Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7610

Search results for: critical flow

7610 Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elshobaki, Alessandro Valiani, Valerio Caleffi

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.

Keywords: numerical simulation, junction flow, sub-critical flow, super-critical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
7609 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: crack, critical flow, leak, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
7608 CFD Simulation and Investigation of Critical Two-Phase Flow Rate in Wellhead Choke

Authors: Alireza Rafie Boldaji, Ahmad Saboonchi

Abstract:

Chokes are commonly used in oil and gas production systems. A choke is a restriction basically designed to control flow rates of oil and gas wells, to prevent the downstream disturbances from propagating upstream (critical flow), and to protect the surface equipment facilities against slugging at high flowing pressures. There are different methods to calculate the multiphase flow rate, one of the multiphase flow measurement methods is the separation and measurement by on¬e-phaseFlow meter, another common method is the use of movable separator, their operations are very labor-intensive and costly. The current method used is based on the flow differential pressure on both sides of choke. Three groups of correlations describing two-phase flow through wellhead chokes were examined. The first group involved simple empirical equations similar to those of Gilbert, the second group comprised derived equations of two-phase flow incorporating PVT properties, and third group is computational method. In the article we calculate the flow of oil and gas through choke with simulation of this two phase flow bye computational fluid dynamic method, we use Ansys- fluent for this simulation and finally compared results of computational simulation whit empirical equations, the results show good agreement between experimental and numerical results.

Keywords: CFD, two-phase, choke, critical

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
7607 Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water by Using Width Contraction

Authors: Arun Goel, D. V. S. Verma, Sanjeev Sangwan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a discharge measuring device for irrigation and laboratory channels. Experiments were conducted on a sharp edged constricted flow meters having four types of width constrictions namely 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1, and 90o in the direction of flow. These devices were made of MS sheets and installed separately in a rectangular flume. All these four devices were tested under free and submerged flow conditions. Eight different discharges varying from 2 lit/sec to 30 lit/sec were passed through each device. In total around 500 observations of upstream and downstream depths were taken in the present work. For each discharge, free submerged and critical submergence under different flow conditions were noted and plotted. Once the upstream and downstream depths of flow over any of the device are known, the discharge can be easily calculated with the help of the curves developed for free and submerged flow conditions. The device having contraction 2:1 is the most efficient one as it allows maximum critical submergence.

Keywords: flowrate, flowmeter, open channels, submergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
7606 Analytical Formulae for the Approach Velocity Head Coefficient

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Critical depth meters, such as abroad crested weir, Venture Flume and combined control flume are standard devices for measuring flow in open channels. The discharge relation for these devices cannot be solved directly, but it needs iteration process to account for the approach velocity head. In this paper, analytical solution was developed to calculate the discharge in a combined critical depth-meter namely, a hump combined with lateral contraction in rectangular channel with subcritical approach flow including energy losses. Also analytical formulae were derived for approach velocity head coefficient for different types of critical depth meters. The solution was derived by solving a standard cubic equation considering energy loss on the base of trigonometric identity. The advantage of this technique is to avoid iteration process adopted in measuring flow by these devices. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration of the proposed solution.

Keywords: broad crested weir, combined control meter, control structures, critical flow, discharge measurement, flow control, hydraulic engineering, hydraulic structures, open channel flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7605 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
7604 Instability by Weak Precession of the Flow in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

Authors: S. Kida

Abstract:

We consider the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a precessing sphere whose spin and precession axes are orthogonal to each other. The flow is characterized by two non-dimensional parameters, the Reynolds number Re and the Poincare number Po. For which values of (Re, Po) will the flow approach a steady state from an arbitrary initial condition? To answer it we are searching the instability boundary of the steady states in the whole (Re, Po) plane. Here, we focus the rapidly rotating and weakly precessing limit, i.e., Re >> 1 and Po << 1. The steady flow was obtained by the asymptotic expansion for small ε=Po Re¹/² << 1. The flow exhibits nearly a solid-body rotation in the whole sphere except for a thin boundary layer which develops over the sphere surface. The thickness of this boundary layer is of O(δ), where δ=Re⁻¹/², except where two circular critical bands of thickness of O(δ⁴/⁵) and of width of O(δ²/⁵) which are located away from the spin axis by about 60°. We perform the linear stability analysis of the steady flow. We assume that the disturbances are localized in the critical bands and make an expansion analysis in terms of ε to derive the eigenvalue problem for the growth rate of the disturbance, which is solved numerically. As the solution, we obtain an asymptote of the stability boundary as Po=28.36Re⁻⁰.⁸. This agrees excellently with the corresponding laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. One of the most popular instability mechanisms so far is the parametric instability, which turns out, however, not to give the correct stability boundary. The present instability is different from the parametric instability.

Keywords: boundary layer, critical band, instability, precessing sphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
7603 An Advanced Match-Up Scheduling Under Single Machine Breakdown

Authors: J. Ikome, M. Ndeley

Abstract:

When a machine breakdown forces a Modified Flow Shop (MFS) out of the prescribed state, the proposed strategy reschedules part of the initial schedule to match up with the preschedule at some point. The objective is to create a new schedule that is consistent with the other production planning decisions like material flow, tooling and purchasing by utilizing the time critical decision making concept. We propose a new rescheduling strategy and a match-up point determination procedure through a feedback mechanism to increase both the schedule quality and stability. The proposed approach is compared with alternative reactive scheduling methods under different experimental settings.

Keywords: advanced critical task methods modified flow shop (MFS), Manufacturing, experiment, determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
7602 Bifurcations of the Rotations in the Thermocapillary Flows

Authors: V. Batishchev, V. Getman

Abstract:

We study the self-similar fluid flows in the Marangoni layers with the axial symmetry. Such flows are induced by the radial gradients of the temperatures whose distributions along the free boundary obey some power law. The self-similar solutions describe thermo-capillar flows both in the thin layers and in the case of infinite thickness. We consider both positive and negative temperature gradients. In the former case the cooling of free boundary nearby the axis of symmetry gives rise to the rotation of fluid. The rotating flow concentrates itself inside the Marangoni layer while outside of it the fluid does not revolve. In the latter case we observe no rotating flows at all. In the layers of infinite thickness the separation of the rotating flow creates two zones where the flows are directed oppositely. Both the longitudinal velocity and the temperature have exactly one critical point inside the boundary layer. It is worth to note that the profiles are monotonic in the case of non-swirling flows. We describe the flow outside the boundary layer with the use of self-similar solution of the Euler equations. This flow is slow and non-swirling. The introducing of an outer flow gives rise to the branching of swirling flows from the non-swirling ones. There is such the critical velocity of the outer flow that a non-swirling flow exists for supercritical velocities and cannot be extended to the sub-critical velocities. For the positive temperature gradients there are two non-swirling flows. For the negative temperature gradients the non-swirling flow is unique. We determine the critical velocity of the outer flow for which the branching of the swirling flows happens. In the case of a thin layer confined within free boundaries we show that the cooling of the free boundaries near the axis of symmetry leads to the separating of the layer and creates two sub-layers with opposite rotations inside. This makes sharp contrast with the case of infinite thickness. We show that such rotation arises provided the thickness of the layer exceed some critical value. In the case of a thin layer confined within free and rigid boundaries we construct the branching equation and the asymptotic approximation for the secondary swirling flows near the bifurcation point. It turns out that the bifurcation gives rise to one pair of the secondary swirling flows with different directions of swirl.

Keywords: free surface, rotation, fluid flow, bifurcation, boundary layer, Marangoni layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
7601 Influence of Internal Heat Source on Thermal Instability in a Horizontal Porous Layer with Mass Flow and Inclined Temperature Gradient

Authors: Anjanna Matta, P. A. L. Narayana

Abstract:

An investigation has been presented to analyze the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Hadley-Prats flow in a horizontal fluid saturated porous medium. We examine a better understanding of the combined influence of the heat source and mass flow effect by using linear stability analysis. The resultant eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting and Runga-Kutta methods for evaluate critical thermal Rayleight number with respect to various flow governing parameters. It is identified that the flow is switch from stabilizing to destabilizing as the horizontal thermal Rayleigh number is enhanced. The heat source and mass flow increases resulting a stronger destabilizing effect.

Keywords: linear stability analysis, heat source, porous medium, mass flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
7600 Effect of Two Radial Fins on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Horizontal Annulus

Authors: Anas El Amraoui, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi, Mohammed Touhami Ouazzani

Abstract:

Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, Rac.app and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.

Keywords: natural convection, fins, critical Rayleigh number, heat transfer, fluid flow regime, horizontal annulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
7599 Study of the Behavior and Similarities of Flow and Level Transmitters in the Industries

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations for certain configurations.

Keywords: flow, level, instrumentation, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
7598 Linear Stability of Convection in an Inclined Channel with Nanofluid Saturated Porous Medium

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, Nidhi Humnekar

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to numerically investigate the convection of nanofluid flow in an inclined porous channel. Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted for by nanofluid. In addition, the flow in the porous region governs Brinkman’s equation. The perturbed state of the generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained using normal mode analysis, and Chebyshev spectral collocation was used to solve this problem. For various values of the governing parameters, the critical wavenumber and critical Rayleigh number are calculated, and preferred modes are identified.

Keywords: Brinkman model, inclined channel, nanofluid, linear stability, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
7597 3D Modelling of Fluid Flow in Tunnel Kilns

Authors: Jaber H. Almutairi, Hosny Z. Abou-Ziyan, Issa F. Almesri, Mosab A. Alrahmani

Abstract:

The present work investigates the behavior of fluid flow inside tunnel kilns using 3D-CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. The CFD simulations are carried out with the FLUENT software and validated against experimental results on fluid flow and heat transfer in tunnel kilns. A grid dependency study is conducted in the current work to improve the accuracy of the results. Three turbulence models k–ω, standard k–ε, and RNG k–ε are tested where k–ω model gives the best results in comparison with the experiment. The numerical results reveal an intriguing phenomenon where a long flow separation zone behind the setting is observed under different geometric and operation conditions. It was found that the uniformity of flow distribution can be substantially improved by rearranging the geometrical parameters of brick setting relative to kiln/setting. This improvement of flow distribution plays a critical role to enhance the quality and quantity of the production. It can be concluded that a better design and operation of tunnel kilns in terms of productivity and energy consumption can be obtained by taking into consideration the flow uniformity inside the tunnel kilns using CFD modelling.

Keywords: tunnel kilns, flow separation, flow uniformity, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
7596 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
7595 Flame Volume Prediction and Validation for Lean Blowout of Gas Turbine Combustor

Authors: Ejaz Ahmed, Huang Yong

Abstract:

The operation of aero engines has a critical importance in the vicinity of lean blowout (LBO) limits. Lefebvre’s model of LBO based on empirical correlation has been extended to flame volume concept by the authors. The flame volume takes into account the effects of geometric configuration, the complex spatial interaction of mixing, turbulence, heat transfer and combustion processes inside the gas turbine combustion chamber. For these reasons, flame volume based LBO predictions are more accurate. Although LBO prediction accuracy has improved, it poses a challenge associated with Vf estimation in real gas turbine combustors. This work extends the approach of flame volume prediction previously based on fuel iterative approximation with cold flow simulations to reactive flow simulations. Flame volume for 11 combustor configurations has been simulated and validated against experimental data. To make prediction methodology robust as required in the preliminary design stage, reactive flow simulations were carried out with the combination of probability density function (PDF) and discrete phase model (DPM) in FLUENT 15.0. The criterion for flame identification was defined. Two important parameters i.e. critical injection diameter (Dp,crit) and critical temperature (Tcrit) were identified, and their influence on reactive flow simulation was studied for Vf estimation. Obtained results exhibit ±15% error in Vf estimation with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, gas turbine combustor, lean blowout

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
7594 Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková

Abstract:

With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, protection, safety, security, security audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7593 Experimental Investigation of Flow Structure around a Rectangular Cylinder in Different Configurations

Authors: Cemre Polat, Dogan B. Saydam, Mustafa Soyler, Coskun Ozalp

Abstract:

In this study, the flow structure was investigated by particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method at Re = 26000 for two different rectangular cylinders placed perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. After obtaining streamwise and spanwise velocity data, average vorticity, streamlines, velocity magnitude, turbulence kinetic energy, root mean square of streamwise and spanwise velocity fluctuations are calculated, and critical points of flow structure are explained. As a result of the study, it was seen that the vertical configuration has less effect on the flow structure in the back region of the body compared to the horizontal configuration. When the streamwise velocity component is examined in both configurations, it is seen that the negative velocity component is stronger on the long sides compared to the short sides. It has been observed that the vertically positioned cylinder expands the flow separation point compared to the horizontally positioned cylinder; also the vertical cylinder creates an increase in turbulence kinetic energy compared to the horizontal cylinder.

Keywords: bluff body, flow characteristics, PIV, rectangular cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
7592 Growth Performance and Critical Supersaturation of Heterogeneous Condensation for High Concentration of Insoluble Sub-Micron Particles

Authors: Jie Yin, Jun Zhang

Abstract:

Measuring the growth performance and critical supersaturation of particle group have a high reference value for constructing a supersaturated water vapor environment that can improve the removal efficiency of the high-concentration particle group. The critical supersaturation and the variation of the growth performance with supersaturation for high-concentration particles were measured by a flow cloud chamber. Findings suggest that the influence of particle concentration on the growth performance will reduce with the increase of supersaturation. Reducing residence time and increasing particle concentration have similar effects on the growth performance of the high-concentration particle group. Increasing particle concentration and shortening residence time will increase the critical supersaturation of the particle group. The critical supersaturation required to activate a high-concentration particle group is lower than that of the single-particle when the minimum particle size in the particle group is the same as that of a single particle.

Keywords: sub-micron particles, heterogeneous condensation, critical supersaturation, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
7591 Vortex Control by a Downstream Splitter Plate in Psudoplastic Fluid Flow

Authors: Sudipto Sarkar, Anamika Paul

Abstract:

Pseudoplastic (n<1, n is the power index) fluids have great importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical process industries which require a lot of attention. Unfortunately, due to its complex flow behavior inadequate research works can be found even in laminar flow regime. A practical problem is solved in the present research work by numerical simulation where we tried to control the vortex shedding from a square cylinder using a horizontal splitter plate placed at the downstream flow region. The position of the plate is at the centerline of the cylinder with varying distance from the cylinder to calculate the critical gap-ratio. If the plate is placed inside this critical gap, the vortex shedding from the cylinder suppressed completely. The Reynolds number considered here is in unsteady laminar vortex shedding regime, Re = 100 (Re = U∞a/ν, where U∞ is the free-stream velocity of the flow, a is the side of the cylinder and ν is the maximum value of kinematic viscosity of the fluid). Flow behavior has been studied for three different gap-ratios (G/a = 2, 2.25 and 2.5, where G is the gap between cylinder and plate) and for a fluid with three different flow behavior indices (n =1, 0.8 and 0.5). The flow domain is constructed using Gambit 2.2.30 and this software is also used to generate the mesh and to impose the boundary conditions. For G/a = 2, the domain size is considered as 37.5a × 16a with 316 × 208 grid points in the streamwise and flow-normal directions respectively after a thorough grid independent study. Fine and equal grid spacing is used close to the geometry to capture the vortices shed from the cylinder and the boundary layer developed over the flat plate. Away from the geometry meshes are unequal in size and stretched out. For other gap-ratios, proportionate domain size and total grid points are used with similar kind of mesh distribution. Velocity inlet (u = U∞), pressure outlet (Neumann condition), symmetry (free-slip boundary condition) at upper and lower domain boundary conditions are used for the simulation. Wall boundary condition (u = v = 0) is considered both on the cylinder and the splitter plate surfaces. Discretized forms of fully conservative 2-D unsteady Navier Stokes equations are then solved by Ansys Fluent 14.5. SIMPLE algorithm written in finite volume method is selected for this purpose which is a default solver inculcate in Fluent. The results obtained for Newtonian fluid flow agree well with previous works supporting Fluent’s usefulness in academic research. A thorough analysis of instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields are depicted both for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluid flow. It has been observed that as the value of n reduces the stretching of shear layers also reduce and these layers try to roll up before the plate. For flow with high pseudoplasticity (n = 0.5) the nature of vortex shedding changes and the value of critical gap-ratio reduces. These are the remarkable findings for laminar periodic vortex shedding regime in pseudoplastic flow environment.

Keywords: CFD, pseudoplastic fluid flow, wake-boundary layer interactions, critical gap-ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
7590 Numerical Solution of Manning's Equation in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman

Abstract:

When the Manning equation is used, a unique value of normal depth in the uniform flow exists for a given channel geometry, discharge, roughness, and slope. Depending on the value of normal depth relative to the critical depth, the flow type (supercritical or subcritical) for a given characteristic of channel conditions is determined whether or not flow is uniform. There is no general solution of Manning's equation for determining the flow depth for a given flow rate, because the area of cross section and the hydraulic radius produce a complicated function of depth. The familiar solution of normal depth for a rectangular channel involves 1) a trial-and-error solution; 2) constructing a non-dimensional graph; 3) preparing tables involving non-dimensional parameters. Author in this paper has derived semi-analytical solution to Manning's equation for determining the flow depth given the flow rate in rectangular open channel. The solution was derived by expressing Manning's equation in non-dimensional form, then expanding this form using Maclaurin's series. In order to simplify the solution, terms containing power up to 4 have been considered. The resulted equation is a quartic equation with a standard form, where its solution was obtained by resolving this into two quadratic factors. The proposed solution for Manning's equation is valid over a large range of parameters, and its maximum error is within -1.586%.

Keywords: channel design, civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, open channel flow, Manning's equation, normal depth, uniform flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
7589 Viscous Flow Computations for the Diffuser Section of a Large Cavitation Tunnel

Authors: Ahmet Y. Gurkan, Cagatay S. Koksal, Cagri Aydin, U. Oral Unal

Abstract:

The present paper covers the viscous flow computations for the asymmetric diffuser section of a large, high-speed cavitation tunnel which will be constructed in Istanbul Technical University. The analyses were carried out by using the incompressible Reynold-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations. While determining the diffuser geometry, a high quality, separation-free flow field with minimum energy loses was particularly aimed. The expansion angle has a critical role on the diffuser hydrodynamic performance. In order obtain a relatively short diffuser length, due to the constructive limitations, and hydrodynamic energy effectiveness, three diffuser sections with varying expansion angles for side and bottom walls were considered. A systematic study was performed to determine the most effective diffuser configuration. The results revealed that the inlet condition of the diffuser greatly affects its flow field. The inclusion of the contraction section in the computations substantially modified the flow topology in the diffuser. The effect of the diffuser flow on the test section flow characteristics was clearly observed. The influence of the introduction of small chamfers at the corners of the diffuser geometry is also presented.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, diffuser design, cavitation tunnel, viscous flow, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), rans

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
7588 Derivation of a Risk-Based Level of Service Index for Surface Street Network Using Reliability Analysis

Authors: Chang-Jen Lan

Abstract:

Current Level of Service (LOS) index adopted in Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) for signalized intersections on surface streets is based on the intersection average delay. The delay thresholds for defining LOS grades are subjective and is unrelated to critical traffic condition. For example, an intersection delay of 80 sec per vehicle for failing LOS grade F does not necessarily correspond to the intersection capacity. Also, a specific measure of average delay may result from delay minimization, delay equality, or other meaningful optimization criteria. To that end, a reliability version of the intersection critical degree of saturation (v/c) as the LOS index is introduced. Traditionally, the level of saturation at a signalized intersection is defined as the ratio of critical volume sum (per lane) to the average saturation flow (per lane) during all available effective green time within a cycle. The critical sum is the sum of the maximal conflicting movement-pair volumes in northbound-southbound and eastbound/westbound right of ways. In this study, both movement volume and saturation flow are assumed log-normal distributions. Because, when the conditions of central limit theorem obtain, multiplication of the independent, positive random variables tends to result in a log-normal distributed outcome in the limit, the critical degree of saturation is expected to be a log-normal distribution as well. Derivation of the risk index predictive limits is complex due to the maximum and absolute value operators, as well as the ratio of random variables. A fairly accurate functional form for the predictive limit at a user-specified significant level is yielded. The predictive limit is then compared with the designated LOS thresholds for the intersection critical degree of saturation (denoted as X

Keywords: reliability analysis, level of service, intersection critical degree of saturation, risk based index

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
7587 Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: Sajith Sajeev, Brenton McLaury, Siamack Shirazi

Abstract:

In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.

Keywords: particle transport, critical velocity, CFD, DEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
7586 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
7585 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

Procedia PDF Downloads 574
7584 Discharge Estimation in a Two Flow Braided Channel Based on Energy Concept

Authors: Amiya Kumar Pati, Spandan Sahu, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. A river flow consisting of small and shallow channels sometimes divide and recombine numerous times because of the slow water flow or the built up sediments. The pattern formed during this process resembles the strands of a braid. Braided streams form where the sediment load is so heavy that some of the sediments are deposited as shifting islands. Braided rivers often exist near the mountainous regions and typically carry coarse-grained and heterogeneous sediments down a fairly steep gradient. In this paper, the apparent shear stress formulae were suitably modified, and the Energy Concept Method (ECM) was applied for the prediction of discharges at the junction of a two-flow braided compound channel. The Energy Concept Method has not been applied for estimating the discharges in the braided channels. The energy loss in the channels is analyzed based on mechanical analysis. The cross-section of channel is divided into two sub-areas, namely the main-channel below the bank-full level and region above the bank-full level for estimating the total discharge. The experimental data are compared with a wide range of theoretical data available in the published literature to verify this model. The accuracy of this approach is also compared with Divided Channel Method (DCM). From error analysis of this method, it is observed that the relative error is less for the data-sets having smooth floodplains when compared to rough floodplains. Comparisons with other models indicate that the present method has reasonable accuracy for engineering purposes.

Keywords: critical flow, energy concept, open channel flow, sediment, two-flow braided compound channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
7583 Micro-Droplet Formation in a Microchannel under the Effect of an Electric Field: Experiment

Authors: Sercan Altundemir, Pinar Eribol, A. Kerem Uguz

Abstract:

Microfluidics systems allow many-large scale laboratory applications to be miniaturized on a single device in order to reduce cost and advance fluid control. Moreover, such systems enable to generate and control droplets which have a significant role on improved analysis for many chemical and biological applications. For example, they can be employed as the model for cells in microfluidic systems. In this work, the interfacial instability of two immiscible Newtonian liquids flowing in a microchannel is investigated. When two immiscible liquids are in laminar regime, a flat interface is formed between them. If a direct current electric field is applied, the interface may deform, i.e. may become unstable and it may be ruptured and form micro-droplets. First, the effect of thickness ratio, total flow rate, viscosity ratio of the silicone oil and ethylene glycol liquid couple on the critical voltage at which the interface starts to destabilize is investigated. Then the droplet sizes are measured under the effect of these parameters at various voltages. Moreover, the effect of total flow rate on the time elapsed for the interface to be ruptured to form droplets by hitting the wall of the channel is analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the viscosity or the thickness ratio of the silicone oil to the ethylene glycol has a stabilizing effect, i.e. a higher voltage is needed while the total flow rate has no effect on it. However, it is observed that an increase in the total flow rate results in shortening of the elapsed time for the interface to hit the wall. Moreover, the droplet size decreases down to 0.1 μL with an increase in the applied voltage, the viscosity ratio or the total flow rate or a decrease in the thickness ratio. In addition to these observations, two empirical models for determining the critical electric number, i.e., the dimensionless voltage and the droplet size and another model which is a combination of both models, for determining the droplet size at the critical voltage are established.

Keywords: droplet formation, electrohydrodynamics, microfluidics, two-phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
7582 Flow Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Enlarging Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in open channel provides with many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results is compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth, velocity distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
7581 Prediction of Critical Flow Rate in Tubular Heat Exchangers for the Onset of Damaging Flow-Induced Vibrations

Authors: Y. Khulief, S. Bashmal, S. Said, D. Al-Otaibi, K. Mansour

Abstract:

The prediction of flow rates at which the vibration-induced instability takes place in tubular heat exchangers due to cross-flow is of major importance to the performance and service life of such equipment. In this paper, the semi-analytical model for square tube arrays was extended and utilized to study the triangular tube patterns. A laboratory test rig with instrumented test section is used to measure the fluidelastic coefficients to be used for tuning the mathematical model. The test section can be made of any bundle pattern. In this study, two test sections were constructed for both the normal triangular and the rotated triangular tube arrays. The developed scheme is utilized in predicting the onset of flow-induced instability in the two triangular tube arrays. The results are compared to those obtained for two other bundle configurations. The results of the four different tube patterns are viewed in the light of TEMA predictions. The comparison demonstrated that TEMA guidelines are more conservative in all configurations considered

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, cross-flow, heat exchangers,

Procedia PDF Downloads 201