performed on various organs (gonads, coelomic liquid, digestive system and test) in different morphotypes of Echinometra mathaei for a better understanding of the molecular diversity of these semiochemicals. Moreover, some experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of T. holthuisi for their host. First, the analyses showed that the molecules involved in shrimp pigmentation are the same that the ones involved in E. mathaei, suggesting a potential feeding on the host. Secondly, a substantial shrimp depigmentation and an increase of the mortality rate were demonstrated after the symbionts-host separation which could mean a potential implication of spinochromes in the shrimp metabolism.

Keywords: crustacean, sea urchin, spinochrome, symbiosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 120