Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 871

Search results for: author

871 Author Name Disambiguation for Biomedical Literature

Authors: Parthiban Srinivasan

Abstract:

PubMed provides online access to the National Library of Medicine database (MEDLINE) and other publications, which contain close to 25 million scientific citations from 1865 to the present. There are close to 80 million author name instances in those close to 25 million citations. For any work of literature, a fundamental issue is to identify the individual(s) who wrote it, and conversely, to identify all of the works that belong to a given individual. Due to the lack of universal standards for name information, there are two aspects of name ambiguity: name synonymy (a single author with multiple name representations), and name homonymy (multiple authors sharing the same name representation). In this talk, we present some results from our extensive work in author name disambiguation for PubMed citations. Information will be presented on the effectiveness and shortcomings of different aspects of successful name disambiguation such as parsing, validation, standardization and normalization.

Keywords: disambiguation, normalization, parsing, PubMed

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870 Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality

Authors: Penn P. Wu

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Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.

Keywords: learning with VR, virtual experience of learning, virtual in-person learning, virtual reality for education

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869 Models of Copyrights System

Authors: A. G. Matveev

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The copyrights system is a combination of different elements. The number, content and the correlation of these elements are different for different legal orders. The models of copyrights systems display this system in terms of the interaction of economic and author's moral rights. Monistic and dualistic models are the most popular ones. The article deals with different points of view on the monism and dualism in copyright system. A specific model of the copyright in Switzerland in the XXth century is analyzed. The evolution of a French dualistic model of copyright is shown. The author believes that one should talk not about one, but rather about a number of dualism forms of copyright system.

Keywords: copyright, exclusive copyright, economic rights, author's moral rights, rights of personality, monistic model, dualistic model

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868 Research on Perceptual Features of Couchsurfers on New Hospitality Tourism Platform Couchsurfing

Authors: Yuanxiang Miao

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This paper aims to examine the perceptual features of couchsurfers on a new hospitality tourism platform, the free homestay website couchsurfing. As a local host, the author has accepted 61 couchsurfers in Kyoto, Japan, and attempted to figure out couchsurfers' characteristics on perception by hosting them. Moreover, the methodology of this research is mainly based on in-depth interviews, by talking with couchsurfers, observing their behaviors, doing questionnaires, etc. Five dominant perceptual features of couchsurfers were identified: (1) Trusting; (2) Meeting; (3) Sharing; (4) Reciprocity; (5) Worries. The value of this research lies in figuring out a deeper understanding of the perceptual features of couchsurfers, and the author indeed hosted and stayed with 61 couchsurfers from 30 countries and areas over one year. Lastly, the author offers practical suggestions for future research.

Keywords: couchsurfing, depth interview, hospitality tourism, perceptual features

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867 Territorial Marketing as a Tool to Overcome the "Underdevelopment Whirlpools": Prospective Directions and Experiences of Developing Countries

Authors: E. G. Popkova, I. A. Morozova, T. N. Litvinova

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As a result, numerous studies of economic systems the authors have identified and substantiated the existence of a“underdevelopment whirlpool” is a phenomenon of considerable differentiation level of economic development in developed and developing countries. This article reflects the relationship “underdevelopment whirlpools” marketing areas as a tool to overcome them. The article presents the author's recommendations for dealing with “underdevelopment whirlpools”. Based on the experience of successful developing countries showing strong economic growth, the author analyzes possible future direction of overcoming the “underdevelopment whirlpools”. The author details the aspect of increasing product through the positioning of the territory as a way out of the “underdevelopment whirlpools”.

Keywords: underdevelopment whirlpool, developed countries, developing countries, disparities of economic growth, marketing territories

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866 Prevention of Corruption in Public Purchases

Authors: Anatoly Krivinsh

Abstract:

The results of dissertation research "Preventing and combating corruption in public procurement" are presented in this publication. The study was conducted 2011 till 2013 in a Member State of the European Union, in the Republic of Latvia. Goal of the thesis is to explore corruption prevention and combating issues in public procurement sphere, to identify the prevalence rates, determinants and contributing factors and prevention opportunities in Latvia. In the first chapter the author analyses theoretical aspects of understanding corruption in public procurement, with particular emphasis on corruption definition problem, its nature, causes and consequences. A separate section is dedicated to the public procurement concept, mechanism and legal framework. In the first part of this work the author presents cognitive methodology of corruption in public procurement field, based on which the author has carried out an analysis of corruption situation in public procurement in Republic of Latvia. In the second chapter of the thesis, the author analyzes the problem of corruption in public procurement, including its historical aspects, typology and classification of corruption subjects involved, corruption risk elements in public procurement and their identification. During the development of the second chapter author's practical experience in public procurements was widely used. The third and fourth chapter deals with issues related to the prevention and combating corruption in public procurement, namely the operation of the concept, principles, methods and techniques, subjects in Republic of Latvia, as well as an analysis of foreign experience in preventing and combating corruption. The fifth chapter is devoted to the corruption prevention and combating perspectives and their assessment. In this chapter the author has made the evaluation of corruption prevention and combating measures efficiency in Republic of Latvia, assessment of anti-corruption legislation development stage in public procurement field in Latvia.

Keywords: prevention of corruption, public purchases, good governance, human rights

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865 Differences Choosing Closed Approach or Open Approach in Rhinoplasty Outcomes

Authors: Alessandro Marano

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Aim: The author describes a strategy for choosing between two different rhinoplasty approaches for outcomes treatment. Methods: Series of the case study. There are advantages and disadvantages on both approaches for rhinoplasty. On the side of the open approach, we are be able to better manage the techniques for shaping and restoring nasal structures in rhinoplasty outcomes; on the other side, the closed approach requires more practice and experience to achieve good results. Results: Author’s choice is the closed approach on rhinoplasty outcomes. Anyway, the open approach is most commonly preferred due to superior management and better vision on nasal structures. Conclusions: Both approaches are valid for the treatment of rhinoplasty outcomes, author's preferred approach is closed, with minimally invasive modification focused on restoring outcomes in nasal function and aesthetics.

Keywords: rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face, outcomes

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864 Messiness and Strategies for Elite Interview: Multi-Sited Ethnographic Research in Mainland China

Authors: Yali Liu

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The ethnographic research involved a multi-sited field trip study in China to compile in-depth data from Chinese multilingual academics of Korean, Japanese, and Russian. It aimed to create a culturally-informed portrait of their values and perceptions regarding their choice of language for academic publishing. Extended and lengthy fieldwork, or known as ‘deep hanging out’, enabled the author to gain a comprehensive understanding of the research context at the macro-level and the participants’ experiences at the micro-level. This research involved multiple fieldwork sites, which the author selected in acknowledgment of the diversity in China’s regions with respect to their geopolitical context, socio-economic development, cultural traditions, and administrative status. The 14 weeks of data collection took the author over-land to five regions in northern China: Hebei province, Tianjin, Jilin province, Gansu province, and Xinjiang. Responding to the fieldwork dynamics, the author positioned herself at different degrees of insiderness and outsiderness. This occurred at three levels: the regional level, the individual level, and the within-individual level. To enhance the ability to reflect on the authors’ researcher subjectivity, the author explored her understanding of the five ‘I’s, derived from the authors’ natural attributes. This helped the author to monitor her subjectivity, particularly during critical decision-making. The methodological challenges the author navigated were related to interviewing elites; this involved the initial approach, establishing a relationship, and negotiating the unequal power relationship during our contact. The author developed a number of strategies to strengthen her authority, and to gain the confidence of her envisaged participants and secure their collaboration, and the author negotiated a form of reciprocity that reflected their needs and expectations. The current ethnographic research has both theoretical and practical significance. It contributes to the methodological development regarding multi-sited ethnographic research. The messiness and strategies about positioning and interviewing elites will provide practical lessons for researchers who conduct ethnographic research, especially from power-‘less’ positions.

Keywords: multi-sited ethnographic research, elite interview, multilingual China, subjectivity, reciprocity

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863 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

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The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: amendment, legal problem, right, sport

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862 Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Perry

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In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a "world class system of inclusive education". As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider’s voice as well as a professional in the system.

Keywords: disability studies, inclusive education, special education, working with families with children with disability

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861 Analysis of Perception of Cicero's Personality Today and in Antiquity Based on Cicero's Letters

Authors: Marketa Slazanska

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Cicero is generally perceived as one of the most gifted authors of all the antiquity, which has brought him a great popularity. Even the orator himself was eager to be seen as a man of fine taste for culture and especially literature, which was in his days represented by the interest in everything of a Greek origin. It might, therefore, lead to an assumption that literature was a key interest in his life, too. However, a confirmation of this assumption cannot be found in his letters, which are believed to offer Cicero's most personal statements. Reading his letters thoroughly and comparing them to the respective historical background, it may be found out that the author has mentioned literature mainly in a specific context of his political career losing importance. To analyze the letters have been used in the original Latin version as well as several translations and a large historical and literary background. The object of this paper is to specify, whether Cicero regarded himself more as an author and orator, or as a politician, and how did his correspondents regard him. The respective findings could be useful for better understanding of author's life and work and they may help his readers to see his books from a different, and perhaps more accurate, point of view.

Keywords: antiquity, politician, literature, letters, Cicero, oratory

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860 Labor Welfare and Social Security

Authors: Shoaib Alvi

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Mahatma Gandhi was said “Man becomes great exactly in the degree in which he works for the welfare of his fellow-men”. Labor welfare is an important fact of Industrial relations. With the growth of industrialization, mechanization and computerization, labor welfare measures have got the fillip. The author believes that Labor welfare includes provisions of various facilities and amenities in and around the work place for the better life of the workers. Labor welfare is, thus, one of the major determinants of industrial relations. It comprises all human efforts the work place for the better life of the worker. The social and economic aspects of the life of the workers have the direct influence on the social and economic development of the nation. Author thinks that there could be multiple objectives in having, labor welfare programme the concern for improving the lot of the workers, a philosophy of humanitarianism or internal social responsibility, a feeling of concern, and caring by providing some of life's basic amenities, besides the basic pay packet. Such caring is supposed to build a sense of loyalty on the part of the employee towards the organization. The author thinks that Social security is the security that the State furnishes against the risks which an individual of small means cannot today, stand up to by himself even in private combination with his fellows. Social security is one of the pillars on which the structure of a welfare state rests, and it constitutes the hardcore of social policy in most countries. It is through social security measures that the state attempts to maintain every citizen at a certain prescribed level below which no one is allowed to fall. According to author, social assistance is a method according to which benefits are given to the needy persons, fulfilling the prescribed conditions, by the government out of its own resources. Author has analyzed and studied the relationship between the labor welfare social security and also studied various international conventions on provisions of social security by International Authorities like United Nations, International Labor Organization, and European Union etc. Author has also studied and analyzed concept of labor welfare and social security schemes of many countries around the globe ex:- Social security in Australia, Social security in Switzerland, Social Security (United States), Mexican Social Security Institute, Welfare in Germany, Social security schemes of India for labor welfare in both organized sector and unorganized sector. In this Research paper, Author has done the study on the Conceptual framework of the Labour Welfare. According to author, labors are highly perishable, which need constant welfare measures for their upgradation and performance in this field. At last author has studied role of trade unions and labor welfare unions and other institutions working for labor welfare, in this research paper author has also identified problems these Unions and labor welfare bodies’ face and tried to find out solutions for the problems and also analyzed various steps taken by the government of various countries around the globe.

Keywords: labor welfare, internal social responsibility, social security, international conventions

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859 Morphological Properties in Ndre Mjeda's Works

Authors: Shyhrete Morina

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This paper deals with morphological features in Mjeda's works. To make such a distinction, these features will be compared to standard Albanian language, considering the linguistic structure in the morphological field, which represent an all-important segment of Albanian language. Therefore, the study will focus mainly on the description and construction of these paradigms, which will give a linguistic insight into the entire work of Mjeda as the author who wrote in the dialect of northwestern Geg. Therefore, we have tried to distinguish different parts of the author's language, as well as the distinctive features or even the similarities of these paradigms that arise in the literary work of Mjeda. By constructing the corpus of this phonetic and grammar segment from the whole of Mjeda's work, we have seen that in these fields has built a variety of grammar structures, which for the history of Albanian are of special importance, that in the full variant of the work, as far as we can investigate, we will point out in all the distinctive features. Therefore, our study aims to highlight the linguistic features, namely the author's deep knowledge toward the language, the authenticity of its use, and its mutual relationship with it.

Keywords: distinctive morpholgy, nouns, adjetives, pronouns, Albanian standard language

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858 Life Imprisonment: European Convention on Human Rights Standards and the New Serbian Criminal Code

Authors: Veljko Turanjanin

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In this article, an author deals with the issue of life imprisonment. Life imprisonment represents a new sentence in the Serbian legislature, in addition to the standard one, imprisonment. The author elaborated on judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), imposing the possibility of parole for the person sentenced to life imprisonment, emphasizing rehabilitation as the primary goal of penalties. According to the ECtHR, life imprisonment without parole is not permitted. The right to rehabilitation is very strictly set in the ECtHR jurisprudence. Life imprisonment represents a new sentence in the Serbian legislature, in addition to the standard one, imprisonment. The legislator provided the possibility of parole for most criminal offenses after 27 years in prison, while for some of them, a possibility of parole is explicitly prohibited. The author points out the shortcomings of the legal solution that exists in Serbia, which flagrantly threatens to violate the human rights of the offenders.

Keywords: European Court of Human Rights, life imprisonment, parole, rehabilitation

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857 Sexual Violence and Persecution That Occurred at the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic Boarding School

Authors: Siamrotul Ayu Masruroh

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Cases of sexual violence among Islamic boarding schools have now reached a point of equal concern with other cases of sexual violence that have occurred in universities, schools, offices, mass halls, and even churches. Worse yet, several cases of sexual violence that occurred in Islamic boarding schools were actually carried out by religious authorities such as kyai, caregivers, and ndalem families. This article discusses the phenomenon of cases of sexual violence and mistreatment of victims with cases that occurred in the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic boarding school, the importance of creating a safe space, preventing and dealing with sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools. The author uses the theory of masculinity from Raewyn W. Connell to see sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools and its relation to masculinity and femininity. In addition, the author also uses the spiral theory of violence from Dom Helder Camara to analyze the persecution case. The author conducted a literature study, observation, questionnaire, and interviews in the process of this research.

Keywords: sexual violence, islamic boarding school, safe space, women

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856 Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Nikita. R. Sonthalia, Khushbu. A. Dodiya

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Research leads to development of science and technology and hence to the betterment of humankind. Journals and conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way that they do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called double-blind review process. It is called single-blind review process, if identity of any one party (generally authors) is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be made out even through double-blind review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or unintentional disclosure of identity revealing information by either party to the other.

Keywords: author, conference, double blind paper, journal, reviewer, single blind paper

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855 Establishing the Legality of Terraforming under the Outer Space Treaty

Authors: Bholenath

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Ever since Elon Musk revealed his plan to terraform Mars on national television in 2015, the debate regarding the legality of such an activity under the current Outer Space Treaty regime is gaining momentum. Terraforming means to alter or transform the atmosphere of another planet to have the characteristics of landscapes on Earth. Musk’s plan is to alter the entire environment of Mars so as to make it habitable for humans. He has long been an advocate of colonizing Mars, and in order to make humans an interplanetary species; he wants to detonate thermonuclear devices over the poles of Mars. For a common man, it seems to be a fascinating endeavor, but for space lawyers, it poses new and fascinating legal questions. Some of the questions which arise are whether the use of nuclear weapons on celestial bodies is permitted under the Outer Space Treaty? Whether such an alteration of the celestial environment would fall within the scope of the term 'harmful contamination' under Article IX of the treaty? Whether such an activity which would put an entire planet under the control of a private company can be permitted under the treaty? Whether such terraforming of Mars would amount to its appropriation? Whether such an activity would be in the 'benefit and interests of all countries'? This paper will be attempt to examine and elucidate upon these legal questions. Space is one such domain where the law should precede man. The paper follows the approach that the de lege lata is not capable of prohibiting the terraforming of Mars. Outer Space Treaty provides the freedoms of space and prescribes certain restrictions on those freedoms as well. The author shall examine the provisions such as Article I, II, IV, and IX of the Outer Space Treaty in order to establish the legality of terraforming activity. The author shall establish how such activity is peaceful use of the celestial body, is in the benefit and interests of all countries, and does neither qualify as national appropriation of the celestial body nor as its harmful contamination. The author shall divide the paper into three chapters. The first chapter would be about the general introduction of the problem, the analysis of Elon Musk’s plan to terraform Mars, and the need to study terraforming from the lens of the Outer Space Treaty. In the second chapter, the author shall attempt to establish the legality of the terraforming activity under the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty. In this vein, the author shall put forth the counter interpretations and the arguments which may be formulated against the lawfulness of terraforming. The author shall show as to why the counter interpretations establishing the unlawfulness of terraforming should not be accepted, and in doing so, the author shall provide the interpretations that should prevail and ultimately establishes the legality of terraforming activity under the treaty. In the third chapter, the author shall draw relevant conclusions and give suggestions.

Keywords: appropriation, harmful contamination, peaceful, terraforming

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854 Groundhog Day as a Model for the Repeating Spectator and the Film Academic: Re-Watching the Same Films Again Can Create Different Experiences and Ideas

Authors: Leiya Ho Yin Lee

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Groundhog Day (Harold Ramis, 1993) may seemingly be a fairly unremarkable Hollywood comedy film in the 90s, it is argued that the film, with its protagonist Phil (Bill Murray), inadvertently, but perfectly, demonstrates an important aspect in filmmaking, film spectatorship and film research: repetition. Very rarely does a narrative film use one, and only one, take in its shooting. The multiple ‘repeats’ of Phil’s various endeavours due to his being trapped in a perpetual loop of the same day — from stealing money and tricking a woman into a casual relationship, to his multiple suicides, to eventually helping people in need — make the process of doing multiple ‘takes’ in filmmaking explicit. But perhaps more significantly, Phil represents a perfect model for the spectator/cinephile who has seen their favourite film for multiple times that they can remember every single detail. Crucially, their favourite film never changes, as it is a recording, but the cinephile’s experience of that very same film is most likely different each time they watch it again, just as Phil’s character and personality has completely transformed, from selfish and egotistic, to depressed and nihilistic, and ultimately to sympathetic and caring, even though he is living the exact same day. Furthermore, the author did not come up with this stimulating juxtaposition of film spectatorship and Groundhog Day the first time the author saw the film; it took the author a few casual re-viewings to notice the film’s self-reflexivity. And then, when working on it in the author’s research, the author had to re-view the film for more times, and have subsequently noticed even more things previously unnoticed. In this way, Groundhog Day not only stands for a model for filmmaking and film spectatorship, it also illustrates the act of academic research, especially in Film Studies where repeatedly viewing the same films is a prerequisite before new ideas and concepts are discovered from old material. This also recalls Deleuze’s thesis on difference and repetition in that repetition creates difference and it is difference that creates thought.

Keywords: narrative comprehension, repeated viewing, repetition, spectatorship

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853 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev

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In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation

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852 Islamic Banking: A New Trend towards the Development of Banking Law

Authors: Inese Tenberga

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Undoubtedly, the focus of the present capitalist system of finance has shifted from the concept of productivity of money to the ‘cult of money’, which is characterized by such notions as speculative activity, squander, self-profit, vested interest, etc. The author is certain that a civilized society cannot follow this economic path any longer and therefore suggests that one solution would be to integrate the Islamic financial model in the banking sector of the EU to overcome its economic vulnerability and structurally transform its economies or build resilience against shocks and crisis. The researcher analyses the Islamic financial model, which is providing the basis for the concept of non-productivity of money, and proposes to consider it as a new paradigm of economic thinking. The author argues that it seeks to establish a broad-based economic well-being with an optimum rate of economic growth, socio-economic justice, equitable distribution of income and wealth. Furthermore, the author analyses and proposes to use the experience of member states of the Islamic Development Bank for the formation of a new EU interest free banking. It is offered to create within the EU banking system a credit sector and investment sector respectively. As a part of the latter, it is recommended to separate investment banks specializing in speculative investments and non­speculative investment banks. Meanwhile, understanding of the idea of Islamic banking exclusively from the perspective of the manner of yielding profit that differs from credit banking, without considering the legal, social, ethical guidelines of Islam impedes to value objectively the advantages of this type of financial activities at the non-Islamic jurisdictions. However, the author comes to the conclusion the imperative of justice and virtue, which is inherent to all of us, exists regardless of religion. The author concludes that the global community should adopt the experience of the Muslim countries and focus on the Islamic banking model.

Keywords: credit sector, EU banking system, investment sector, Islamic banking

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851 When Pain Becomes Love For God: The Non-Object Self

Authors: Roni Naor-Hofri

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This paper shows how self-inflicted pain enabled the expression of love for God among Christian monastic ascetics in medieval central Europe. As scholars have shown, being in a state of pain leads to a change in or destruction of language, an essential feature of the self. The author argues that this transformation allows the self to transcend its boundaries as an object, even if only temporarily and in part. The epistemic achievement of love for God, a non-object, would not otherwise have been possible. To substantiate her argument, the author shows that the self’s transformation into a non-object enables the imitation of God: not solely in the sense of imitatio Christi, of physical and visual representations of God incarnate in the flesh of His son Christ, but also in the sense of the self’s experience of being a non-object, just like God, the target of the self’s love.

Keywords: love for God , pain, philosophy, religion

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850 Assessment of the New Ethiopian Investment Law in Light of Ethiopia’s Accession to the WTO: The Case of the Air Transport Sector

Authors: Gidey Asgedom Haile

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The WTO, although it excludes air transportation in general, it includes some sub-services (MRO, the selling and marketing of air transport services and CRS) in its Annex on Air Transport Services (AATS). To clarify the exact scope of the AATS, the AATS reviewed twice though it is not successful yet. Ethiopia formally requested WTO accession in January 2003, though the accession process was stagnant for years until it resumed in June 2019. Be that as it may, the Ethiopian New Investment Law made some changes, including a partial liberalization of the international and domestic air transport services. However, the travel agency, travel ticket sales and maintenance repair and overhaul(MRO) are reserved for domestic investors. To this end, the author has assessed the new investment law considering Ethiopia's WTO accession using qualitative and descriptive methods. In contrast to the AATS, the New Investment Law is as restrictive as the previous Ethiopian investment law though it partly liberalized the major service of air transport. Thus, the author concluded that the air transportation under the New Investment Law could be a challenging issue to Ethiopia's negotiation team to the WTO. Finally, the Author provided some recommendations to be taken by the Ethiopian negotiation team, Ethiopian legislation, and the WTO.

Keywords: world trade organization (WTO), accession, Ethiopia, investment law, liberalization, air transportation

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849 Globalization as Instrument for Multi-National Corporation in Transforming Asian’s Perspective towards Clean Water Consumption

Authors: Atanta Gian

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It is inevitable that globalization has succeeded in transforming the world today. The influence of globalization has emerged in almost every aspect of life nowadays, especially in shaping the perception of the people. It can be seen on how easy for people are affected by the information surrounding them. Due to globalization, the flow of information has become more rapid along with the development of technology. People tend to believe in information that they actually get by themselves, if there is information where most of the people believe it is true, then this information could be categorized as factual and relevant. Therefore if people gain information on what is best for them in terms of daily consumption, then this information could transform their perspective, and it becomes a consideration in selecting their needs for daily consumption. By looking at this trend, the author sees that globalization could be used by Multi-National Corporation (MNC) to enhance the promotion of their products. This is applied by shaping the perspectives of the world regarding what is the best for them. Multi-National Corporation which has better technology in terms of the development of their external promotion could utilize this opportunity to affect people’s perspectives into what they want. In this paper, the author would like to elaborate how globalization is applied by MNC to shape people’s perspective regarding what is the best for them. The author would utilize a case study to analyze on how MNC could transform the perspectives of Asian people regarding the necessary of having a better quality drinking water, which in this case, MNC has shaped the perspective of Asian people in choosing their product by promoting the bottled water as the best choice for them. In the end of this paper, author would come to a conclusion that MNCs are able to shape the world’s perspective regarding the needs of their products which is supported by the globalization that is happening now.

Keywords: consumption, globalisation, influence, information technology, multi-national corporations

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848 Expression-Based Learning as a Starting Point to Promote Students’ Creativity in K-12 Schools in China

Authors: Yanyue Yuan

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In this paper, the author shares the findings of a pilot study that examines students’ creative expressions and their perceptions of creativity when engaged in project-based learning. The study is based on an elective course that the author co-designed and co-taught with a colleague to sixteen grade six and seven students over the spring semester in 2019. Using the Little Prince story as the main prompt, they facilitated students’ original creation of a storytelling concert that integrated script writing, music production, lyrics, songs, and visual design as a result of both individual and collaborative work. The author will share the specific challenges we met during the project, including learning cultures of the school, class management, teachers' and parents’ attitude, process-oriented versus product-oriented mindset, and facilities and logistical resources. The findings of this pilot study will inform the ongoing research initiative of exploring how we can foster creative learning in public schools in the Chinese context. While K-12 schools of China’s public education system are still dominated by exam-oriented and teacher-centered approaches, the author proposes that expression-based learning can be a starting point for promoting students’ creativity and can serve as experimental efforts to initiate incremental changes within the current education framework. The paper will also touch upon insights gained from collaborations between university and K-12 schools.

Keywords: creativity, expression-based learning, K-12, incremental changes

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847 Machine Learning Based Gender Identification of Authors of Entry Programs

Authors: Go Woon Kwak, Siyoung Jun, Soyun Maeng, Haeyoung Lee

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Entry is an education platform used in South Korea, created to help students learn to program, in which they can learn to code while playing. Using the online version of the entry, teachers can easily assign programming homework to the student and the students can make programs simply by linking programming blocks. However, the programs may be made by others, so that the authors of the programs should be identified. In this paper, as the first step toward author identification of entry programs, we present an artificial neural network based classification approach to identify genders of authors of a program written in an entry. A neural network has been trained from labeled training data that we have collected. Our result in progress, although preliminary, shows that the proposed approach could be feasible to be applied to the online version of entry for gender identification of authors. As future work, we will first use a machine learning technique for age identification of entry programs, which would be the second step toward the author identification.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, author identification, deep neural network, gender identification, machine learning

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846 An Exploratory Study into the Suggestive Impact of Alaa Al-Aswany's Political Essays

Authors: Valerii Dudin

Abstract:

With the continuous increase in quantity and importance of the information surrounding our daily lives, it has become crucial to understand what makes information stand out and affect our point of view, regardless of the accuracy of the facts involved. Alaa Al-Aswany’s numerous works have been an inspiration for millions of his readers in Egypt and all across the Arab World. While highly factual, the author’s political essays are both lexically and stylistically rich; they also implement descriptive allusions and proverbs to support the presented opinions. We have undertaken an effort to explore the impact on the individual perception through these political works of the author. In this study, we have overviewed previously made research on similar subjects and through contextual, intertextual, linguistic and corpus analyses we have come to realize the presence of suggestive themes in these works, capable of shaping the reader’s perception regarding a certain topic, specifically targeting the reader’s emotional bias. The findings presented in the study will reveal an overview of such examples of suggestive elements used in the author’s works, as well as various new insights on what can be considered suggestive in the context of modern Arabic printed press.

Keywords: Alaa al-Aswany, cognitive linguistics, political essays, suggestion

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845 Replication of Meaningful Gesture Study for N400 Detection Using a Commercial Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout

Abstract:

In an effort to test the ability of a commercial grade EEG headset to effectively measure the N400 ERP, a replication study was conducted to see if similar results could be produced as that which used a medical grade EEG. Pictures of meaningful and meaningless hand postures were borrowed from the original author and subjects were required to perform a semantic discrimination task. The N400 was detected indicating semantic processing of the meaningfulness of the hand postures. The results corroborate those of the original author and support the use of some commercial grade EEG headsets for non-critical research applications.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, gestures, emotiv

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844 Regulation of the Commercial Credits in the Foreign Exchange Operations

Authors: Marija Vicic

Abstract:

The purpose of commercial credit regulation in an unified way under Law on Foreign Exchange Operations in Republic of Serbia allows an easier state monitoring of credit operations performed by non-professionals on foreign exchange market. By broadly defining the term “commercial credits“, the state (i.e. National Bank of Serbia) is given the authority to monitor the performance of all obligations under commercial contracts in which the obligations are not performed simultaneously. In the first part of the paper, the author analyses the economic gist of commercial credits with the purpose of giving an insight into their special treatment. The author examines the term „commercial credits“ given in Law on foreign exchange operations and the difference between financial credits and irregular commercial credits (exports and imports of goods and services deemed to be commercial credits) is particularly highlighted. In the second part, the author emphasizes the specifics of commercial credit contracts, especially the effects of special requests for the parties to these contracts to notify National Bank of Serbia and specific regulations regarding maturity of obligations under these commercial credits and the assignment and compensation of the said contracts.

Keywords: commercial credit, foreign exchange operations, commercial transactions, deferred payment, advance payment, (non) resident

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843 International Relations and the Transformation of Political Regimes in Post-Soviet States

Authors: Sergey Chirun

Abstract:

Using of a combination of institutional analysis and network access has allowed the author to identify the characteristics of the informal institutions of regional political power and political regimes. According to the author, ‘field’ of activity of post-Soviet regimes, formed under the influence of informal institutions, often contradicts democratic institutional regional changes which are aimed at creating of a legal-rational type of political domination and balanced model of separation of powers. This leads to the gap between the formal structure of institutions and the real nature of power, predetermining the specific character of the existing political regimes.

Keywords: authoritarianism, institutions, political regime, social networks, transformation

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842 The Role of Gender Ideology in the Legality of Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Analysis

Authors: Amber Salamanca-Blazek

Abstract:

This paper explores the connection between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage cross-nationally. The author questions what role gender ideology plays in the cultural shift concerning same-sex marriage currently underway around the world and the variations in the legal treatment of same-sex marriage at the national level. Existing literature on gender, gender ideology, the role of gender ideology in traditional and same-sex marriage, and the extent to which this connection has previously been examined is explored. Also, the author explores the relationship between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage in three countries with the differing legality of same-sex marriage - The United States, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2015, Australia, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2017, and Iran, where the death penalty for homosexuality still exists. A comparison of gender ideology frameworks and an analysis of the political rhetoric surrounding same-sex marriage in each country are performed. It is argued that the important role of gender ideology in the legality of same-sex marriage has been greatly ignored and is in need of increased attention to assist gay rights activists in their framework. The link of gender ideology and patriarchal authority between the gay rights movement and the women’s rights movement are subsequently discussed. The author argues that because of this linkage between movements, there is a necessity for joint frameworks. Suggestions for future research are also provided.

Keywords: gender ideology, same-sex marriage, same-sex marriage legality, women's rights movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 140