Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3022

Search results for: urban micro-climate

3022 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on Urban Microclimate of Lahore: A Rapidly Urbanizing Metropolis of the Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi, Safdar Ali Shirazi


Urban green spaces (UGS) play a key role in the urban ecology of an area since they provide significant ecological services to compensate for natural environment functions damaged by the rapid growth of urbanization. The transformation of urban green specs to impervious landscapes has been recognized as a key factor prompting the distinctive urban heat and associated microclimatic changes. There is no doubt that urban green spaces offer a range of ecosystem services that can help to mitigate the ill effects of urbanization, heat anomalies, and climate change. The present study attempts to appraise the impact of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environment for the development of the microclimatic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan. The influence of urban heat has been studied through Landsat 8 data. The land surface temperature (LST) of Lahore was computed through the Radiative transfer method (RTM). The spatial variation of land surface temperature is retrieved to describe their local heat effect on urban microclimate. The association between the LST, normalized difference vegetation index, and the normalized difference built-up index are investigated to explore the impact of the urban green spaces and impervious surfaces on urban microclimate. The results of this study show significant changes in (impervious land surface 18% increase) land use within the study area. However, conversion of natural green cover to commercial and residential uses considerably increases the LST. Furthermore, results show that green spaces were the major heat sinks while impervious landscapes were the major heat source in the study area. Urban green spaces reveal 1 to 3℃ lower LST associated with their surrounding urban built-up area. This study shows that urban green spaces will help to mitigate the effect of urban microclimate and it is significant for the sustainable urban environment as well as to improve the quality of life of the urban inhabitants.

Keywords: thermal environmental, urban green space, cooling effect, microclimate, Lahore

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3021 Observation and Analysis of Urban Micro-Climate and Urban Morphology on Block Scale in Zhengzhou City

Authors: Linlin Guo, Baofeng Li


Zhengzhou is a typical plain city with a high population density and a permanent population of 10 million, located in central China. The scale of this city is constantly expanding, and the urban form has changed dramatically by the accelerating process of urbanization, which makes a great effect on the urban microclimate. In order to study the influence of block morphology on urban micro-climate, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and so on in three typical types of blocks in the center of Zhengzhou were collected, which was chosen to perform the fixed and mobile observation. After data handling and analysis, a series of graphs and diagrams were obtained to reflect the differences in the influence of different types of block morphology on the urban microclimate. These can provide targeted strategies for urban design to improve and regulate urban micro-climate.

Keywords: urban micro-climate, block morphology, fixed and mobile observation, urban design

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3020 Microclimate Variations in Rio de Janeiro Related to Massive Public Transportation

Authors: Marco E. O. Jardim, Frederico A. M. Souza, Valeria M. Bastos, Myrian C. A. Costa, Nelson F. F. Ebecken


Urban public transportation in Rio de Janeiro is based on bus lines, powered by diesel, and four limited metro lines that support only some neighborhoods. This work presents an infrastructure built to better understand microclimate variations related to massive urban transportation in some specific areas of the city. The use of sensor nodes with small analytics capacity provides environmental information to population or public services. The analyses of data collected from a few small sensors positioned near some heavy traffic streets show the harmful impact due to poor bus route plan.

Keywords: big data, IoT, public transportation, public health system

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3019 The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Amany Haridy, Ahmed Elseragy, Fahd Omar


The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.

Keywords: envi-met, green building envelope, urban heat island, urban microclimate

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3018 Assessment of Microclimate in Abu Dhabi Neighborhoods: On the Utilization of Native Landscape in Enhancing Thermal Comfort

Authors: Maryam Al Mheiri, Khaled Al Awadi


Urban population is continuously increasing worldwide and the speed at which cities urbanize creates major challenges, particularly in terms of creating sustainable urban environments. Rapid urbanization often leads to negative environmental impacts and changes in the urban microclimates. Moreover, when rapid urbanization is paired with limited landscape elements, the effects on human health due to the increased pollution, and thermal comfort due to Urban Heat Island effects are increased. Urban Heat Island (UHI) describes the increase of urban temperatures in urban areas in comparison to its rural surroundings, and, as we discuss in this paper, it impacts on pedestrian comfort, reducing the number of walking trips and public space use. It is thus very necessary to investigate the quality of outdoor built environments in order to improve the quality of life incites. The main objective of this paper is to address the morphology of Emirati neighborhoods, setting a quantitative baseline by which to assess and compare spatial characteristics and microclimate performance of existing typologies in Abu Dhabi. This morphological mapping and analysis will help to understand the built landscape of Emirati neighborhoods in this city, whose form has changed and evolved across different periods. This will eventually help to model the use of different design strategies, such as landscaping, to mitigate UHI effects and enhance outdoor urban comfort. Further, the impact of different native plants types and native species in reducing UHI effects and enhancing outdoor urban comfort, allowing for the assessment of the impact of increasing landscaped areas in these neighborhoods. This study uses ENVI-met, an analytical, three-dimensional, high-resolution microclimate modeling software. This micro-scale urban climate model will be used to evaluate existing conditions and generate scenarios in different residential areas, with different vegetation surfaces and landscaping, and examine their impact on surface temperatures during summer and autumn. In parallel to these simulations, field measurement will be included to calibrate the Envi-met model. This research therefore takes an experimental approach, using simulation software, and a case study strategy for the evaluation of a sample of residential neighborhoods. A comparison of the results of these scenarios constitute a first step towards making recommendations about what constitutes sustainable landscapes for Abu Dhabi neighborhoods.

Keywords: landscape, microclimate, native plants, sustainable neighborhoods, thermal comfort, urban heat island

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3017 Implication of Built-Up Area, Vegetation, and Motorized Vehicles to Urban Microclimate in Bandung City Center

Authors: Ira Irawati, Muhammad Rangga Sururi


The expansion of built-up areas in many cities, particularly, as the consequences of urbanization process, is a common phenomenon in our contemporary world. As happened in many cities in developing world, this horizontal expansion let only a handful size of the area left for green open spaces, creating an extreme unbalance between built-up and green spaces. Combined with the high density and variety of human activities with its transportation modes; a process of urban heat island will occur, resulting in an increase in air temperature. This is one of the indicators of decreasing of the quality of urban microclimate. This paper will explore the effect of several variables of built-up areas and open spaces to the increase of air temperature using multiple linear regression analysis. We selected 11 zones within the radius of 1 km in Inner Bandung city center, and each zones measured within 300 m radius to represent the variety of land use, as well as the composition of buildings and green open spaces. By using a quantitative method which is multiple linear regression analysis, six dependent variables which are a) tree density-x1, b) shade level of tree-x2, c) surface area of buildings’ side which are facing west and east-x3, d) surface area of building side material-x4, e) surface area of pathway material, and f) numbers of motorized vehicles-x6; are calculated to find those influence to the air temperature as an independent variable-y. Finally, the relationship between those variables shows in this equation: y = 30.316 - 3.689 X1 – 6.563 X2 + 0.002 X3 – 2,517E6 X4 + 1.919E-9 X5 + 1.952E-4 X6. It shows that the existence of vegetation has a great impact on lowering temperature. In another way around, built up the area and motorized vehicles would increase the temperature. However, one component of built up area, the surface area of buildings’ sides which are facing west and east, has different result due to the building material is classified in low-middle heat capacity.

Keywords: built-up area, microclimate, vehicles, urban heat island, vegetation

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3016 Indoor Air Pollution of the Flexographic Printing Environment

Authors: Jelena S. Kiurski, Vesna S. Kecić, Snežana M. Aksentijević


The identification and evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants were performed in a flexographic facility in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed in situ, during 4-hours working time at five sampling points by the mobile gas chromatograph and ozonometer at the printing of collagen casing. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of isopropyl alcohol, acetone, total volatile organic compounds and ozone varied during the sampling times. The highest average concentrations of 94.80 ppm and 102.57 ppm were achieved at 200 minutes from starting the production for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds, respectively. The mutual dependences between target hazardous and microclimate parameters were confirmed using a multiple linear regression model with software package STATISTICA 10. Obtained multiple coefficients of determination in the case of ozone and acetone (0.507 and 0.589) with microclimate parameters indicated a moderate correlation between the observed variables. However, a strong positive correlation was obtained for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds (0.760 and 0.852) with microclimate parameters. Higher values of parameter F than Fcritical for all examined dependences indicated the existence of statistically significant difference between the concentration levels of target pollutants and microclimates parameters. Given that, the microclimate parameters significantly affect the emission of investigated gases and the application of eco-friendly materials in production process present a necessity.

Keywords: flexographic printing, indoor air, multiple regression analysis, pollution emission

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3015 A Comparative Study on the Effects of Different Clustering Layouts and Geometry of Urban Street Canyons on Urban Heat Island in Residential Neighborhoods of Kolkata

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Roshmi Sen, Subrata Chattopadhyay


Urbanization during the second half of the last century has created many serious environment related issues leading to global warming and climate change. India is not an exception as the country is also facing the problems of global warming and urban heat islands (UHI) in all the major metropolises. This paper discusses the effect of different housing cluster layouts, site geometry, and geometry of urban street canyons on the urban heat island profile. The study is carried out using the three dimensional microclimatic computational fluid dynamics model ENVI-met version 3.1. Simulation models are done for a typical summer day of 21st June, 2015 in four different residential neighborhoods in the city of Kolkata which predominantly belongs to Warm-Humid Monsoon Climate. The results show the changing pattern of urban heat island profile with respect to different clustering layouts, geometry, and morphology of urban street canyons. The comparison between the four neighborhoods shows that different microclimatic variables are strongly dependant on the neighborhood layout pattern and geometry. The inferences obtained from this study can be indicative towards the formulation of neighborhood design by-laws that will attenuate the urban heat island effect.

Keywords: urban heat island, neighborhood morphology, site microclimate, ENVI-met, numerical analysis

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3014 CFD Simulations to Examine Natural Ventilation of a Work Area in a Public Building

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Jen-Hao Wu, Yu-Hsuan Juan


Natural ventilation has played an important role for many low energy-building designs. It has been also noticed as a essential subject to persistently bring the fresh cool air from the outside into a building. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to examine the natural ventilation development of a work area in a public building. The simulated results can be useful to better understand the indoor microclimate and the interaction of wind with buildings. Besides, this CFD simulation procedure can serve as an effective analysis tool to characterize the airing performance, and thereby optimize the building ventilation for strengthening the architects, planners and other decision makers on improving the natural ventilation design of public buildings.

Keywords: CFD simulations, natural ventilation, microclimate, wind environment

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3013 Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Urbanization on Land Surface Temperature in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: A. O. Abulibdeh


The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the changes in the Land Surface Temperature (LST) as a function of urbanization, particularly land use/land cover changes, in three cities in the UAE, mainly Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Al Ain. The scale of this assessment will be at the macro- and micro-levels. At the macro-level, a comparative assessment will take place to compare between the four cities in the UAE. At the micro-level, the study will compare between the effects of different land use/land cover on the LST. This will provide a clear and quantitative city-specific information related to the relationship between urbanization and local spatial intra-urban LST variation in three cities in the UAE. The main objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the development of LST on the macro- and micro-level between and in three cities in the UAE over two decades time period, 2) to examine the impact of different types of land use/land cover on the spatial distribution of LST. Because these three cities are facing harsh arid climate, it is hypothesized that (1) urbanization is affecting and connected to the spatial changes in LST; (2) different land use/land cover have different impact on the LST; and (3) changes in spatial configuration of land use and vegetation concentration over time would control urban microclimate on a city scale and control macroclimate on the country scale. This study will be carried out over a 20-year period (1996-2016) and throughout the whole year. The study will compare between two distinct periods with different thermal characteristics which are the cool/cold period from November to March and warm/hot period between April and October. The best practice research method for this topic is to use remote sensing data to target different aspects of natural and anthropogenic systems impacts. The project will follow classical remote sensing and mapping techniques to investigate the impact of urbanization, mainly changes in land use/land cover, on LST. The investigation in this study will be performed in two stages. Stage one remote sensing data will be used to investigate the impact of urbanization on LST on a macroclimate level where the LST and Urban Heat Island (UHI) will be compared in the three cities using data from the past two decades. Stage two will investigate the impact on microclimate scale by investigating the LST and UHI using a particular land use/land cover type. In both stages, an LST and urban land cover maps will be generated over the study area. The outcome of this study should represent an important contribution to recent urban climate studies, particularly in the UAE. Based on the aim and objectives of this study, the expected outcomes are as follow: i) to determine the increase or decrease of LST as a result of urbanization in these four cities, ii) to determine the effect of different land uses/land covers on increasing or decreasing the LST.

Keywords: land use/land cover, global warming, land surface temperature, remote sensing

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3012 Carbon Stock Estimation of Urban Forests in Selected Public Parks in Addis Ababa

Authors: Meseret Habtamu, Mekuria Argaw


Urban forests can help to improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests in Addis Ababa are important sinks for GHGs as the number of vehicles and the traffic constrain is steadily increasing. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation types in selected public parks and to estimate the carbon stock potential of urban forests by assessing carbon in the above, below ground biomass, in the litter and soil. Species which vegetation samples were taken using a systematic transect sampling within value DBH ≥ 5cm were recorded to measure the above, the below ground biomass and the amount of C stored. Allometric models (Y= 34.4703 - 8.0671(DBH) + 0.6589(DBH2) were used to calculate the above ground and Below ground biomass (BGB) = AGB × 0.2 and sampling of soil and litter was based on quadrates. There were 5038 trees recorded from the selected study sites with DBH ≥ 5cm. Most of the Parks had large number of indigenous species, but the numbers of exotic trees are much larger than the indigenous trees. The mean above ground and below ground biomass is 305.7 ± 168.3 and 61.1± 33.7 respectively and the mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass is 143.3±74.2 and 28.1 ± 14.4 respectively. The mean CO2 in the above ground and below ground biomass is 525.9 ± 272.2 and 103.1 ± 52.9 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 10.5 ± 2.4 and 69.2t ha-1 respectively. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, climate change, urban forests

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3011 Research of Street Aspect Ratio on a Wind Environmental Perspective

Authors: Qi Kan, Xiaoyu Ying


With a rapid urbanization in China, the high-density new urban-center districts have already changed the microclimate in the city. Because of the using characters of building the commercial pedestrian streets which have emerged massively making a large number of pedestrians appear in there, pedestrian comfort in the commercial streets of the new urban-center districts requires more attention. The different street spatial layout will change the wind environment in the street and then influence the pedestrian comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are used to study the correlation between the street aspect ratio and wind environment, under the simulation with relevant weather conditions. The results show that the wind speed in the city streets is inversely proportional to the street aspect ratio. The conclusion will provide an evaluation basis for urban planners and architects at the beginning stage of the design to effectively avoid the potential poor physical environment.

Keywords: street spatial layout, wind environment, street aspect ratio, pedestrian comfort

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3010 Improved Thermal Comfort in Cabin Aircraft with in-Seat Microclimate Conditioning Module

Authors: Mathieu Le Cam, Tejaswinee Darure, Mateusz Pawlucki


Climate control of cabin aircraft is traditionally conditioned as a single unit by the environmental control system. Cabin temperature is controlled by the crew while passengers of the aircraft have control on the gaspers providing fresh air from the above head area. The small nozzles are difficult to reach and adjust to meet the passenger’s needs in terms of flow and direction. More dedicated control over the near environment of each passenger can be beneficial in many situations. The European project COCOON, funded under Clean Sky 2, aims at developing and demonstrating a microclimate conditioning module (MCM) integrated into a standard economy 3-seat row. The system developed will lead to improved passenger comfort with more control on their personal thermal area. This study focuses on the assessment of thermal comfort of passengers in the cabin aircraft through simulation on the TAITherm modelling platform. A first analysis investigates thermal comfort and sensation of passengers in varying cabin environmental conditions: from cold to very hot scenarios, with and without MCM installed in the seats. The modelling platform is also used to evaluate the impact of different physiologies of passengers on their thermal comfort as well as different seat locations. Under the current cabin conditions, a passenger of a 50th percentile body size is feeling uncomfortably cool due to the high velocity cabin air ventilation. The simulation shows that the in-seat MCM developed in COCOON project improves the thermal comfort of the passenger.

Keywords: cabin aircraft, in-seat HVAC, microclimate conditioning module, thermal comfort

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3009 An Investigation of the Quantitative Correlation between Urban Spatial Morphology Indicators and Block Wind Environment

Authors: Di Wei, Xing Hu, Yangjun Chen, Baofeng Li, Hong Chen


To achieve the research purpose of guiding the spatial morphology design of blocks through the indicators to obtain a good wind environment, it is necessary to find the most suitable type and value range of each urban spatial morphology indicator. At present, most of the relevant researches is based on the numerical simulation of the ideal block shape and rarely proposes the results based on the complex actual block types. Therefore, this paper firstly attempted to make theoretical speculation on the main factors influencing indicators' effectiveness by analyzing the physical significance and formulating the principle of each indicator. Then it was verified by the field wind environment measurement and statistical analysis, indicating that Porosity(P₀) can be used as an important indicator to guide the design of block wind environment in the case of deep street canyons, while Frontal Area Density (λF) can be used as a supplement in the case of shallow street canyons with no height difference. Finally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to quantify the impact of block height difference and street canyons depth on λF and P₀, finding the suitable type and value range of λF and P₀. This paper would provide a feasible wind environment index system for urban designers.

Keywords: urban spatial morphology indicator, urban microclimate, computational fluid dynamics, block ventilation, correlation analysis

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3008 Proposal of Blue and Green Infrastructure for the Jaguaré Stream Watershed, São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Juliana C. Alencar, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto


The blue-green infrastructure in recent years has been pointed out as a possibility to increase the environmental quality of watersheds. The regulation ecosystem services brought by these areas are many, such as the improvement of the air quality of the air, water, soil, microclimate, besides helping to control the peak flows and to promote the quality of life of the population. This study proposes a blue-green infrastructure scenario for the Jaguaré watershed, located in the western zone of the São Paulo city in Brazil. Based on the proposed scenario, it was verified the impact of the adoption of the blue and green infrastructure in the control of the peak flow of the basin, the benefits for the avifauna that are also reflected in the flora and finally, the quantification of the regulation ecosystem services brought by the adoption of the scenario proposed. A survey of existing green areas and potential areas for expansion and connection of these areas to form a network in the watershed was carried out. Based on this proposed new network of green areas, the peak flow for the proposed scenario was calculated with the help of software, ABC6. Finally, a survey of the ecosystem services contemplated in the proposed scenario was made. It was possible to conclude that the blue and green infrastructure would provide several regulation ecosystem services for the watershed, such as the control of the peak flow, the connection frame between the forest fragments that promoted the environmental enrichment of these fragments, improvement of the microclimate and the provision of leisure areas for the population.

Keywords: green and blue infrastructure, sustainable drainage, urban waters, ecosystem services

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3007 The Potential Effect of Sexual Selection on the Distal Genitalia Variability of the Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Land Snail Helix aperta in Bejaia/Kabylia/Algeria

Authors: Benbellil-Tafoughalt Saida, Tababouchet Meriem


Sexual selection is the most supported explanation for genital extravagance occurring in animals. In promiscuous species, population density, as well as climate conditions, may act on the sperm competition intensity, one of the most important mechanism of post-copulatory sexual selection. The present study is empirical testing of sexual selection's potential role on genitalia variation in the simultanuously hermaphroditic land snail Helixaperta (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora). The purpose was to detect the patterns as well as the origin of the distal genitalia variability and especially to test the potential effect of sexual selection. The study was performed on four populations, H. aperta, different in habitat humidity regimes and presenting variable densities, which were mostly low. The organs of interest were those involved in spermatophore production, reception, and manipulation. We examined whether the evolution of those organs is connected to sperm competition intensity which is traduced by both population density and microclimate humidity. We also tested the hypothesis that those organs evolve in response to shell size. The results revealed remarkable differences in both snails’ size and organs lengths between populations. In most cases, the length of genitalia correlated positively to snails’ body size. Interestingly, snails from the more humid microclimate presented the highest mean weight and shell dimensions comparing to those from the less humid microclimate. However, we failed to establish any relation between snail densities and any of the measured genitalia traits.

Keywords: fertilization pouch, helix aperta, land snails, reproduction, sperm storage, spermatheca

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3006 Informed Urban Design: Minimizing Urban Heat Island Intensity via Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Luis Guilherme Resende Santos, Ido Nevat, Leslie Norford


The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is characterized by increased air temperatures in urban areas compared to undeveloped rural surrounding environments. With urbanization and densification, the intensity of UHI increases, bringing negative impacts on livability, health and economy. In order to reduce those effects, it is required to take into consideration design factors when planning future developments. Given design constraints such as population size and availability of area for development, non-trivial decisions regarding the buildings’ dimensions and their spatial distribution are required. We develop a framework for optimization of urban design in order to jointly minimize UHI intensity and buildings’ energy consumption. First, the design constraints are defined according to spatial and population limits in order to establish realistic boundaries that would be applicable in real life decisions. Second, the tools Urban Weather Generator (UWG) and EnergyPlus are used to generate outputs of UHI intensity and total buildings’ energy consumption, respectively. Those outputs are changed based on a set of variable inputs related to urban morphology aspects, such as building height, urban canyon width and population density. Lastly, an optimization problem is cast where the utility function quantifies the performance of each design candidate (e.g. minimizing a linear combination of UHI and energy consumption), and a set of constraints to be met is set. Solving this optimization problem is difficult, since there is no simple analytic form which represents the UWG and EnergyPlus models. We therefore cannot use any direct optimization techniques, but instead, develop an indirect “black box” optimization algorithm. To this end we develop a solution that is based on stochastic optimization method, known as the Cross Entropy method (CEM). The CEM translates the deterministic optimization problem into an associated stochastic optimization problem which is simple to solve analytically. We illustrate our model on a typical residential area in Singapore. Due to fast growth in population and built area and land availability generated by land reclamation, urban planning decisions are of the most importance for the country. Furthermore, the hot and humid climate in the country raises the concern for the impact of UHI. The problem presented is highly relevant to early urban design stages and the objective of such framework is to guide decision makers and assist them to include and evaluate urban microclimate and energy aspects in the process of urban planning.

Keywords: building energy consumption, stochastic optimization, urban design, urban heat island, urban weather generator

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3005 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel


The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

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3004 Process of Analysis, Evaluation and Verification of the 'Real' Redevelopment of the Public Open Space at the Neighborhood’s Stairs: Case Study of Serres, Greece

Authors: Ioanna Skoufali


The present study is directed towards adaptation to climate change closely related to the phenomenon of the urban heat island (UHI). This issue is widespread and common to different urban realities, but particularly in Mediterranean cities that are characterized by dense urban. The attention of this work of redevelopment of the open space is focused on mitigation techniques aiming to solve local problems such as microclimatic parameters and the conditions of thermal comfort in summer, related to urban morphology. This quantitative analysis, evaluation, and verification survey involves the methodological elaboration applied in a real study case by Serres, through the experimental support of the ENVImet Pro V4.1 and BioMet software developed: i) in two phases concerning the anteoperam (phase a1 # 2013) and the post-operam (phase a2 # 2016); ii) in scenario A (+ 25% of green # 2017). The first study tends to identify the main intervention strategies, namely: the application of cool pavements, the increase of green surfaces, the creation of water surface and external fans; moreover, it obtains the minimum results achieved by the National Program 'Bioclimatic improvement project for public open space', EPPERAA (ESPA 2007-2013) related to the four environmental parameters illustrated below: the TAir = 1.5 o C, the TSurface = 6.5 o C, CDH = 30% and PET = 20%. In addition, the second study proposes a greater potential for improvement than postoperam intervention by increasing the vegetation within the district towards the SW/SE. The final objective of this in-depth design is to be transferable in homogeneous cases of urban regeneration processes with obvious effects on the efficiency of microclimatic mitigation and thermal comfort.

Keywords: cool pavements, microclimate parameters (TAir, Tsurface, Tmrt, CDH), mitigation strategies, outdoor thermal comfort (PET & UTCI)

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3003 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo


Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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3002 Potential of Detailed Environmental Data, Produced by Information and Communication Technology Tools, for Better Consideration of Microclimatology Issues in Urban Planning to Promote Active Mobility

Authors: Živa Ravnikar, Alfonso Bahillo Martinez, Barbara Goličnik Marušić


Climate change mitigation has been formally adopted and announced by countries over the globe, where cities are targeting carbon neutrality through various more or less successful, systematic, and fragmentary actions. The article is based on the fact that environmental conditions affect human comfort and the usage of space. Urban planning can, with its sustainable solutions, not only support climate mitigation in terms of a planet reduction of global warming but as well enabling natural processes that in the immediate vicinity produce environmental conditions that encourage people to walk or cycle. However, the article draws attention to the importance of integrating climate consideration into urban planning, where detailed environmental data play a key role, enabling urban planners to improve or monitor environmental conditions on cycle paths. In a practical aspect, this paper tests a particular ICT tool, a prototype used for environmental data. Data gathering was performed along the cycling lanes in Ljubljana (Slovenia), where the main objective was to assess the tool's data applicable value within the planning of comfortable cycling lanes. The results suggest that such transportable devices for in-situ measurements can help a researcher interpret detailed environmental information, characterized by fine granularity and precise data spatial and temporal resolution. Data can be interpreted within human comfort zones, where graphical representation is in the form of a map, enabling the link of the environmental conditions with a spatial context. The paper also provides preliminary results in terms of the potential of such tools for identifying the correlations between environmental conditions and different spatial settings, which can help urban planners to prioritize interventions in places. The paper contributes to multidisciplinary approaches as it demonstrates the usefulness of such fine-grained data for better consideration of microclimatology in urban planning, which is a prerequisite for creating climate-comfortable cycling lanes promoting active mobility.

Keywords: information and communication technology tools, urban planning, human comfort, microclimate, cycling lanes

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3001 "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad


In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management

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3000 The Return of Daily Life — Improvement Experiments on Urban Village in the Post-Urban Village Era

Authors: Gan Lu, Xu Lei


This is an era when urban village is disappearing in China. A series of social phenomenon presented in post-urban village era is forcing rethinking of the future of urban village. Existing monotonous urban renewal mode based on gentrification is questioned, and the social values of urban village has been gaining increasing attention while the daily life and spatial power of underclass is being focused on. Based on the consensus on the positive meaning of urban village phenomenon, social sectors have taken amount of improvement experiments to explore the possibility of modern transition of urban village on the premise of existence. These experiments revealed that urban tremendous changes impact a lot on social daily life, and pointed out that it is necessary to bring up the responsibility of architects and the definition of urban for discussion again.

Keywords: post-urban village era, gentrification, social value, daily life, improvement experiment.

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2999 Strategies of Spatial Optimization for Open Space in the Old-Age Friendly City: An Investigation of the Behavior of the Elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou

Authors: Yunxiang Fang


With the aging trend continuing to accelerate, open space is important for the daily life of the elderly, and its old-age friendliness is worthy of attention. Based on behavioral observation and literature research, this paper studies the behavior of the elderly in urban open space. Through the investigation, classification and quantitative analysis of the activity types, time characteristics and spatial behavior order of the elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou, it summarizes the square space suitable for the psychological needs, physiology and activity needs of the elderly, combined with the basis of literature research. Finally, the suggestions for the improvement of the old-age friendship of Xicheng Square are put forward, from the aspects of microclimate, safety and accessibility, space richness and service facility quality.

Keywords: behavior characteristics, old-age friendliness, open space, square

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2998 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu


Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape

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2997 Preliminary Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Green Walls: Analyzing Cases from the Perspective of Life Cycle

Authors: Jyun-Huei Huang, Ting-I Lee


Urban heat island effect is derived from the reduction of vegetative cover by urban development. Because plants can improve air quality and microclimate, green walls have been applied as a sustainable design approach to cool building temperature. By using plants to green vertical surfaces, they decrease room temperature and, as a result, decrease the energy use for air conditioning. Based on their structures, green walls can be divided into two categories, green façades and living walls. A green façade uses the climbing ability of a plant itself, while a living wall assembles planter modules. The latter one is widely adopted in public space, as it is time-effective and less limited. Although a living wall saves energy spent on cooling, it is not necessarily cost-effective from the perspective of a lifecycle analysis. The Italian study shows that the overall benefit of a living wall is only greater than its costs after 47 years of its establishment. In Taiwan, urban greening policies encourage establishment of green walls by referring to their benefits of energy saving while neglecting their low performance on cost-effectiveness. Thus, this research aims at understanding the perception of appliers and consumers on the cost-effectiveness of their living wall products from the lifecycle viewpoint. It adopts semi-structured interviews and field observations on the maintenance of the products. By comparing the two results, it generates insights for sustainable urban greening policies. The preliminary finding shows that stakeholders do not have a holistic sense of lifecycle or cost-effectiveness. Most importantly, a living wall well maintained is often with high input due to the availability of its maintenance budget, and thus less sustainable. In conclusion, without a comprehensive sense of cost-effectiveness throughout a product’s lifecycle, it is very difficult for suppliers and consumers to maintain a living wall system while achieve sustainability.

Keywords: case study, maintenance, post-occupancy evaluation, vertical greening

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2996 Urban Growth Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks in Athens, Greece

Authors: Dimitrios Triantakonstantis, Demetris Stathakis


Urban areas have been expanded throughout the globe. Monitoring and modeling urban growth have become a necessity for a sustainable urban planning and decision making. Urban prediction models are important tools for analyzing the causes and consequences of urban land use dynamics. The objective of this research paper is to analyze and model the urban change, which has been occurred from 1990 to 2000 using CORINE land cover maps. The model was developed using drivers of urban changes (such as road distance, slope, etc.) under an Artificial Neural Network modeling approach. Validation was achieved using a prediction map for 2006 which was compared with a real map of Urban Atlas of 2006. The accuracy produced a Kappa index of agreement of 0,639 and a value of Cramer's V of 0,648. These encouraging results indicate the importance of the developed urban growth prediction model which using a set of available common biophysical drivers could serve as a management tool for the assessment of urban change.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, CORINE, urban atlas, urban growth prediction

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2995 Vertical Village Buildings as Sustainable Strategy to Re-Attract Mega-Cities in Developing Countries

Authors: M. J. Eichner, Y. S. Sarhan


Overall study purpose has been the evaluation of ‘Vertical Villages’ as a new sustainable building typology, reducing significantly negative impacts of rapid urbanization processes in third world capital cities. Commonly in fast-growing cities, housing and job supply, educational and recreational opportunities, as well as public transportation infrastructure, are not accommodating rapid population growth, exposing people to high noise and emission polluted living environments with low-quality neighborhoods and a lack of recreational areas. Like many others, Egypt’s capital city Cairo, according to the UN facing annual population growth rates of up to 428.000 people, is struggling to address the general deterioration of urban living conditions. New settlements typologies and urban reconstruction approach hardly follow sustainable urbanization principles or socio-ecologic urbanization models with severe effects not only for inhabitants but also for the local environment and global climate. The authors prove that ‘Vertical Village’ buildings can offer a sustainable solution for increasing urban density with at the same time improving the living quality and urban environment significantly. Inserting them within high-density urban fabrics the ecologic and socio-cultural conditions of low-quality neighborhoods can be transformed towards districts, considering all needs of sustainable and social urban life. This study analyzes existing building typologies in Cairo’s «low quality - high density» districts Ard el Lewa, Dokki and Mohandesen according to benchmarks for sustainable residential buildings, identifying major problems and deficits. In 3 case study design projects, the sustainable transformation potential through ‘Vertical Village’ buildings are laid out and comparative studies show the improvement of the urban microclimate, safety, social diversity, sense of community, aesthetics, privacy, efficiency, healthiness and accessibility. The main result of the paper is that the disadvantages of density and overpopulation in developing countries can be converted with ‘Vertical Village’ buildings into advantages, achieving attractive and environmentally friendly living environments with multiple synergies. The paper is documenting based on scientific criteria that mixed-use vertical building structures, designed according to sustainable principles of low rise housing, can serve as an alternative to convert «low quality - high density» districts in megacities, opening a pathway for governments to achieve sustainable urban transformation goals. Neglected informal urban districts, home to millions of the poorer population groups, can be converted into healthier living and working environments.

Keywords: sustainable, architecture, urbanization, urban transformation, vertical village

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2994 Research on the Mode and Strategy of Urban Renewal in the Old Urban Area of China: A Case Study of Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin


In the process of rapid urbanization, old urban renewal is an important task in China's urban construction. This study, using status survey and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, taking Chongqing of China as an example, puts forward the problems faced by the old urban area from the aspects of function, facilities and environment. Further, this study summarizes the types of the old urban area and proposes space renewal strategies for three typical old urban areas, such as old residential area, old factory and old market. These old urban areas are confronted with the problems of functional layout confounding, lack of infrastructure and poor living environment. At last, this paper proposes spatial strategies for urban renewal, which are hoped to be useful for urban renewal management in China.

Keywords: old urban renewal, renewal mode, renewal strategy, Chongqing, China

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2993 Differences in Nutritional Awareness Among Urban Semi Urban and Rural Girls of South India

Authors: N. R. Ramkumar


The foremost aim of physical education has been to inculcate a healthy mind in a healthy body. The aim of this study was to find out the differences in nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls of South India. The investigator administered a nutritional awareness questionnaire consisting of 25 statements among 100 rural; 100 semi urban and 100 urban girls studying in different schools in South India. The filled up questionnaire were scored and the total scores for all the twenty five statements were considered as the nutritional awareness level of the subjects. The differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls were tested for statistical significance using ANOVA. In all cases 0.05 level was fixed to test the significance. The results proved that there were significant differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls (P<0.05). The paired mean comparisons proved that urban girls were having highest nutritional awareness (M: 86.86), followed by semi urban girls (M: 81.86) and then by rural girls (M: 79.48). The differences between urban and semi urban girls and urban and rural girls were significant and there was no significant differences between semi urban and rural girls. The findings of this study proved that rural girls were significantly having lesser nutritional awareness and hence the study recommends the strong need of nutritional education for rural girls in South India.

Keywords: nutrition, awareness, urban, semi urban, rural girls

Procedia PDF Downloads 442