Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Waldemar Karcz

8 The Growth Reaction, Membrane Potential and Oxidative Stress of Maize Coleoptile Cells Incubated in the Presence of the Naphthoquinones

Authors: Malgorzata Rudnicka, Waldemar Karcz

Abstract:

Introduction: Naphthoquinones are widely occurring organic compounds produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. They can act as the functional components of biochemical systems (plastoquinone) as well as biologically active substances, which have a negative impact on environmental processes. Naphthoquinones seem to act through two mechanisms: a covalent modification of biological molecules at their nucleophilic sites or by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) connected with redox cycling. Investigating the effect of naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin) on the elongation growth, membrane potential and the level of oxidative stress of maize cells seems to be important due to the possibility of using these substances as herbicides. Methods: All experiments were performed on etiolated maize coleoptile segments. Simultaneous measurements of elongation growth and pH of the incubation medium were carried out using an angular position transducer, allowing a precise record of the growth kinetics. To compare the oxidative stress level induced by all tested naphthoquinones, the changes in malondialdehyde content, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. In order to measure the membrane potential of parenchymal cells the standard electrophysiology technique was used. Results: Naphthoquinones such as: 1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin were studied. It was found that all of the naphthoquinones diminished the growth of the maize coleoptile cells depending on the type of naphthoquinones and their concentration. Interestingly, naphthazarin at the intermediate concentration was less toxic compared to the others. In addition, the effect of naphthoquinones on the oxidative stress was dependent on their concentration as well. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were changed in the presence of higher concentrations of naphthoquinones. Similar interrelations were observed for membrane potential changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that naphthoquinones tested differ in their toxic effect on the growth of maize coleoptile cells. Furthermore, naphthoquinones can be distinguish considering the oxidative stress level and membrane potential changes. The results presented here give new insight into the possible opportunities of practical usage of naphthoquinones for herbicides improvement.

Keywords: growth rate, membrane potential, naphthoquinones, oxidative stress

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7 The Nutritional Status and the Kidney Function in Older Patients

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba

Abstract:

Background: Obesity, particularly abdominal type, lead to accelerated progress of atherosclerosis and thus affects the functioning of various human organs. Non-HDL cholesterol includes residual risk of the cardiovascular diseases which persists in patients after achieved recommended level of LDL cholesterol. The maintenance of normal body mass index plays a particularly important role in both the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Materials and Methods: The study covered 96 patients (55 females, 42 males, age 66,9 +/-10,2 years). The nutritional status was determined with the Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and the Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). A function of the kidney was evaluated by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL) is simply the difference between the total cholesterol concentration and the HDL cholesterol concentration. Results: The higher was level of non-HDL cholesterol, the lower eGFR had studied subjects (p<0.001). Significant correlation was found between higher WHtR and lower the eGFR (p=0.002). Also underweight (30% of patient) led to obtaining lower values of eGFR in subjects over 65 years old. The poorer nutrition the lower was glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Nutritional statuses of patients have a significant impact on the level of kidney function. Not only accumulated excess fat in the abdominal area, but also its deficiency affects the deterioration in renal filtration. Higher level of non-HDL not only raises the residual risk of the heart disease but also influences on kidney by worsening eGFR. Proper diet in connection with physical activity should lead to achieving good nutrition in these patients and protect their kidney function.

Keywords: nutrition, non-HDL cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate, lifestyle

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6 25 (OH)D3 Level and Obesity Type, and Its Effect on Renal Excretory Function in Patients with a Functioning Transplant

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba, Marek Jan Kuzniewski

Abstract:

Introduction: Vitamin D3 has a proven pleiotropic effect, not only responsible for calcium and phosphate management, but also influencing normal functioning of the whole body. Aim: Evaluation of vitamin D3 resources and its effect on a nutritional status, obesity type and glomerular filtration in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Group of 152 (81 women and 71 men, average age 47.8 ± 11.6 years) patients with a functioning renal transplant their body composition was assessed using the bioimpendance method (BIA) and anthropometric measurements more than 3 months after the transplant. The nutritional status and the obesity type were determined with the Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and the Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). 25- Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 (OH)D3) was determined, together with its correlation with the obesity type and the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated with the MDRD formula. Results: The mean 25 (OH)D3 level was 20.4 ng/ml. 30ng/ml was considered as a minimum correct level 22,7% of patients from the study group were classified to be a correct body weight, 56,7% of participants had an android type and 20,6% had a gynoid type. Significant correlation was observed between 25 (OH)D3 deficiency and abdominal obesity (p < 0.005) in patients. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between the 25 (OH)D3 levels and eGFR in patients after a kidney transplant. Patients with an android body type had lower eGFR versus those with the gynoid body type (p=0.004). Conclusions: Correct diet in patients after a kidney transplant determines minimum recommended serum levels of vitamin D3. Excessive fatty tissue, low levels of 25 (OH)D3), may be a predictor for android obesity and renal injury; therefore, correct diet and pharmacological management together with physical activities adapted to the physical fitness level of a patient are necessary.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, glomerular filtration rate, obesity, vitamin D3

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5 Influence of Distribution of Body Fat on Cholesterol Non-HDL and Its Effect on Kidney Filtration

Authors: Magdalena B. Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba

Abstract:

Background: In the XXI century we have to deal with the epidemic of obesity which is important risk factor for the cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Lipo proteins are directly involved in the atherosclerotic process. Non-high-density lipo protein (non-HDL) began following widespread recognition of its superiority over LDL as a measurement of vascular event risk. Non-HDL includes residual risk which persists in patients after achieved recommended level of LDL. Materials and Methods: The study covered 111 patients (52 females, 59 males, age 51,91±14 years), hospitalized on the intern department. Body composition was assessed using the bioimpendance method and anthropometric measurements. Physical activity data were collected during the interview. The nutritional status and the obesity type were determined with the Waist to Height Ratio and the Waist to Hip Ratio. A function of the kidney was evaluated by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using MDRD formula. Non-HDL was calculated as a difference between concentration of the Total and HDL cholesterol. Results: 10% of patients were found to be underweight; 23.9 % had correct body weight; 15,08 % had overweight, while the remaining group had obesity: 51,02 %. People with the android shape have higher non-HDL cholesterol versus with the gynoid shape (p=0.003). The higher was non-HDL, the lower eGFR had studied subjects (p < 0.001). Significant correlation was found between high non-HDL and incorrect dietary habits in patients avoiding eating vegetables, fruits and having low physical activity (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Android type of figure raises the residual risk of the heart disease associated with higher levels of non-HDL. Increasing physical activity in these patients reduces the level of non-HDL. Non-HDL seems to be the best predictor among all cholesterol measures for the cardiovascular events and worsening eGFR.

Keywords: obesity, non-HDL cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate, lifestyle

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4 Perception of Quality of Life and Self-Assessed Health in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba

Abstract:

Introduction: Despite the development of technologies and improvements in the interior of dialysis stations, dialysis remains an unpleasant procedure, difficult to accept by the patients (who undergo it 2 to 3 times a week, a single treatment lasting several hours). Haemodialysis is one of the renal replacement therapies, in Poland most commonly used in patients with chronic or acute kidney failure. Purpose: An attempt was made to evaluate the quality of life in haemodialysed patients using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Material and methods: The study covered 422 patients (200 women and 222 men, aged 60.5 ± 12.9 years) undergoing dialysis at three selected stations in Poland. The patients were divided into 2 groups, depending on the duration of their dialysis treatment. The evaluation was conducted with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire containing 26 questions analysing 4 areas of life, as well as the perception of the quality of life and health self-assessment. A 5-point scale is used to answer them. The maximum score in each area is 20 points. The results in individual areas have a positive direction. Results: In patients undergoing dialysis for more than 3 years, a reduction in the quality of life was found in the physical area and in their environment versus a group of patients undergoing dialysis for less than 3 years, where a reduced quality of life was found in the areas of social relations and mental well-being (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the two groups was found in self-perceived general health, while no significant differences were observed in the general perception of the quality of life (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The study confirmed that in patients undergoing dialysis for more than three years, the quality of life is especially reduced in their environment (access to and quality of healthcare, financial resources, and mental and physical safety). The assessment of the quality of life should form a part of the therapeutic process, in which the role of the patient in chronic renal care should be emphasised, reflected in the quality of services provided by dialysis stations.

Keywords: haemodialysis, perception of quality of life, quality of services provided, dialysis station

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3 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Tree Algorithms in Classification of Spongy Tissue Texture

Authors: Roza Dzierzak, Waldemar Wojcik, Piotr Kacejko

Abstract:

Analysis of the texture of medical images consists of determining the parameters and characteristics of the examined tissue. The main goal is to assign the analyzed area to one of two basic groups: as a healthy tissue or a tissue with pathological changes. The CT images of the thoracic lumbar spine from 15 healthy patients and 15 with confirmed osteoporosis were used for the analysis. As a result, 120 samples with dimensions of 50x50 pixels were obtained. The set of features has been obtained based on the histogram, gradient, run-length matrix, co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and Haar wavelet. As a result of the image analysis, 290 descriptors of textural features were obtained. The dimension of the space of features was reduced by the use of three selection methods: Fisher coefficient (FC), mutual information (MI), minimization of the classification error probability and average correlation coefficients between the chosen features minimization of classification error probability (POE) and average correlation coefficients (ACC). Each of them returned ten features occupying the initial place in the ranking devised according to its own coefficient. As a result of the Fisher coefficient and mutual information selections, the same features arranged in a different order were obtained. In both rankings, the 50% percentile (Perc.50%) was found in the first place. The next selected features come from the co-occurrence matrix. The sets of features selected in the selection process were evaluated using six classification tree methods. These were: decision stump (DS), Hoeffding tree (HT), logistic model trees (LMT), random forest (RF), random tree (RT) and reduced error pruning tree (REPT). In order to assess the accuracy of classifiers, the following parameters were used: overall classification accuracy (ACC), true positive rate (TPR, classification sensitivity), true negative rate (TNR, classification specificity), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Taking into account the classification results, it should be stated that the best results were obtained for the Hoeffding tree and logistic model trees classifiers, using the set of features selected by the POE + ACC method. In the case of the Hoeffding tree classifier, the highest values of three parameters were obtained: ACC = 90%, TPR = 93.3% and PPV = 93.3%. Additionally, the values of the other two parameters, i.e., TNR = 86.7% and NPV = 86.6% were close to the maximum values obtained for the LMT classifier. In the case of logistic model trees classifier, the same ACC value was obtained ACC=90% and the highest values for TNR=88.3% and NPV= 88.3%. The values of the other two parameters remained at a level close to the highest TPR = 91.7% and PPV = 91.6%. The results obtained in the experiment show that the use of classification trees is an effective method of classification of texture features. This allows identifying the conditions of the spongy tissue for healthy cases and those with the porosis.

Keywords: classification, feature selection, texture analysis, tree algorithms

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2 Excess Body Fat as a Store Toxin Affecting the Glomerular Filtration and Excretory Function of the Liver in Patients after Renal Transplantation

Authors: Magdalena B. Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba, Marek J. Kuzniewski

Abstract:

Introduction: Adipose tissue is a typical place for storage water-insoluble toxins in the body. It's connective tissue, where the intercellular substance consist of fat, which level in people with low physical activity should be 18-25% for women and 13-18% for men. Due to the fat distribution in the body we distinquish two types of obesity: android (visceral, abdominal) and gynoidal (gluteal-femoral, peripheral). Abdominal obesity increases the risk of complications of the cardiovascular system diseases, and impaired renal and liver function. Through the influence on disorders of metabolism, lipid metabolism, diabetes and hypertension, leading to emergence of the metabolic syndrome. So thus, obesity will especially overload kidney function in patients after transplantation. Aim: An attempt was made to estimate the impact of amount fat tissue on transplanted kidney function and excretory function of the liver in patients after Ktx. Material and Methods: The study included 108 patients (50 females, 58 male, age 46.5 +/- 12.9 years) with active kidney transplant after more than 3 months from the transplantation. An analysis of body composition was done by using electrical bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometric measurements. Estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), muscle mass, total body water content and the amount of body fat. Information about physical activity were obtained during clinical examination. Nutritional status, and type of obesity were determined by using indicators: Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). Excretory functions of the transplanted kidney was rated by calculating the estimated renal glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Liver function was rated by total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels ALT concentration in serum. In our patients haemolitic uremic syndrome (HUS) was excluded. Results: In 19.44% of patients had underweight, 22.37% of the respondents were with normal weight, 11.11% had overweight, and the rest were with obese (49.08%). People with android stature have a lower eGFR compared with those with the gynoidal stature (p = 0.004). All patients with obesity had higher amount of body fat from a few to several percent. The higher amount of body fat percentage, the lower eGFR had patients (p <0.001). Elevated ALT levels significantly correlated with a high fat content (p <0.02). Conclusion: Increased amount of body fat, particularly in the case of android obesity can be a predictor of kidney and liver damage. Due to that obese patients should have more frequent control of diagnostic functions of these organs and the intensive dietary proceedings, pharmacological and regular physical activity adapted to the current physical condition of patients after transplantation.

Keywords: obesity, body fat, kidney transplantation, glomerular filtration rate, liver function

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1 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia

Abstract:

Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, transplantation, AFP, Prox1

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