Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2811

Search results for: open channels

2811 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit

Abstract:

To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2810 Analytical Solution of Specific Energy Equation in Exponential Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman

Abstract:

The specific energy equation has many applications in practical channels, such as exponential channels. In this paper, the governing equation of alternate depth ratio for exponential channels, in general, was investigated towards obtaining analytical solution for the alternate depth ratio in three exponential channel shapes, viz., rectangular, triangular, and parabolic channels. The alternate depth ratio for rectangular channels is quadratic; hence it is very simple to solve. While for parabolic and triangular channels, the alternate depth ratio is cubic and quartic equations, respectively, analytical solution for these equations may be achieved easily for a given Froud number. Different examples are solved to prove the efficiency of the proposed solution. Such analytical solution can be easily used in natural rivers and most of practical channels.

Keywords: alternate depth, analytical solution, specific energy, parabolic channel, rectangular channel, triangular channel, open channel flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
2809 Environmental Modeling of Storm Water Channels

Authors: L. Grinis

Abstract:

Turbulent flow in complex geometries receives considerable attention due to its importance in many engineering applications. It has been the subject of interest for many researchers. Some of these interests include the design of storm water channels. The design of these channels requires testing through physical models. The main practical limitation of physical models is the so called “scale effect”, that is, the fact that in many cases only primary physical mechanisms can be correctly represented, while secondary mechanisms are often distorted. These observations form the basis of our study, which centered on problems associated with the design of storm water channels near the Dead Sea, in Israel. To help reach a final design decision we used different physical models. Our research showed good coincidence with the results of laboratory tests and theoretical calculations, and allowed us to study different effects of fluid flow in an open channel. We determined that problems of this nature cannot be solved only by means of theoretical calculation and computer simulation. This study demonstrates the use of physical models to help resolve very complicated problems of fluid flow through baffles and similar structures. The study applies these models and observations to different construction and multiphase water flows, among them, those that include sand and stone particles, a significant attempt to bring to the testing laboratory a closer association with reality.

Keywords: open channel, physical modeling, baffles, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2808 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02 mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2807 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2806 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2805 Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water by Using Width Contraction

Authors: Arun Goel, D. V. S. Verma, Sanjeev Sangwan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a discharge measuring device for irrigation and laboratory channels. Experiments were conducted on a sharp edged constricted flow meters having four types of width constrictions namely 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1, and 90o in the direction of flow. These devices were made of MS sheets and installed separately in a rectangular flume. All these four devices were tested under free and submerged flow conditions. Eight different discharges varying from 2 lit/sec to 30 lit/sec were passed through each device. In total around 500 observations of upstream and downstream depths were taken in the present work. For each discharge, free submerged and critical submergence under different flow conditions were noted and plotted. Once the upstream and downstream depths of flow over any of the device are known, the discharge can be easily calculated with the help of the curves developed for free and submerged flow conditions. The device having contraction 2:1 is the most efficient one as it allows maximum critical submergence.

Keywords: flowrate, flowmeter, open channels, submergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2804 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2803 Convective Boiling of CO₂ in Macro and Mini-Channels

Authors: Adonis Menezes, Julio C. Passos

Abstract:

The present work deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the convective boiling of CO₂ in macro and mini-channels. A review of the state of the art of convective boiling studies in mini-channels and conventional channels for operating with CO₂ was carried out, with special attention to the flow patterns and pressure drop maps in single-phase and two-phase flows. To carry out an experimental analysis of the convective boiling of CO₂, a properly instrumented experimental bench was built, which allows a parametric analysis for different thermodynamic conditions, such as mass velocities between 200 and 1300 kg/(m².s), pressures between 20 and 70bar, temperature monitoring at the entrance of the mini-channels, heat flow and pressure drop in the test section. The visualization of flow patterns was possible with the use of a high-speed CMOS camera. The results obtained are in line with those found in the literature, both for flow patterns and for the heat transfer coefficient.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, convective boiling, CO₂, mini-channels

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
2802 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Conduit with Multiple Channels under a Magnetic Field Applied Perpendicular to the Plane of Flow

Authors: Yang Luo, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

This study numerically analyzes a steady-state, three-dimensional liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a conduit with multiple channels under a uniform magnetic field. The geometry of the conduit is of a four-parallel-channels system including one inflow channel and three outflow channels. The liquid-metal flows in the inflow channel, then turns 1800 in the transition segment, finally flows into three different outflow channels simultaneously. This kind of channel system can induce counter flow and co-flow, which is rarely investigated before. The axial velocity in the side layer near the first partitioning wall, which is located between the inflow channel and the first outflow channel, is the highest. ‘M-shaped’ velocity profiles are obtained in the side layers of the inflow and outflow channels. The interdependency of the current, fluid velocity, pressure, electric potential is examined in order to describe the electromagnetic characteristics of the liquid-metal flows.

Keywords: liquid-metal, multiple channels, magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2801 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Feng Xu, Ninggui Huang

Abstract:

In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: conformal cooling channels, selective laser melting, cooling performance, injection molding

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2800 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2799 Determination of Concentrated State Using Multiple EEG Channels

Authors: Tae Jin Choi, Jong Ok Kim, Sang Min Jin, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Analysis of EEG brainwave provides information on mental or emotional states. One of the particular states that can have various applications in human machine interface (HMI) is concentration. 8-channel EEG signals were measured and analyzed. The concentration index was compared during resting and concentrating periods. Among eight channels, locations the frontal lobe (Fp1 and Fp2) showed a clear increase of the concentration index during concentration regardless of subjects. The rest six channels produced conflicting observations depending on subjects. At this time, it is not clear whether individual difference or how to concentrate made these results for the rest six channels. Nevertheless, it is expected that Fp1 and Fp2 are promising locations for extracting control signal for HMI applications.

Keywords: concentration, EEG, human machine interface, biophysical

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2798 Security Over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
2797 Achievable Average Secrecy Rates over Bank of Parallel Independent Fading Channels with Friendly Jamming

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
2796 Numerical Analysis of Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Manifold with Three Sub-Channels

Authors: Meimei Wen, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

In the current study, three-dimensional liquid metal (LM) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a manifold with three sub-channels under a uniform magnetic field are numerically investigated. In the manifold, the electrical current can cross channel walls, thus having influence on the flow distribution in each sub-channel. A case with various arrangements of electric conductivity for different parts of channel walls is considered, yielding different current distributions as well as flow distributions in each sub-channel. Here, the imbalance of mass flow rates in the three sub-channels is addressed. Meanwhile, predicted are detailed behaviors of the flow velocity, pressure, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows with three sub-channels. Commercial software CFX is used for the numerical simulation of LM MHD flows.

Keywords: CFX, liquid metal, manifold, MHD flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2795 Discharge Estimation in a Two Flow Braided Channel Based on Energy Concept

Authors: Amiya Kumar Pati, Spandan Sahu, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. A river flow consisting of small and shallow channels sometimes divide and recombine numerous times because of the slow water flow or the built up sediments. The pattern formed during this process resembles the strands of a braid. Braided streams form where the sediment load is so heavy that some of the sediments are deposited as shifting islands. Braided rivers often exist near the mountainous regions and typically carry coarse-grained and heterogeneous sediments down a fairly steep gradient. In this paper, the apparent shear stress formulae were suitably modified, and the Energy Concept Method (ECM) was applied for the prediction of discharges at the junction of a two-flow braided compound channel. The Energy Concept Method has not been applied for estimating the discharges in the braided channels. The energy loss in the channels is analyzed based on mechanical analysis. The cross-section of channel is divided into two sub-areas, namely the main-channel below the bank-full level and region above the bank-full level for estimating the total discharge. The experimental data are compared with a wide range of theoretical data available in the published literature to verify this model. The accuracy of this approach is also compared with Divided Channel Method (DCM). From error analysis of this method, it is observed that the relative error is less for the data-sets having smooth floodplains when compared to rough floodplains. Comparisons with other models indicate that the present method has reasonable accuracy for engineering purposes.

Keywords: critical flow, energy concept, open channel flow, sediment, two-flow braided compound channel

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2794 Knowledge Transfer in Industrial Clusters

Authors: Ana Paula Lisboa Sohn, Filipa Dionísio Vieria, Nelson Casarotto, Idaulo José Cunha

Abstract:

This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the knowledge transmission channels in textile and clothing clusters located in Brazil and in Europe. Primary data was obtained through interviews with key individuals. The collection of primary data was carried out based on a questionnaire with ten categories of indicators of knowledge transmission. Secondary data was also collected through a literature review and through international organizations sites. Similarities related to the use of the main transmission channels of knowledge are observed in all cases. The main similarities are: influence of suppliers of machinery, equipment and raw materials; imitation of products and best practices; training promoted by technical institutions and businesses; and cluster companies being open to acquire new knowledge. The main differences lie in the relationship between companies, where in Europe the intensity of this relationship is bigger when compared to Brazil. The differences also occur in importance and frequency of the relationship with the government, with the cultural environment, and with the activities of research and development. It is also found factors that reduce the importance of geographical proximity in transmission of knowledge, and in generating trust and the establishment of collaborative behavior.

Keywords: industrial clusters, interorganizational learning, knowledge transmission channels, textile and clothing industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2793 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst

Abstract:

Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2792 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang

Abstract:

In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
2791 Assessment of Academic Knowledge Transfer Channels in Field of Environment

Authors: Jagul Huma Lashari, Arabella Bhutto

Abstract:

Last few years have shown increased an interest of researchers in knowledge and technology transfer. However, facts show fewer types of knowledge transfer practices in the developing countries. This article focuses on assessment transfer channels of academic research produced by highly qualified academicians working in universities in Sindh offering degrees in field of an Environment in Sindh Pakistan. The academic field has been chosen because in field of the environment there is alarming need of research into practice for sustainable development. Using case study approach; in this research qualitative interviews have been conducted from PhD faculty members working in the universities offering degrees in field of environment. Obtained data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with the help of statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Research explored 31 channels of academic knowledge transfer from detailed review of literature and exploratory interviews with participants. Identified knowledge transfer channels have been grouped together in 6 groups of knowledge transfer channels; As knowledge transfer through publications, networking, mobility of researchers, joint research, intellectual property and co-operations. Results revealed that academic knowledge have been transferred through publications, networking, and co-operation. However, less number of academic knowledge has been transferred through groups of knowledge transfer channels such as Intellectual Property and joint research.

Keywords: environment, research knowledge, transfer channels, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2790 Quantification of Effect of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide on Seepage in Irrigation Channels

Authors: Hamil Uribe, Cristian Arancibia

Abstract:

In Chile, the water for irrigation and hydropower generation is delivery essentially through unlined channels on earth, which have high seepage losses. Traditional seepage-abatement technologies are very expensive. The goals of this work were to quantify water loss in unlined channels and select reaches to evaluate the use of linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in Maule Region, central area of Chile. Water users indicated reaches with potential seepage losses, 45 km of channels in total, whose flow varied between 1.07 and 23.6 m³ s⁻¹. According to seepage measurements, 4 reaches of channels, 4.5 km in total, were selected for LA-PAM application. One to 4 LA-PAM applications were performed at rates of 11 kg ha⁻¹, considering wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Large channels were used to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. For applications, a seeder machine was used to evenly distribute granulated polymer on water surface. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP) upstream and downstream in selected reaches, to estimate seepage losses before and after LA-PAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect and duration. In each case, water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable losses up to 13.5%. Channels showing water gains were not treated with PAM. In all cases, LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving average loss reductions of 8% to 3.1%. Water loss was confirmed and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications provided that losses were known and correctly determined when applying the polymer. This could allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

Keywords: canal seepage, irrigation, polyacrylamide, water management

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2789 Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior

Authors: Chaithanya Pothuganti

Abstract:

Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.

Keywords: configuration of spaces and proportions, informal learning, open spaces, schools, student’s behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
2788 Isolation and Characterization of the First Known Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptide in Sea Anemone: Inhibitory Activity on Acid-Sensing Ion Channels

Authors: Armando A. Rodríguez, Emilio Salceda, Anoland Garateix, André J. Zaharenko, Steve Peigneur, Omar López, Tirso Pons, Michael Richardson, Maylín Díaz, Yasnay Hernández, Ludger Ständker, Jan Tytgat, Enrique Soto

Abstract:

Acid-sensing ion channels are cation (Na+) channels activated by a pH drop. These proteins belong to the ENaC/degenerin superfamily of sodium channels. ASICs are involved in sensory perception, synaptic plasticity, learning, memory formation, cell migration and proliferation, nociception, and neurodegenerative disorders, among other processes; therefore those molecules that specifically target these channels are of growing pharmacological and biomedical interest. Sea anemones produce a large variety of ion channels peptide toxins; however, those acting on ligand-gated ion channels, such as Glu-gated, Ach-gated ion channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), remain barely explored. The peptide PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by chromatographic techniques and pharmacologically characterized on acid-sensing ion channels of mammalian neurons using patch-clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 inhibited ASIC currents with an IC50 of 100 nM. Edman degradation yielded a sequence of 32 amino acids residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by MALDI-TOF. No similarity to known sea anemone peptides was found in protein databases. The computational analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this is a structurally ICK (Inhibitor Cystine Knot)-type peptide, a scaffold that had not been found in sea anemones but in other venomous organisms. These results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASICs. Also, this peptide constitutes a novel template for the development of drugs against pathologies related to ASICs function.

Keywords: animal toxin, inhibitor cystine knot, ion channel, sea anemone

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2787 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2786 Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: analytical solution, brink depth, end depth, flow measurement, free over fall, hydraulics, rectangular channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2785 Flow Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Enlarging Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in open channel provides with many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results is compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth, velocity distribution

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2784 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

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2783 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Sub-Channels of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hexagonal Array: A Numerical Approach

Authors: Md. Asif Ullah, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

This paper illustrates 2-D and 3-D simulations of sub-channels of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) having hexagonal array of fuel rods. At a steady state, the temperature of outer surface of the cladding of fuel rod is kept about 1200°C. The temperature of this isothermal surface is taken as boundary condition for simulation. Water with temperature of 290°C is given as a coolant inlet to the primary water circuit which is pressurized upto 157 bar. Turbulent flow of pressurized water is used for heat removal. In 2-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt number distributions are simulated in a vertical sectional plane through the sub-channels of a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. Temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux along a line in this plane near the end of fuel rods are plotted for different Reynold’s number. A comparison between X-component and Y-component of convective heat flux in this vertical plane is analyzed. Hexagonal fuel rod assembly has three types of sub-channels according to geometrical shape whose boundary conditions are different too. In 3-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number, total heat flux magnitude distributions for all the three sub-channels are studied for a suitable Reynold’s number. A horizontal sectional plane is taken from each of the three sub-channels to study temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number and convective heat flux distribution in it. Greater values of temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux are found for greater Reynold’s number. X-component of convective heat flux is found to be non-zero near the bottom of fuel rod and zero near the end of fuel rod. This indicates that the convective heat transfer occurs totally along the direction of flow near the outlet. As, length to radius ratio of sub-channels is very high, simulation for a short length of the sub-channels are done for graphical interface advantage. For the simulations, Turbulent Flow (K-Є ) module and Heat Transfer in Fluids (ht) module of COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.0 are used.

Keywords: sub-channels, Reynold’s number, Nusselt number, convective heat transfer

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2782 General Formula for Water Surface Profile over Side Weir in the Combined, Trapezoidal and Exponential, Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman

Abstract:

A side weir is a hydraulic structure set into the side of a channel. This structure is used for water level control in channels, to divert flow from a main channel into a side channel when the water level in the main channel exceeds a specific limit and as storm overflows from urban sewerage system. Computation of water surface over the side weirs is essential to determine the flow rate of the side weir. Analytical solutions for water surface profile along rectangular side weir are available only for the special cases of rectangular and trapezoidal channels considering constant specific energy. In this paper, a rectangular side weir located in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel was considered. Expanding binominal series of integer and fraction powers and the using of reduction formula of cosine function integrals, a general analytical formula was obtained for water surface profile along a side weir in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel. Since triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal and parabolic cross-sections are special cases of the combined cross section, the derived formula, is applicable to triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal cross-sections as analytical solution and semi-analytical solution to parabolic cross-section with maximum relative error smaller than 0.76%. The proposed solution should be a useful engineering tool for the evaluation and design of side weirs in open channel.

Keywords: analytical solution, combined channel, exponential channel, side weirs, trapezoidal channel, water surface profile

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