Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 416

Search results for: bed roughness

416 Effect of Riprap Stability on Roughness Bridge Pier in River Bend

Authors: Alireza Masjedi, Amir Taeedi


In this research, by placing the two cylindrical piers without roughness and with roughness with riprap around its, they proceeded to a series of tests. Experiments were done by three relative diameters of riprap with density 2.1 and one rate of discharge 27 lit/s under pure water condition. In each experiment, flow depth measured in terms of failure threshold then stability number calculated by using data obtained. The results of the research showed that the riprap stability in pier with roughness is more pier without roughness because of the pier with roughness is sharp-pointed and reduced horseshoe vortex.

Keywords: riprap stability, roughness, river bend, froude number

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
415 Investigation of Riprap Stability on Roughness Bridge Pier in River Bend

Authors: A. Alireza Masjedi, B. Amir Taeedi


In this research, by placing the two cylindrical piers without roughness and with roughness with riprap around its, they proceeded to a series of tests. Experiments were done by three relative diameters of riprap with density 2.1 and one rate of discharge 27 lit/s under pure water condition. In each experiment, flow depth measured in terms of failure threshold then stability number calculated by using data obtained. The results of the research showed that the riprap stability in pier with roughness is more pier without roughness because of the pier with roughness is sharp-pointed and reduced horseshoe vortex.

Keywords: riprap stability, roughness, river bend, froude number

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
414 The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of SCM440 Steel

Authors: C. Han, H. Kim, S. Park


The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life of SCM440 steel. Two groups of specimens were made from SCM440 steel with and without surface polished after forging process and resulted in different values of surface roughness. The difference of the surface roughness between two groups was clearly distinguished even to the naked eye. Surface roughness of both groups of the specimens was quantitatively measured by a roughness measuring device, Talysurf series2 (Taylor-Hobson Co., USA). Average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were obtained by scanning 45 mm with a speed of 0.25 mm/s. Fatigue tests were conducted using a three-point bending method with a cyclic sinusoidal profile of 5 Hz, stress ratio of R = 0.1 and reference life for fatigue limit of 1 × 106 cycles. Ra and Rmax without surface polished were 10.497 ± 1.721 μm and 87.936 ± 16.210 μm, respectively while those values with surface polished were much smaller (ongoing measurements). Fatigue lives of the surface-polished specimens achieved approximately 1 × 106 cycles under the maximum stress of 900 MPa, which was 10 times longer than those of the surface-untreated specimens with an average roughness of 10.082 μm. The results showed that an increase in surface roughness values led to a decrease in fatigue lives.

Keywords: surface roughness, fatigue test, fatigue life, SCM440 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
413 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
412 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar


A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, heat transfer, minichannel, microchannel, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
411 Numerical Simulation of Structured Roughness Effect on Fluid Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer in Minichannels

Authors: R. Chouatah, E. G. Filali, B. Zouzou


It has been well established that there are no differences between microscale and macroscale flows of incompressible liquids. However, surface roughness has been known to impact the transport phenomena. The effect of structured roughness on the dynamics and heat transfer of water flowing through minichannel was numerically investigated in this study. Our study consists in characterizing the dynamic field and heat transfer aspect of a flow in circular minichannel equipped with structured roughness using CFD software, CFX. The study is performed to understand the effect of various roughness elements (rectangular, triangular), roughness height and roughness pitch on the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm in length. The speed entry into the mini-channel varies from 0.1 m/s to 25 m/s. The wall of the mini-channel is submitted to a constant heat flux; q=100,000 W/m². The simulations results are compared to those obtained with smooth minichannel and the existing experimental and numerical results in the literature.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar and turbulent flow, minichannel, structured roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
410 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
409 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
408 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: M. Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, the correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: open channel flow, smooth and rough bed, Reynolds number, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
407 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.

Keywords: bed roughness, ejection and sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple product

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
406 Nonlinear Flow Behavior and Validity of the Cubic Law in a Rough Fracture

Authors: Kunwar Mrityunjai Sharma, Trilok Nath Singh


The Navier-Stokes equation is used to study nonlinear fluid flow in rough 2D fractures. The major goal is to investigate the influence of inertial flow owing to fracture wall roughness on nonlinear flow behavior. Roughness profiles are developed using Barton's Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) and used as fracture walls to assess wall roughness. Four JRC profiles (5, 11, 15, and 19) are employed in the study, where a higher number indicates higher roughness. A parametric study has been performed using varying pressure gradients, and the corresponding Forchheimer number is calculated to observe the nonlinear behavior. The results indicate that the fracture roughness has a significant effect on the onset of nonlinearity. Additionally, the validity of the cubic law is evaluated and observed that it overestimates the flow in rough fractures and should be used with utmost care.

Keywords: fracture flow, nonlinear flow, cubic law, Navier-stokes equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
405 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh


Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
404 Pavement Roughness Prediction Systems: A Bump Integrator Approach

Authors: Manish Pal, Rumi Sutradhar


Pavement surface unevenness plays a pivotal role on roughness index of road which affects on riding comfort ability. Comfort ability refers to the degree of protection offered to vehicle occupants from uneven elements in the road surface. So, it is preferable to have a lower roughness index value for a better riding quality of road users. Roughness is generally defined as an expression of irregularities in the pavement surface which can be measured using different equipment like MERLIN, Bump integrator, Profilometer etc. Among them Bump Integrator is quite simple and less time consuming in case of long road sections. A case study is conducted on low volume roads in West District in Tripura to determine roughness index (RI) using Bump Integrator at the standard speed of 32 km/h. But it becomes too tough to maintain the requisite standard speed throughout the road section. The speed of Bump Integrator (BI) has to lower or higher in some distinctive situations. So, it becomes necessary to convert these roughness index values of other speeds to the standard speed of 32 km/h. This paper highlights on that roughness index conversional model. Using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) software a generalized equation is derived among the RI value at standard speed of 32 km/h and RI value at other speed conditions.

Keywords: bump integrator, pavement distresses, roughness index, SPSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
403 Effects of Upstream Wall Roughness on Separated Turbulent Flow over a Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie


The effect of upstream surface roughness over a smooth forward facing step in an open channel was investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. Three different upstream surface topographies consisting of hydraulically smooth wall, sandpaper 36 grit and sand grains were examined. Besides the wall roughness conditions, all other upstream flow characteristics were kept constant. It was also observed that upstream roughness decreased the approach velocity by 2% and 10% but increased the turbulence intensity by 14% and 35% at the wall-normal distance corresponding to the top plane of the step compared to smooth upstream. The results showed that roughness decreased the reattachment lengths by 14% and 30% compared to smooth upstream. Although the magnitudes of maximum positive and negative Reynolds shear stress in separated and reattached region were 0.02Ue for all the cases, the physical size of both the maximum and minimum contour levels were decreased by increasing upstream roughness.

Keywords: forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
402 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: Ş. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldaş, R. Gürbüz


This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: CGI, milling, surface roughness, ANN, regression, modeling, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
401 Heat and Flow Analysis of Solar Air Heaters with Artificial Roughness on the Absorber

Authors: Amel Boulemtafes-Boukadoum, Ahmed Benzaoui


Solar air heaters (SAH) are widely used in heating and drying applications using solar energy. Their efficiency needs to be improved to be competitive towards solar water heater. In this work, our goal is to study heat transfer enhancement in SAHs by the use of artificial roughness on the absorber. For this purpose, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to analyze the flow and heat transfer in the air duct of a solar air heater provided with transverse ribs. The air flows in forced convection and the absorber is heated with uniform flux. The effect of major parameters (Reynolds number, solar radiation, air inlet temperature, geometry of roughness) is examined and discussed. To highlight the effect of artificial roughness, we plotted the distribution of the important parameters: Nusselt number, friction factor, global thermohydraulic performance parameter etc. The results obtained are concordant to those found in the literature and shows clearly the heat transfer enhancement due to artifical roughness.

Keywords: solar air heater, artificial roughness, heat transfer enhancement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
400 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour


Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
399 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf, Shoaib Usman


Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm basedon a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 103 to 106 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was16.66 percent at Ra number 105.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method, natural convection, nusselt number, rayleigh number, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
398 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer During Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman


The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using a numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior was studied using a computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar natural convection in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to the maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to the smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms, and streamlines.

Keywords: natural convection, Rayleigh number, surface roughness, Nusselt number, Lattice Boltzmann method

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397 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

Authors: Varun Goel


Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

Keywords: artificial roughness, solar air heater, triangular duct, V-shaped ribs

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
396 Optimization of Surface Roughness by Taguchi’s Method for Turning Process

Authors: Ashish Ankus Yerunkar, Ravi Terkar


Study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy requirements of both quality as well as productivity with special emphasis on reduction of cutting tool flank wear, because reduction in flank wear ensures increase in tool life. The predicted optimal setting ensured minimization of surface roughness. Purpose of this paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. Design for the experiment was done using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The results are analyzed using ANOVA method. Taguchi method has depicted that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The vibrations of the machine tool, tool chattering are the other factors which may contribute poor surface roughness to the results and such factors ignored for analyses. The inferences by this method will be useful to other researches for similar type of study and may be vital for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc.

Keywords: surface roughness (ra), machining, dry turning, taguchi method, turning process, anova method, mahr perthometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
395 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Turning Process Utilizing Live Tooling via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Weinian Wang, Joseph C. Chen


The objective of this research is to optimize the process of cutting cylindrical workpieces utilizing live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. Surface roughness (Ra) has been investigated as the indicator of quality characteristics for machining process. Aluminum alloy was used to conduct experiments due to its wide range usages in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. In this study, Taguchi methodology is utilized to determine the effects that each of the parameters has on surface roughness (Ra). A total of 18 experiments of each process were designed according to Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four control factors at three levels of each and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were computed with Smaller the better equation for minimizing the system. The optimal parameters identified for the surface roughness of the turning operation utilizing live tooling were a feed rate of 3 inches/min(A3); a spindle speed of 1300 rpm(B3); a 2-flute titanium nitrite coated 3/8” endmill (C1); and a depth of cut of 0.025 inches (D2). The mean surface roughness of the confirmation runs in turning operation was 8.22 micro inches. The final results demonstrate that Taguchi methodology is a sufficient way of process improvement in turning process on surface roughness.

Keywords: CNC milling operation, CNC turning operation, surface roughness, Taguchi parameter design

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394 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat


This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
393 Surface Roughness Formed during Hybrid Turning of Inconel Alloy

Authors: Pawel Twardowski, Tadeusz Chwalczuk, Szymon Wojciechowski


Inconel 718 is a material characterized by the unique mechanical properties, high temperature strength, high thermal conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However, these features affect the low machinability of this material, which is usually manifested by the intense tool wear and low surface finish. Therefore, this paper is focused on the evaluation of surface roughness during hybrid machining of Inconel 718. The primary aim of the study was to determine the relations between the vibrations generated during hybrid turning and the formed surface roughness. Moreover, the comparison of tested machining techniques in terms of vibrations, tool wear and surface roughness has been made. The conducted tests included the face turning of Inconel 718 with laser assistance in the range of variable cutting speeds. The surface roughness was inspected with the application of stylus profile meter and accelerations of vibrations were measured with the use of three-component piezoelectric accelerometer. The carried out research shows that application of laser assisted machining can contribute to the reduction of surface roughness and cutting vibrations, in comparison to conventional turning. Moreover, the obtained results enable the selection of effective cutting speed allowing the improvement of surface finish and cutting dynamics.

Keywords: hybrid machining, nickel alloys, surface roughness, turning, vibrations

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392 The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whitening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated Glass Ionomer Cement

Authors: Hidayati, Eni Rahmi, Deli Mona, Cytha Nilam Chairani, Aulina Refri Rahmi


Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration's surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste were smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p < 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with whitening toothpaste (p > 0.05).

Keywords: surface roughness, toothpaste, EQUIA, coating

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391 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury


Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: aluminium, milling operation, peltier cooling effect, surface roughness

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390 An Alternative Approach for Assessing the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness Using Single Decision Tree

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin


In this study, an approach to identify factors affecting on surface roughness in a machining process is presented. This study is based on 81 data about surface roughness over a wide range of cutting tools (conventional, cutting tool with holes, cutting tool with composite material), workpiece materials (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). A single decision tree (SDT) analysis was done to identify factors for predicting a model of surface roughness, and the CART algorithm was employed for building and evaluating regression tree. Results show that a single decision tree is better than traditional regression models with higher rate and forecast accuracy and strong value.

Keywords: cutting condition, surface roughness, decision tree, CART algorithm

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389 Optimization of End Milling Process Parameters for Minimization of Surface Roughness of AISI D2 Steel

Authors: Pankaj Chandna, Dinesh Kumar


The present work analyses different parameters of end milling to minimize the surface roughness for AISI D2 steel. D2 Steel is generally used for stamping or forming dies, punches, forming rolls, knives, slitters, shear blades, tools, scrap choppers, tyre shredders etc. Surface roughness is one of the main indices that determines the quality of machined products and is influenced by various cutting parameters. In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality by optimization of machining parameters, is a challenging job. In case of mating components the surface roughness become more essential and is influenced by the cutting parameters, because, these quality structures are highly correlated and are expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects (i.e. on process environment). In this work, the effects of selected process parameters on surface roughness and subsequent setting of parameters with the levels have been accomplished by Taguchi’s parameter design approach. The experiments have been performed as per the combination of levels of different process parameters suggested by L9 orthogonal array. Experimental investigation of the end milling of AISI D2 steel with carbide tool by varying feed, speed and depth of cut and the surface roughness has been measured using surface roughness tester. Analyses of variance have been performed for mean and signal-to-noise ratio to estimate the contribution of the different process parameters on the process.

Keywords: D2 steel, orthogonal array, optimization, surface roughness, Taguchi methodology

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388 Effects of Process Parameter Variation on the Surface Roughness of Rapid Prototyped Samples Using Design of Experiments

Authors: R. Noorani, K. Peerless, J. Mandrell, A. Lopez, R. Dalberto, M. Alzebaq


Rapid prototyping (RP) is an additive manufacturing technology used in industry that works by systematically depositing layers of working material to construct larger, computer-modeled parts. A key challenge associated with this technology is that RP parts often feature undesirable levels of surface roughness for certain applications. To combat this phenomenon, an experimental technique called Design of Experiments (DOE) can be employed during the growth procedure to statistically analyze which RP growth parameters are most influential to part surface roughness. Utilizing DOE to identify such factors is important because it is a technique that can be used to optimize a manufacturing process, which saves time, money, and increases product quality. In this study, a four-factor/two level DOE experiment was performed to investigate the effect of temperature, layer thickness, infill percentage, and infill speed on the surface roughness of RP prototypes. Samples were grown using the sixteen different possible growth combinations associated with a four-factor/two level study, and then the surface roughness data was gathered for each set of factors. After applying DOE statistical analysis to these data, it was determined that layer thickness played the most significant role in the prototype surface roughness.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, surface roughness, design of experiments, statistical analysis, factors and levels

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387 Image Multi-Feature Analysis by Principal Component Analysis for Visual Surface Roughness Measurement

Authors: Wei Zhang, Yan He, Yan Wang, Yufeng Li, Chuanpeng Hao


Surface roughness is an important index for evaluating surface quality, needs to be accurately measured to ensure the performance of the workpiece. The roughness measurement based on machine vision involves various image features, some of which are redundant. These redundant features affect the accuracy and speed of the visual approach. Previous research used correlation analysis methods to select the appropriate features. However, this feature analysis is independent and cannot fully utilize the information of data. Besides, blindly reducing features lose a lot of useful information, resulting in unreliable results. Therefore, the focus of this paper is on providing a redundant feature removal approach for visual roughness measurement. In this paper, the statistical methods and gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) are employed to extract the texture features of machined images effectively. Then, the principal component analysis(PCA) is used to fuse all extracted features into a new one, which reduces the feature dimension and maintains the integrity of the original information. Finally, the relationship between new features and roughness is established by the support vector machine(SVM). The experimental results show that the approach can effectively solve multi-feature information redundancy of machined surface images and provides a new idea for the visual evaluation of surface roughness.

Keywords: feature analysis, machine vision, PCA, surface roughness, SVM

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