Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9053

Search results for: membrane potential

9053 Contraction and Membrane Potential of C2C12 with GTXs

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto


Culture techniques of skeletal muscle cells are advanced in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle. As applied research of cultured muscle, myopathy (muscles disease) treatment is expected and development bio of actuator is also expected in biomedical engineering. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) is known as neurotoxins that enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as well as a phytotoxin. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. Contraction of myotubes is induced by applied external electrical stimulation. Contraction and membrane potential change of skeletal muscle cells are induced by injection of current. We, therefore, concluded that effect of Grayanotoxins on contraction and membrane potential of C2C12 relate to acute toxicity of GTXs.

Keywords: skeletal muscle cells C2C12, grayanotoxins, contraction, membrane potential, acute toxicity, pytotoxin, motubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
9052 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha


Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
9051 Effect of Grayanotoxins on Skeletal Muscle Cell C2C12

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto


Myopathy (muscles disease) treatment are expected in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle to bio actuator is performed in Biomedical Engineering as applied research of cultured muscle. This study is about cultured myoblast C2C12 from mouse skeletal muscle and a mechanism of cultured muscle contraction by electric stimulation is investigated. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) belong to neurotoxins known to enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as a phytotoxin. We investigated the functional role of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. A change in membrane potential is measured using a micro glass tube electrode contraction of myotubes is induced by applying an external electrical stimulation. The contraction and membrane potential change induced by injection of current using the micro glass electrode are also measured. From the result, contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells was affected by GTXs treatment, suggesting that the diverse chemical structures of GTXs are responsible for contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, C2C12, myoblast, myotubes, contraction, Grayanotoxins, membrane potential, neurotoxins, phytotoxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
9050 Improved 3D Structure Prediction of Beta-Barrel Membrane Proteins by Using Evolutionary Coupling Constraints, Reduced State Space and an Empirical Potential Function

Authors: Wei Tian, Jie Liang, Hammad Naveed


Beta-barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They carry out diverse biological functions, including pore formation, membrane anchoring, enzyme activity, and bacterial virulence. In addition, beta-barrel membrane proteins increasingly serve as scaffolds for bacterial surface display and nanopore-based DNA sequencing. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank and computational methods can help to understand their biophysical principles. We have developed a novel computational method to predict the 3D structure of beta-barrel membrane proteins using evolutionary coupling (EC) constraints and a reduced state space. Combined with an empirical potential function, we can successfully predict strand register at > 80% accuracy for a set of 49 non-homologous proteins with known structures. This is a significant improvement from previous results using EC alone (44%) and using empirical potential function alone (73%). Our method is general and can be applied to genome-wide structural prediction.

Keywords: beta-barrel membrane proteins, structure prediction, evolutionary constraints, reduced state space

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
9049 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: AFM, sensor, membrane, pores, proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
9048 Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation

Authors: Lebea Nthunya, Arne Verliefde, Bhekie Mamba, Sabelo Mhlanga


A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.

Keywords: membrane distillation, modification, energy efficiency, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
9047 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
9046 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi


Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
9045 Identification of Membrane Foulants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation for the Treatment of Reject Brine

Authors: Shefaa Mansour, Hassan Arafat, Shadi Hasan


Management of reverse osmosis (RO) brine has become a major area of research due to the environmental concerns associated with it. This study worked on studying the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system in the treatment of this RO brine. The system displayed great potential in terms of its flux and salt rejection, where different operating conditions such as the feed temperature, feed salinity, feed and permeate flow rates were varied. The highest flux of 16.7 LMH was reported with a salt rejection of 99.5%. Although the DCMD has displayed potential of enhanced water recovery from highly saline solutions, one of the major drawbacks associated with the operation is the fouling of the membranes which impairs the system performance. An operational run of 77 hours for the treatment of RO brine of 56,500 ppm salinity was performed in order to investigate the impact of fouling of the membrane on the overall operation of the system over long time operations. Over this time period, the flux was observed to have reduced by four times its initial flux. The fouled membrane was characterized through different techniques for the identification of the organic and inorganic foulants that have deposited on the membrane surface. The Infrared Spectroscopy method (IR) was used to identify the organic foulants where SEM images displayed the surface characteristics of the membrane. As for the inorganic foulants, they were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The major foulants found on the surface of the membrane were inorganic salts such as sodium chloride and calcium sulfate.

Keywords: brine treatment, membrane distillation, fouling, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
9044 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi


Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
9043 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi


Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
9042 Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning

Authors: Chun-Han Li, Tien-Fu Yang, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan


The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.

Keywords: vacuum membrane dehumidification, planar membrane dehumidifier, water vapour and air permeability, air conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9041 Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Technique for Optimizing the PVC Membrane Sensor

Authors: Majid Rezayi, Sh. Shahaboddin, HNM E. Mahmud, A. Yadollah, A. Saeid, A. Yatimah


In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied to obtain the membrane composition model affecting the potential response of our reported polymeric PVC sensor for determining the titanium (III) ions. The performance statistics of the artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression models for potential slope prediction of membrane composition of titanium (III) ion selective electrode were compared with ANFIS technique. The results show that the ANFIS model can be used as a practical tool for obtaining the Nerntian slope of the proposed sensor in this study.

Keywords: adaptive neuro fuzzy inference, PVC sensor, titanium (III) ions, Nerntian slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
9040 Arithmetic Operations in Deterministic P Systems Based on the Weak Rule Priority

Authors: Chinedu Peter, Dashrath Singh


Membrane computing is a computability model which abstracts its structures and functions from the biological cell. The main ingredient of membrane computing is the notion of a membrane structure, which consists of several cell-like membranes recurrently placed inside a unique skin membrane. The emergence of several variants of membrane computing gives rise to the notion of a P system. The paper presents a variant of P systems for arithmetic operations on non-negative integers based on the weak priorities for rule application. Consequently, we obtain deterministic P systems. Two membranes suffice. There are at most four objects for multiplication and five objects for division throughout the computation processes. The model is simple and has a potential for possible extension to non-negative integers and real numbers in general.

Keywords: P system, binary operation, determinism, weak rule priority

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
9039 High-Intensity, Short-Duration Electric Pulses Induced Action Potential in Animal Nerves

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi


The use of high-intensity, short-duration electric pulses is a promising development with many biomedical applications. The uses include irreversible electroporation for killing abnormal cells, reversible poration for drug and gene delivery, neuromuscular manipulation, and the shrinkage of tumors, etc. High intensity, short-duration electric pulses result in the creation of high-density, nanometer-sized pores in the cellular membrane. This electroporation amounts to localized modulation of the transverse membrane conductance, and effectively provides a voltage shunt. The electrically controlled changes in the trans-membrane conductivity could be used to affect neural traffic and action potential propagation. A rat was taken as the representative example in this research. The simulation study shows the pathway from the sensorimotor cortex down to the spinal motoneurons, and effector muscles could be reversibly blocked by using high-intensity, short-duration electrical pulses. Also, actual experimental observations were compared against simulation predictions.

Keywords: action potential, electroporation, high-intensity, short-duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
9038 Electrospinning Preparation of Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane/Polystyrene Nanofibrous Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Chia-Yu Chang, Yi-Feng Lin


CO2 capture has attracted significant research attention due to global warming. Among the various CO2 capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO2 due to the ease at which this technology can be scaled up, its low energy consumptions, small area requirements and overall environmental friendliness for use by industrial plants. Capturing CO2 is to use a membrane contactor with a combination of water-repellent porous membranes and chemical absorption processes. In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polystyrene (PS) Nanofibrous Membranes and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PS nanofibrous membranes, the PDMS/PS nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.

Keywords: CO2 capture, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, superhydrophobic

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
9037 Performance Evaluation of an Inventive Co2 Gas Separation Inorganic Ceramic Membrane System

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Oyoh Kechinyere, Edward Gobina


Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are considered as the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. The challenges to control the emissions include the recovery of CO2 from flue gas. This concern has been improved due to recent advances in materials process engineering resulting in the development of inorganic gas separation membranes with excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for most gas separations. This paper therefore evaluates the performance of a highly selective inorganic membrane for CO2 recovery applications. Analysis of results obtained is in agreement with experimental literature data. Further results show the prediction performance of the membranes for gas separation and the future direction of research. The materials selection and the membrane preparation techniques are discussed. Method of improving the interface defects in the membrane and its effect on the separation performance has also been reviewed and in addition advances to totally exploit the potential usage of this innovative membrane.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, gas separation, inorganic ceramic membrane, permselectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
9036 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina


A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
9035 The Growth Reaction, Membrane Potential and Oxidative Stress of Maize Coleoptile Cells Incubated in the Presence of the Naphthoquinones

Authors: Malgorzata Rudnicka, Waldemar Karcz


Introduction: Naphthoquinones are widely occurring organic compounds produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. They can act as the functional components of biochemical systems (plastoquinone) as well as biologically active substances, which have a negative impact on environmental processes. Naphthoquinones seem to act through two mechanisms: a covalent modification of biological molecules at their nucleophilic sites or by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) connected with redox cycling. Investigating the effect of naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin) on the elongation growth, membrane potential and the level of oxidative stress of maize cells seems to be important due to the possibility of using these substances as herbicides. Methods: All experiments were performed on etiolated maize coleoptile segments. Simultaneous measurements of elongation growth and pH of the incubation medium were carried out using an angular position transducer, allowing a precise record of the growth kinetics. To compare the oxidative stress level induced by all tested naphthoquinones, the changes in malondialdehyde content, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. In order to measure the membrane potential of parenchymal cells the standard electrophysiology technique was used. Results: Naphthoquinones such as: 1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin were studied. It was found that all of the naphthoquinones diminished the growth of the maize coleoptile cells depending on the type of naphthoquinones and their concentration. Interestingly, naphthazarin at the intermediate concentration was less toxic compared to the others. In addition, the effect of naphthoquinones on the oxidative stress was dependent on their concentration as well. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were changed in the presence of higher concentrations of naphthoquinones. Similar interrelations were observed for membrane potential changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that naphthoquinones tested differ in their toxic effect on the growth of maize coleoptile cells. Furthermore, naphthoquinones can be distinguish considering the oxidative stress level and membrane potential changes. The results presented here give new insight into the possible opportunities of practical usage of naphthoquinones for herbicides improvement.

Keywords: growth rate, membrane potential, naphthoquinones, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
9034 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew


The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
9033 Studies on Induction of Cytotoxicity Through Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by Chloroform Extract of Artocarpus Kemando Miq

Authors: Noor Shafifiyaz Mohd Yazid, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Syam Mohan, Rosea Go


Artocarpus kemando is a plant species from Moraceae family. This plant is used as household utensil by the local and the fruits are edible. The plants’ bark was used for the extraction process and yielded the chloroform crude extract which was used to screen for anticancer potential. The cytotoxic effect of the extract on CAOV-3 and WRL 68 cell lines were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assays. Qualitative AO/PI assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis and necrosis process. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. In MTT assay, A. kemando inhibited 50% growth of CAOV-3 cells at 27.9 ± 0:03, 20.1± 0:03, 18.21± 0:04 µg/mL after 24, 48 and 72 hour, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with extract resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated A. kemando has potentially anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: anticancer, Artocarpus kemando, ovarian cancer, cytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
9032 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
9031 Synthesis of Uio-66 Metal Organic Framework Impregnated Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane for the Desalination via Pressure Assisted Osmosis

Authors: Rajesha Kumar Alambi, Mansour Ahmed, Garudachari Bhadrachari, Safiyah Al-Muqahwi, Mansour Al-Rughaib, Jibu P. Thomas


Membrane-based pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) for seawater desalination has the potential to overcome the challenges of forward osmosis technology. PAO technology is gaining interest among the research community to ensure the sustainability of freshwater with a significant reduction in energy. The requirements of PAO membranes differ from the FO membrane; as it needs a slightly higher porous with sufficient mechanical strength to overcome the applied hydraulic pressure. The porous metal-organic framework (MOF) as a filler for the membrane synthesis has demonstrated a great potential to generate new channels for water transport, high selectivity, and reduced fouling propensity. Accordingly, this study is aimed at fabricating the UiO-66 MOF-based thin film nanocomposite membranes with specific characteristics for water desalination by PAO. A PAO test unit manufactured by Trevi System, USA, was used to determine the performance of the synthesized membranes. Further, the synthesized membranes were characterized in terms of morphological features, hydrophilicity, surface roughness, and mechanical properties. The 0.05 UiO-66 loaded membrane produced highest flux of 38L/m2h and with low reverse salt leakage of 2.1g/m²h for the DI water as feed solution and 2.0 M NaCl as draw solutions at the inlet feed pressure of 0.6 MPa. The new membranes showed a good tolerance toward the applied hydraulic pressure attributed to the fabric support used during the membrane synthesis.

Keywords: metal organic framework, composite membrane, desalination, salt rejection, flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
9030 Surface Modified Electrospun Expanded Polystyrene Fibre with Superhydrophobic/Superoleophillic Properties as Potential Oil Membrane

Authors: S. Oluwagbemiga Alayande, E. Olugbenga Dare, Titus A. M. Msagati, A. Kehinde Akinlabi , P. O. Aiyedun


This paper presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential oil membrane with superhydrophobic /superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In these study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water and crude oil. The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

Keywords: expanded polystyrene, superhydrophobic, superoleophillic, oil-membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
9029 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak


Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
9028 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A


Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
9027 Removal of Na₂SO₄ by Electro-Confinement on Nanoporous Carbon Membrane

Authors: Jing Ma, Guotong Qin


We reported electro-confinement desalination (ECMD), a desalination method combining electric field effects and confinement effects using nanoporous carbon membranes as electrode. A carbon membrane with average pore size of 8.3 nm was prepared by organic sol-gel method. The precursor of support was prepared by curing porous phenol resin tube. Resorcinol-formaldehyde sol was coated on porous tubular resin support. The membrane was obtained by carbonisation of coated support. A well-combined top layer with the thickness of 35 μm was supported by macroporous support. Measurements of molecular weight cut-off using polyethylene glycol showed the average pore size of 8.3 nm. High salt rejection can be achieved because the water molecules need not overcome high energy barriers in confined space, while huge inherent dehydration energy was required for hydrated ions to enter the nanochannels. Additionally, carbon membrane with additional electric field can be used as an integrated membrane electrode combining the effects of confinement and electric potential gradient. Such membrane electrode can repel co-ions and attract counter-ions using pressure as the driving force for mass transport. When the carbon membrane was set as cathode, the rejection of SO₄²⁻ was 94.89%, while the removal of Na⁺ was less than 20%. We set carbon membrane as anode chamber to treat the effluent water from the cathode chamber. The rejection of SO₄²⁻ and Na⁺ reached to 100% and 88.86%, respectively. ECMD will be a promising energy efficient method for salt rejection.

Keywords: nanoporous carbon membrane, confined effect, electric field, desalination, membrane reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
9026 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi


By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
9025 Effect of Inclination Angle on Productivity of a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (Dcmd) Process

Authors: Adnan Alhathal Alanezi, Alanood A. Alsarayreh


A direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system was modeled using various angles for the membrane unit and a Reynolds number range of 500 to 2000 in this numerical analysis. The Navier-Stokes, energy, and species transport equations were used to create a two-dimensional model. The finite volume method was used to solve the governing equations (FVM). The results showed that as the Reynolds number grows up to 1500, the heat transfer coefficient increases for all membrane angles except the 60ᵒ inclination angle. Additionally, increasing the membrane angle to 90ᵒreduces the exit influence while increasing heat transfer. According to these data, a membrane with a 90o inclination angle (also known as a vertical membrane) and a Reynolds number of 2000 might have the smallest temperature differential. Similarly, decreasing the inclination angle of the membrane keeps the temperature difference constant between Reynolds numbers 1000 and 2000; however, between Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000, the temperature difference decreases dramatically.

Keywords: direct contact membrane distillation, membrane inclination angle, heat and mass transfer, reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
9024 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.


Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

Procedia PDF Downloads 40