Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2052

Search results for: okra plants

2052 Cloning, Expression and Protein Purification of AV1 Gene of Okra Leaf Curl Virus Egyptian Isolate and Genetic Diversity between Whitefly and Different Plant Hosts

Authors: Dalia. G. Aseel

Abstract:

Begomoviruses are economically important plant viruses that infect dicotyledonous plants and exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, replicative form was isolated from Okra, Cotton, Tomato plants and whitefly infected with Begomoviruses. Using coat protein specific primers (AV1), the viral infection was verified with amplicon at 450 bp. The sequence of OLCuV-AV1 gene was recorded and received an accession number (FJ441605) from Genebank. The phylogenetic tree of OLCuV was closely related to Okra leaf curl virus previously isolated from Cameroon and USA with nucleotide sequence identity of 92%. The protein purification was carried out using His-Tag methodology by using Affinity Chromatography. The purified protein was separated on SDS-PAGE analysis and an enriched expected size of band at 30 kDa was observed. Furthermore, RAPD and SDS-PAGE were used to detect genetic variability between different hosts of okra leaf curl virus (OLCuV), cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCuV) and the whitefly vector. Finally, the present study would help to understand the relationship between the whitefly and different economical crops in Egypt.

Keywords: okra leaf curl virus, AV1 gene, sequencing, phylogenetic, cloning, purified protein, genetic diversity and viral proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2051 Novel Recombinant Betasatellite Associated with Vein Thickening Symptoms on Okra Plants in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel M. Zakri, Mohammed A. Al-Saleh, Judith. K. Brown, Ali M. Idris

Abstract:

Betasatellites are small circular single stranded DNA molecules found associated with begomoviruses on field symptomatic plants. Their genome size is about half that of the helper begomovirus, ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 kb. The helper begomoviruses are usually members of the family Geminiviridae. Okra leaves showing vein thickening were collected from okra plants growing in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Total DNA was extracted from leaves and used as a template to amplify circular DNA using rolling circle amplification (RCA) technology. Products were digested with PstI to linearize the helper viral genome(s), and associated DNA satellite(s), yielding a 2.8kbp and 1.4kbp fragment, respectively. The linearized fragments were cloned into the pGEM-5Zf (+) vector and subjected to DNA sequencing. The 2.8 kb fragment was identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus genome, at 2780bp, an isolate closely related to strains reported previously from Saudi Arabia. A clone obtained from the 1.4 kb fragments he 1.4kb was blasted to GeneBank database found to be a betasatellite. The genome of betasatellite was 1357-bp in size. It was found to be a recombinant containing one fragment (877-bp) that shared 91% nt identity with Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite [KM279620], and a smaller fragment [133--bp) that shared 86% nt identity with Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus [JX483708]. This satellite is thus a recombinant between a malvaceous-infecting satellite and a solanaceous-infecting begomovirus.

Keywords: begomovirus, betasatellites, cotton leaf curl Gezira virus, okra plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2050 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2049 The Role of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Mediator in BV2 Microglial Cells

Authors: Nootchanat Mairuae, Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effect, the anti-inflammatory effects, and the molecular mechanisms of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The BV2 cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of okra. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 was detected by Western blot assay. Treatment of BV2 microglia cells with okra was found to significantly suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator NO as well as ROS compared to untreated cells. The levels of LPS-induced NF-kB p65 phosphorylation were significantly decreased following okra treatment too. These results show that okra exerts anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. This suggests okra might be a valuable agent for treatment of anti-neuroinflammatory diseases mediated by microglial cells.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Linn, microglia, neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen spicy

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2048 Persistent Toxicity of Imidacloprid to Aphis gossypii Glover and Amarasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra

Authors: M. A. Pawar, C. S. Patil

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the persistent toxicity of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dimethoate to Aphis gossypii and Amrasca biguttula biguttula under laboratory condition during 2012. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications in the glass house of department of Entomology M. P. K. V. Rahuri. Okra plants were raised in glass house following all recommended agronomic practices. The 21 days old plants were used for assessing the effect of insecticides on aphids and jassids. The insecticides were diluted with distilled water to make desired concentrations and used for foliar application. The insecticides included in the study were imidacloprid 17.8 SL, imidacloprid 70 WG, thiamethoxam 25 WG and dimethoate 30 EC. Untreated check was maintained by spraying with distilled water. The mortality of aphids and jassids on treated leaf were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, and 25 days after spray till zero per cent mortality observed for each treatment. Treated leaves from the glasshouse were brought to laboratory and were put in tube with moist cotton swab at the bottom of leaf and sucking apparatus was fit to the tube. Ten jassids were sucked in each tube from the plants in the field. Evaluated insecticides differed in their persistence and index of persistence toxicity against both insects of different treatments. Recommended dose of imidacloprid (25 g a.i/ha) persisted for 21 days against both aphids and jassids. However dimethoate, a conventional insecticide persisted for 11 days.

Keywords: Amrasca biguttula biguttula, Aphis gossypii, imidacloprid, persistent toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2047 Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Meena, Tanushree Chatterjee

Abstract:

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.

Keywords: Okra, yellow vein mosaic virus, resistant, linkage map, QTLs

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2046 Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environments and Their Dietary Intake Assessment

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad

Abstract:

Assessment of insecticides used for growing vegetables in comparison with their safety status was the main purpose of this study. A total of 180 samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) comprising 30 samples of each vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala. The mean value for imidacloprid residues found in brinjal (0.226 mg kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad, showing excessive application of imidacloprid in Multan. Out of total 180 samples analysed for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, (90 samples for each of okra and brinjal), 104 (58%) and 117 (65%) samples contained detectable imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues, respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their respective MRLs for imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated according to their MPI values 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively. The dietary intake assessment data revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded the MRLs in studied areas but their consumption was found within safe limit in comparison to values obtained for MPI.

Keywords: Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), insecticides, Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs), risk assessment, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2045 The Four-Way Interactions among Host Plant-Whitefly-Virus-Endosymbionts in Insect and Disease Development

Authors: N. R. Prasannakumar, M. N. Maruthi

Abstract:

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae) is a highly polyphagous pest reported to infest over 600 plant hosts globally. About 42 genetic groups/cryptic species of B. tabaci exist in the world on different hosts. The species have variable behaviour with respect to feeding, development and transmission of viral diseases. Feeding on diverse host plants affect both whitefly development and the population of the endosymbionts harboured by the insects. Due to changes in the level of endosymbionts, the virus transmission efficiency by the vector also gets affected. We investigated these interactions on five host plants – egg plant, tomato, beans, okra and cotton - using a single whitefly species Asia 1 infected with three different bacteria Portiera, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. The Asia 1 transmits the Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV) effectively and thus was used in the interaction studies. We found a significant impact of hosts on whitefly growth and development; eggplant was most favourable host, while okra and tomato were least favourable. Among the endosymbiotic bacteria, the titre of Wolbachia was significantly affected by feeding of B. tabaci on different host plants whereas Arsenophonus and Portiera were unaffected. When whitefly fed on ToLCBV-infected tomato plants, the Arsenophonus population was significantly increased, indicating its previously confirmed role in ToLCBV transmission. Further, screening of total proteins of B. tabaci Asia 1 genetic group interacting with ToLCBV coat protein was carried out using Y2H system. Some of the proteins found to be interacting with ToLCBV CP were HSPs 70kDa, GroEL, nucleoproteins, vitellogenins, apolipophorins, lachesins, enolase. The reported protein thus would be the potential targets for novel whitefly control strategies such as RNAi or novel insecticide target sites for sustainable whitefly management after confirmation of genuine proteins.

Keywords: cDNA, whitefly, ToLCBV, endosymbionts, Y2H

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2044 Persistence of Ready Mix (Chlorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5%), Cypermethrin and Chlorpyriphos in Soil under Okra Fruits

Authors: Samriti Wadhwa, Beena Kumari

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Residue levels of ready mix (chlorpyriphos 50% and cypermethrin 5%), cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos individually in sandy loam soil under okra fruits (Variety, Varsha Uphar) were determined; a field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Department of Entomology of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar, Haryana, India. Persistence behavior of cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos was studied following application of a pre-mix formulation of insecticides viz. Action-505EC, chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) and cypermethrin (Cyperkill 10 EC) at the recommended dose and double the recommended dose along with control at fruiting stage. Pesticide application also leads to decline in soil acarine fauna which is instrumental in the breakdown of the litter because of which minerals are released into the soil. So, by this study, one can evaluate the safety of pesticides for the soil health. Methodology: Action-505EC (chlorpyriphos 50% and cypermethrin 5%) at 275 g a .i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 550 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose), chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 400 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose) and cypermethrin (Cyperkill 10 EC) at 50 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 100 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose) were applied at the fruiting stage on okra crop. Samples of soils from okra field were collected periodically at 0 (1h after spray), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after application as well of control soil sample. After air drying, adsorbing through Florisil and activated charcoal and eluting with hexane: acetone (9:1) then residues in soils were estimated by a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and electron capture detector. Results: No persistence of cypermethrin in ready-mix in soil under okra fruits at single and double dose was observed. In case of chlorpyriphos in ready-mix, average initial deposits on 0 (1 h after treatment) day was 0.015 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.036 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 5 days and up to 7 days for single and double dose, respectively. After that residues reached below a detectable level of 0.010 mg kg⁻¹. Experimental studies on cypermethrin individually revealed that average initial deposits on 0 (1 h after treatment) were 0.008 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.012 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 3 days and 5 days for single and double dose, respectively after that residues reached to below detectable level. The initial deposits of chlorpyriphos individually in soil were found to be 0.055 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.113 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 7 days and 10 days at a lower dose and higher dose, respectively after that residues reached to below determination level. Conclusion: In soil under okra crop, only individual cypermethrin in both the doses persisted whereas no persistence of cypermethrin in ready-mix was observed. Persistence of chlorpyriphos individually is more as compared to chlorpyriphos in ready-mix in both the doses. Overall, the persistence of chlorpyriphos in soil under okra crop is more than cypermethrin.

Keywords: chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin, okra, ready mix, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2043 [Keynote Speech]: Competitive Evaluation of Power Plants in Energy Policy

Authors: Beril Tuğrul

Abstract:

Electrical energy is the most important form of energy and electrical power plants have highest impact factor in energy policy. This study is in relation with evaluation of various power plants including fossil fuels, nuclear and renewable energy based power plants. The power plants evaluated with regard to their overall impact that considered for establishing of the plants. Both positive and negative impacts of power plant operation are compared view of different arguments. Then calculate the impact factor by using variation linear extrapolation for each argument. With this study, power plants assessed with the different point of view and clarified objectively.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
2042 Enhanced Phytoremediation Using Endophytic Microbes

Authors: Raymond Oriebe Anyasi, Harrison Atagana

Abstract:

The use of a plant in the detoxification of several toxin is been known to be enhanced by various microbial endophytes which have been reported to be contained in plants growing in any contaminated soil. Plants in their natural state are mostly colonized by endophytes which in the process forms symbiotic associations with the host plants. These benefits that the endophytes offer to the plants include amongst others to: Enhance plants growth through the production of various phytohormones; increase in the resistance of environmental stresses; produce important bioactive metabolites; help in the fixing of nitrogen in the plants organelles; help in the metal translocation and accumulation in plants; assist in the production of enzymes involves the degradation of organic contaminants. Therefore recognizing these natural processes of the microbes will enable the understanding of the effective mechanism for enhanced phytoremediation. The aim of this study was to survey the progressiveness in the study involving endophyte-assisted phytoremediation of contaminants; highlighting various pollutants, the plants used, the endophytes studied as well as the type of interaction between the plants and the microbes so as to proffer a better future prospect for the technology.

Keywords: phytoremediation, endophytes, microbes, pollution, environmental management, plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2041 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are commercialized internationally. However, these potentialities of aromatic and medicinal plants are currently subjected to climate change and strong human pressures: Collecting fruits, agriculture development, harvesting plants, urbanization, overgrazing...

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, plant, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2040 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2039 Anatolian Geography: Traditional Medicine and Its Herbs

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer

Abstract:

There are more than a thousand endemic plants growing in Turkey. On the other hand, apart from these plantsAnatolia is home to more plant diversitythan the neighboring countries due to its transitional zone. These plants become a part of traditional medicine in the hope of curing the people with whom they have lived for thousands of years. No matter how important the climate is for the plant, the diseases of the region have an important place in the plant's life. While the plants used for tea are in the foreground in regions with heavy winters, the use of raw plants and fruits is common in some gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study is explaining using the area of endemic plants in Anatolia.

Keywords: anatolian traditional medicine, traditional medicine, anatolian medicine, herbs

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2038 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: distributed generation, renewable energy sources, energy policy, curriculum

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2037 Screening the Best Integrated Pest Management Treatments against Helicoverpa armigera

Authors: Ajmal Khan Kassi, Humayun Javed, Tariq Mukhtar

Abstract:

The research was conducted to screen out resistance and susceptibility of okra varieties against Helicoverpa armigera under field conditions 2016. In this experiment, the different management practices viz. release Trichogramma chilonis, hoeing, and weeding, clipping, and lufenuron were tested individually and with all possible combinations for the controlling of American bollworm at 3 diverse localities viz. University research farm Koont, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) and farmer field Taxila by using resistant variety Arka Anamika. All the treatment combinations regarding damage of shoot and fruit showed significant results. The minimum fruit infestation, i.e., 3.20% and 3.58% was recorded with combined treatment (i.e., T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) in two different localities. The minimum shoot infestation, i.e., 7.18%, 7.08%, and 6.85% was also observed with (T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) combined treatment at all three different localities. The above-combined treatment (T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) also resulted in maximum yield at NARC and Taxila, i.e., 57.67 and 62.66 q/ha respectively. On the basis of combined treatment (i.e., T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) in three different localities, Arka Anamika variety proved to be comparatively resistant against H. armigera. So this variety is recommended for the cultivation in Pothwar region to get maximum yield and minimum losses against H. armigera.

Keywords: okra, screening, combine treatment, Helicoverpa armigera

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2036 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

Abstract:

This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
2035 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo

Abstract:

In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2034 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

Abstract:

Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: benefits, biodiversity, Bogor Agricultural University, medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
2033 Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria

Authors: Nassima Elyebdri, Asma Boumediou, Soumia Addoun

Abstract:

Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. The toxic plants contain diverse natural substances which supplied a lot of medicine in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 ± 16 years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. 80 medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. 11% of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. Among toxics plants, the most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethno-pharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.

Keywords: ethnobotany, phytotherapy, Tlemcen, toxic plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2032 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

Abstract:

This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2031 Imidocloprid as a Systemic-Acquired Resistant (SAR) Inducer in Nicotiana tabacum Var. Samsun NN Infected with Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus

Authors: Mohammad Reza Hossein Zadeh

Abstract:

Plants have different layers of defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the well-defined defense mechanism in plants is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against a broad-range of pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in regulation of the SAR pathway. It has been proved that Chemically SA-like compounds can mimic the SA signaling role. Imidocloprid is an insecticide being used to control whiteflies on crop plants. In order to study the possible role of Imidocloprid as an elicitor of SAR in plants, experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design frame with three treatments and duplicates on the detached leaves and whole Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN. plants inoculated with Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV). Compared with the effect of other SAR-inducers such as SA, Imidoclorid conferred a robust SAR induction in the infected plants. The results suggested that Imidocloprid even more powerful than SA can be considered as strong SAR inducer in the infected plants with viruses, which develop the local lesion symptoms.

Keywords: imidocloprid, Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN, SAR, tobacco mild green, mosaic virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
2030 Responses of Trifolium pratense to Lead Accumulation Under In-Vitro Culture Conditions

Authors: Arash Khorasani Esmaeili, Rosna Mat Taha, Sadegh Mohajer

Abstract:

Seeds of Trifolium pratense (Red clover) were exposed in vitro for 6 weeks to six levels of lead (Pb) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 µM) to analyze the effects on growth, total chlorophyll and total protein contents of grown plants against the lead accumulation. The growth of plants was negatively affected by various levels of lead treatment. The fresh and dry weights, as well as lengths of shoots and roots of grown plants under various lead treatments, were found significantly lower in comparison with the control plants. Total chlorophyll and total soluble protein contents of grown plants under lower concentrations of lead treatment did not show significant differences when compared with the control plants, although they were affected significantly in higher levels of lead accumulation (150-250 µM).

Keywords: trifolium pratense, lead accumulation, chlorophyll content, protein content

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2029 Drought Stress and the Importance of Osmotic Adjustment

Authors: Hooman Rowshanaie

Abstract:

The majority of green plants have 70%-90% water, this amount depend on age of plants, species, tissues of plants and also the environmental conditions that plants growth and development on it. Because of intense plant demanding to achieve the available water for growing and developing, always plants need a water sources and also mechanisms to retention the water and reduction water loss under critical situation and water deficit conditions otherwise the yield of plants would be decreased. Decreasing the yield depend on genotypes, intense of water deficit and also growth stage. Recently the mechanisms and also compound that have major role to water stress adaption of plants would be consideration. Osmotic adjustment is one of the most important mechanisms in terms of this field that many valuable researches focused on it because the majority of organic and inorganic solutes directly or even indirectly have pivotal role in this phenomenon. The contribution of OA to prevent water loss in response to water deficit and resistance to water stress taken to consideration recently and also the organic and inorganic compounds to OA tended has a high rate of significant.

Keywords: water deficit, drought stress, osmotic adjustment, organic compound, inorganic compound, solute

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2028 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

Abstract:

Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: pollution, root system, micromycetes, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
2027 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.

Abstract:

Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, colonization, categories, medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2026 Evaluation of Capacity of Bed Planted with Macrophytes for Wastewater Treatment of Biskra City, Algeria

Authors: Mimeche Leila, Debabeche Mahmoud

Abstract:

It is question to study and to value the possibility of settling the process of purification by plants (constructed wetland) to treat the domestic waste water of Biskra, city in a semi-arid environment with grave problems of. According to the bibliography, the process of treatment by plants is considered as more advantageous than the classic techniques. It is the use of beds with macrophytes where the purification is made by the combined action of plants and micro-organisms in a filtering bed. The micro-organisms which are aerobic bacteria and\or anaerobic have for main function to degrade the polluting materials. Plants in the macrophytes beds have for function to serve as support in the development of bacteria and to favour also their development. In this study, we present a preliminary experimental analysis of the potentialities of treatment of some macrpohytes plants, implanted in basins filled of gravel. Analyses physico chemical and bacteriological of the waste water indicate a good elimination of the polluting materials, and put in evidence the purifier power of these plants, in association with bacteria. The obtained results seem to be interesting and encourage deepening the study for other types of plants in other conditions.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, macrophytes, sewage treatment, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
2025 The Use of Medicinal Plants among Middle Aged People in Rural Area, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Rian Diana, Naufal Muharam Nurdin, Faisal Anwar, Hadi Riyadi, Ali Khomsan

Abstract:

The use of traditional medicine (herbs and medicinal plants) are common among Indonesian people especially the elderly. Few study explore the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people. This study aims to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people in rural areas. This cross sectional study included 224 subjects aged 45-59 years old and conducted in Cianjur District, West Java in 2014. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information about preference in treatment of illness, the use of medicinal plants, and their purposes. Information also recorded plant names, parts used, mode of preparation, and dosage. Buying drugs in stall (83.9%) is the first preference in treatment of illness, followed by modern treatment 19.2% (doctors) and traditional treatment 17.0% (herbs/medicinal plants). 87 subjects (38.8%) were using herbs and medicinal plants for curative (66.7%), preventive (31.2%), and rehabilitative (2.1%) purposes. In this study, 48 species are used by the subjects. Physalis minima L. 'cecenet', Orthosiphon aristatus Mic. 'kumis kucing', and Annona muricata 'sirsak' are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and stiffness. Leaves (64.6%) are the most common part used. Medicinal plants were washed and boiled in a hot water. Subject drinks the herbs with a different dosage. One in three middle aged people used herbal and medicinal plants for curative and preventive treatment particularly hypertension and stiffness. Increasing knowledge about herbal or medicinal plants dosage and their interaction with medical drugs are important to do.Doses vary between 1-3 glasses/day for treatment and 1-2 glasses/months for prevention of diseases.

Keywords: herbs, hypertension, medicinal plants, middle age, rural

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2024 Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants from Bechar Region, South-West of Algeria

Authors: Naima Fatehi

Abstract:

The paper reports on 107 medicinal plants, traditionally used in the South-West of Algeria (Bechar region). The information has been documented by interviewing traditional herbalists, various elderly men and women following different ethnobotanical methods. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by botanical name, followed by family name, vernacular name, and part used. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants used extensively in Bechar region for treating various diseases and provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical survey, South-West Algeria, Bechar region

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2023 Purgative Plants Used by the Residents of Muledani Village in Thohoyandou, South Africa

Authors: Mokganya Mokgaetji Georginah

Abstract:

Traditional medicine continued to play a pivotal role in treating various diseases affecting VhaVenda people. The Venda region is rich with different types of medicinal plants that are used to treat quite a variety of illnesses. This includes plants that are used as laxative. Laxative can be defined as a food composed of a combination of drugs that help to relieve constipation. The study was conducted in the Muledani Village of the Thulamela Municipality. The study investigated all plant forms that are used by Muledani residents as laxative. The semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the respondents aged forty years and above. The households of the respondents were sampled randomly by visiting every tenth homestead in each street. Total of thirteen different plants was given by all respondents participated in the current research. Different parts of plants like Aloe arborences, Erythrina lysistemon, Terminalia sericea and others are used as laxative. Amongst all the plant parts, roots and barks are used by the respondents. They are either ground or boiled first before consumption. Furthermore, the study indicated that the plants can be used by people of all age groups only when the dosage of the medicine is taken into account. The use of traditional medicine as laxative is recommended as no side effects are experienced if the correct dosage is given to the relevant age group.

Keywords: medicinal plants, Muledani, Venda region, questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 238