Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2043

Search results for: block morphology

2043 Observation and Analysis of Urban Micro-Climate and Urban Morphology on Block Scale in Zhengzhou City

Authors: Linlin Guo, Baofeng Li

Abstract:

Zhengzhou is a typical plain city with a high population density and a permanent population of 10 million, located in central China. The scale of this city is constantly expanding, and the urban form has changed dramatically by the accelerating process of urbanization, which makes a great effect on the urban microclimate. In order to study the influence of block morphology on urban micro-climate, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and so on in three typical types of blocks in the center of Zhengzhou were collected, which was chosen to perform the fixed and mobile observation. After data handling and analysis, a series of graphs and diagrams were obtained to reflect the differences in the influence of different types of block morphology on the urban microclimate. These can provide targeted strategies for urban design to improve and regulate urban micro-climate.

Keywords: urban micro-climate, block morphology, fixed and mobile observation, urban design

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2042 An Investigation of the Quantitative Correlation between Urban Spatial Morphology Indicators and Block Wind Environment

Authors: Di Wei, Xing Hu, Yangjun Chen, Baofeng Li, Hong Chen

Abstract:

To achieve the research purpose of guiding the spatial morphology design of blocks through the indicators to obtain a good wind environment, it is necessary to find the most suitable type and value range of each urban spatial morphology indicator. At present, most of the relevant researches is based on the numerical simulation of the ideal block shape and rarely proposes the results based on the complex actual block types. Therefore, this paper firstly attempted to make theoretical speculation on the main factors influencing indicators' effectiveness by analyzing the physical significance and formulating the principle of each indicator. Then it was verified by the field wind environment measurement and statistical analysis, indicating that Porosity(P₀) can be used as an important indicator to guide the design of block wind environment in the case of deep street canyons, while Frontal Area Density (λF) can be used as a supplement in the case of shallow street canyons with no height difference. Finally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to quantify the impact of block height difference and street canyons depth on λF and P₀, finding the suitable type and value range of λF and P₀. This paper would provide a feasible wind environment index system for urban designers.

Keywords: urban spatial morphology indicator, urban microclimate, computational fluid dynamics, block ventilation, correlation analysis

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2041 Supramolecular Approach towards Novel Applications: Battery, Band Gap and Gas Separation

Authors: Sudhakara Naidu Neppalli, Tejas S. Bhosale

Abstract:

It is well known that the block copolymer (BCP) can form a complex molecule, through non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic bond and co-ordination bond, with low molecular weight compound as well as with macromolecules, which provide vast applications, includes the alteration of morphology and properties of polymers. Hence we covered the research that, the importance of non-covalent bonds in increasing the non-favourable segmental interactions of the blocks was well examined by attaching and detaching the bonds between the BCP and additive. We also monitored the phase transition of block copolymer and effective interaction parameter (χeff) for Li-doped polymers using small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The effective interaction parameter (χeff) between two block components was evaluated using Leibler theory based on the incompressible random phase approximation (RPA) for ionized BCP in a disordered state. Furthermore, conductivity experiments demonstrate that the ionic conductivity in the samples quenched from the different structures is morphology-independent, while it increases with increasing ion salt concentration. Morphological transitions, interaction parameter, and thermal stability also examined in quarternized block copolymer. D-spacing was used to estimate effective interaction parameter (χeff) of block components in weak and strong segregation regimes of ordered phase. Metal-containing polymer has been the topic of great attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential application. Similarly, metal- ligand complex is used as a supramolecular linker between the polymers giving rise to a ‘Metallo-Supramolecule assembly. More precisely, functionalized polymer end capped with 2, 2’:6’, 2”- terpyridine ligand can be selectively complexed with wide range of transition metal ions and then subsequently attached to other terpyridine terminated polymer block. In compare to other supramolecular assembly, BCP involved metallo-supramolecule assembly offers vast applications such as optical activity, electrical conductivity, luminescence and photo refractivity.

Keywords: band gap, block copolymer, conductivity, interaction parameter, phase transition

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2040 Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate)/Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Phase-Separated Triblock Copolymers with Advanced Properties

Authors: Nikola Toshikj, Michel Ramonda, Sylvain Catrouillet, Jean-Jacques Robin, Sebastien Blanquer

Abstract:

Biodegradable and biocompatible block copolymers have risen as the golden materials in both medical and environmental applications. Moreover, if their architecture is of controlled manner, higher applications can be foreseen. In the meantime, organocatalytic ROP has been promoted as more rapid and immaculate route, compared to the traditional organometallic catalysis, towards efficient synthesis of block copolymer architectures. Therefore, herein we report novel organocatalytic pathway with guanidine molecules (TBD) for supported synthesis of trimethylene carbonate initiated by poly(caprolactone) as pre-polymer. Pristine PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymer structure, without any residual products and clear desired block proportions, was achieved under 1.5 hours at room temperature and verified by NMR spectroscopies and size-exclusion chromatography. Besides, when elaborating block copolymer films, further stability and amelioration of mechanical properties can be achieved via additional reticulation step of precedently methacrylated block copolymers. Subsequently, stimulated by the insufficient studies on the phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in these semi-crystalline block copolymer systems, their intrinsic thermal and morphology properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy. Firstly, by DSC measurements, the block copolymers with χABN values superior to 20 presented two distinct glass transition temperatures, close to the ones of the respecting homopolymers, demonstrating an initial indication of a phase-separated system. In the interim, the existence of the crystalline phase was supported by the presence of melting temperature. As expected, the crystallinity driven phase-separated morphology predominated in the AFM analysis of the block copolymers. Neither crosslinking at melted state, hence creation of a dense polymer network, disturbed the crystallinity phenomena. However, the later revealed as sensible to rapid liquid nitrogen quenching directly from the melted state. Therefore, AFM analysis of liquid nitrogen quenched and crosslinked block copolymer films demonstrated a thermodynamically driven phase-separation clearly predominating over the originally crystalline one. These AFM films remained stable with their morphology unchanged even after 4 months at room temperature. However, as demonstrated by DSC analysis once rising the temperature above the melting temperature of the PCL block, neither the crosslinking nor the liquid nitrogen quenching shattered the semi-crystalline network, while the access to thermodynamical phase-separated structures was possible for temperatures under the poly (caprolactone) melting point. Precisely this coexistence of dual crosslinked/crystalline networks in the same copolymer structure allowed us to establish, for the first time, the shape-memory properties in such materials, as verified by thermomechanical analysis. Moreover, the response temperature to the material original shape depended on the block copolymer emplacement, hence PTMC or PCL as end-block. Therefore, it has been possible to reach a block copolymer with transition temperature around 40°C thus opening potential real-life medical applications. In conclusion, the initial study of phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymers lead to the discovery of novel shape memory materials with superior properties, widely demanded in modern-life applications.

Keywords: biodegradable block copolymers, organocatalytic ROP, self-assembly, shape-memory

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2039 An Analysis of Transition in Building Form from Abolition of Diagonal Plane Control by Street Width: Focusing on Site Plan and Urban Block

Authors: Joohyun Park, Jin Baek

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The purpose of this study is to Analyze the role and effect arise from Diagonal Plane Control by Street Width (DPCSW) in Architecture in Seoul, and to predict the aspect of transition about the relationship among buildings and Urban morphology After the abolition. To find the tendency of building shape regulation, This study review Building Acts concerned with form making (the building to land Ratio, building designated line, wall designated line, building height limit (DPCSW) and etc.) and simulate the shape of urban blocks made by Acts in drawings. The review results show DPCSW is not only limitation about height, but also making the building setback from road and make the Road broader. And it makes the typical shape of the urban block that buildings are moving away from surrounding road After the Abolition of DPCSW; it is expected by the legislature that domestic real estate’s market would be promoted by increased total floor areas in each building. Some substitution from the legislature is announced, but it just deals with Building Maximum unit by Block unit except the regulation about arrangement in urban Figure and Ground. In conclusion, refrain from the uncontrolled development of city, It is important to make regulation about not only height factors but limitation line in land. Furthermore, through revising District Unit Plan, It is positively necessary to reset the relationship between buildings for the making the city space better.

Keywords: diagonal plane control by street width, building maximum height, district unit plan, building acts, urban block type, morphology, building shape

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2038 Nanoparticles Modification by Grafting Strategies for the Development of Hybrid Nanocomposites

Authors: Irati Barandiaran, Xabier Velasco-Iza, Galder Kortaberria

Abstract:

Hybrid inorganic/organic nanostructured materials based on block copolymers are of considerable interest in the field of Nanotechnology, taking into account that these nanocomposites combine the properties of polymer matrix and the unique properties of the added nanoparticles. The use of block copolymers as templates offers the opportunity to control the size and the distribution of inorganic nanoparticles. This research is focused on the surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles to reach a good interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrices which hinders the nanoparticle aggregation. The aim of this work is to obtain a good and selective dispersion of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into different types of block copolymers such us, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), poly(styrene-b-ε-caprolactone) (PS-b-PCL) poly(isoprene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PMMA) or poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SBM) by using different grafting strategies. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been surface-modified with polymer or block copolymer brushes following different grafting methods (grafting to, grafting from and grafting through) to achieve a selective location of nanoparticles into desired domains of the block copolymers. Morphology of fabricated hybrid nanocomposites was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with the aim to reach well-ordered nanostructured composites different annealing methods were used. Additionally, nanoparticle amount has been also varied in order to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle content in the morphology of the block copolymer. Nowadays different characterization methods were using in order to investigate magnetic properties of nanometer-scale electronic devices. Particularly, two different techniques have been used with the aim of characterizing synthesized nanocomposites. First, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was used to investigate qualitatively the magnetic properties taking into account that this technique allows distinguishing magnetic domains on the sample surface. On the other hand, magnetic characterization by vibrating sample magnetometer and superconducting quantum interference device. This technique demonstrated that magnetic properties of nanoparticles have been transferred to the nanocomposites, exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior similar to that of the maghemite nanoparticles at room temperature. Obtained advanced nanostructured materials could found possible applications in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and electronic nanodevices.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, block copolymers, grafting techniques, iron oxide nanoparticles

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2037 Reduction of Dynamic Influences in Composite Rubber-Concrete Block Designed to Walls Construction

Authors: Maciej Major, Izabela Major

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of three-layered block design to walls construction subjected to the dynamic load. The block consists of the layers: concrete with rubber pads in shape of crosses, space filled with air and concrete with I-shape rubber pads. The main purpose of rubber inserts embedded during the production process is additional protection against the transversal dynamic load. For the analysis, as rubber, the Zahorski hyperelastic incompressible material model was assumed. A concentrated force as dynamic load applied to the external block surface was investigated. The results for the considered block observed as the stress distribution plot were compared to the results obtained for the solid concrete block. In order to estimate the percentage damping of proposed composite, rubber-concrete block in relation to the solid block the numerical analysis with the use of finite element method based on ADINA software was performed.

Keywords: dynamics, composite, rubber, Zahorski

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2036 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colours. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photomosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of four steps: Partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and colour adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: photomosaic, Euclidean distance, block matching, intensity adjustment

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2035 The Study on Blast Effect of Polymer Gel by Trazul Lead Block Test and Concrete Block Test

Authors: Young-Hun Ko, Seung-Jun Kim, Khaqan Baluch, Hyung- Sik Yang

Abstract:

In this study, the polymer gel was used as coupling material in a blasting hole and its comparison was made with other coupling materials like sand, water, and air. Trazul lead block test and AUTODYN numerical analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of the coupling materials on the intensity of the explosion, as well as the verification tests were conducted by using concrete block test. The emulsion explosives were used in decoupling conditions, sand, water, and polymer gel were used as the coupling materials. The lead block test and the numerical analysis showed that the expansion of the blast hole in the lead block was similar to that of the water and gelatin and followed by sand and air conditions. The validation of concrete block test result showed the similar result as Trazul lead block test and the explosion strength was measured at 0.8 for polymer gel, 0.7 for sand, and 0.6 for no coupling material, in comparison to the full charge (1.0) case.

Keywords: Trazul lead block test, AUTODYN numerical analysis, coupling material, polymer gel, soil covering concrete block explosion test

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2034 The Development of a New Block Method for Solving Stiff ODEs

Authors: Khairil I. Othman, Mahfuzah Mahayaddin, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim

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We develop and demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical technique to solve first order stiff differential equations. This technique is based on block method whereby three approximate points are calculated. The Cholistani of varied step sizes are presented in divided difference form. Stability regions of the formulae are briefly discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that this block method perform very well compared to existing methods.

Keywords: block method, divided difference, stiff, computational

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2033 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

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2032 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

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2031 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

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In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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2030 Implementation of Complete Management Practices in Managing the Cocoa Pod Borer

Authors: B. Saripah, A. Alias

Abstract:

Cocoa Theobroma cacao (Linnaeus) (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) is subjected to be infested by various numbers of insect pests, and Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is the most serious pest of cocoa in Malaysia. The pest was indigenous to the South East Asia. Several control measures have been implemented and the chemicals have been a major approach if not unilateral, in the management of CPB. Despite extensive use of insecticides, CPB continues to cause an unacceptable level of damage; thus, the combination of several control approaches should be sought. The study was commenced for 12 months at three blocks; Block 18C with complete management practices which include insecticide application, pruning, fertilization and frequent harvesting, Block 17C was treated with frequent harvesting at intervals of 7-8 days, and Block 19C was served as control block. The results showed that the mean numbers of CPB eggs were recorded higher in Block 17C compared with Block 18C in all sampling occasions. Block 18C shows the lowest mean number of CPB eggs in both sampling plots, outside and core plots and it was found significantly different (p ≤ 0. 05) compared to the other blocks. The mean number of CPB eggs was fluctuated throughout sampling occasions, the lowest mean number of eggs was recorded in January (17C) and November (18C), while the highest was recorded in April (17C) and December 2012 (18C). Frequent spraying with insecticides at the adjacent block (18C) helps in reducing CPB eggs in the control block (Block 19C), although there was no spraying was implemented Block 19C. In summary, the combination of complete management practices at Block 18C seems to have some effect on the CPB population at Blocks 17 and 19C because all blocks are adjacent to each other.

Keywords: cocoa, theobroma cacao, cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella

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2029 Morphology Optimization and Photophysics Study in Air-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Soumitra Satapathi, Anubhav Raghav

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Perovskite solar cell technology has passed through a phase of unprecedented growth in the efficiency scale from 3.8% to above 22% within a half decade. This technology has drawn tremendous research interest. It has been observed that performances of perovskite based solar cells are extremely dependent on the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite layer. It has also been observed that device lifetime depends on the perovskite morphology; devices with larger perovskite grains degrade slowly than those of the smaller ones. Various methods of perovskite growth have been applied to achieve the most appropriate morphology necessary for high efficient solar cells. The recent progress in morphology optimization by various methods emphasizing on grain sizes, stoichiometry, and ambient compatibility as well as photophysics study in air-processed perovskite solar cells will be discussed.

Keywords: perovskite solar cells, morphology optimization, photophysics study, air-processed solar cells

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2028 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

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2027 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei

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Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block special level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward semi-open sub-community strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou west area, residential block model, residential block fabric, semi-open sub-community strategy

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2026 Heat Transfer from Block Heat Sources Mounted on the Wall of a 3-D Cabinet to Ambient Natural Convective Air Stream

Authors: J. C. Cheng, Y. L. Tsay, Z. D. Chan, C. H. Yang

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In this study the physical system under consideration is a three-dimensional (3-D) cabinet with arrays of block heat sources mounted on one of the walls of the cabinet. The block heat sources dissipate heat to the cabinet surrounding through the conjugate conduction and natural convection. The results illustrate that the difference in hot spot temperatures of the system (θH) for the situations with and without consideration of thermal interaction is higher for smaller Rayleigh number (Ra), and can be up to 94.73% as Ra=10^5. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics depends strongly on the dimensionless heat conductivity of cabinet wall (Kwf), heat conductivity of block (Kpf) and length of cabinet (Ax). The maximum reduction in θH is 70.01% when Kwf varies from 10 to 1000, and it is 30.07% for Ax from 0.5 to 1. While the hot spot temperature of system is not sensitive to the cabinet angle (Φ).

Keywords: block heat sources, 3-D cabinet, thermal interaction, heat transfer

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2025 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

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Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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2024 Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context

Authors: M. Panahian

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A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.

Keywords: sustainability, passive energy saving solutions, residential block scale, energy efficiency

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2023 Synthesis of Solid Polymeric Materials by Maghnite-H⁺ as a Green Catalyst

Authors: Draoua Zohra, Harrane Amine

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The Solid Polymeric Materials have been successfully prepared by the copolymerization of e-caprolactone (CL) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) employing Maghnite-H+ at 80°C. Maghnite-H+ is a solid catalyst non-toxic. The presence of PEG chains leads to a break in the growth of PCL chains and consequently leads to the copolymer tri-block PCL-PEG-PCL. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize of Solid Polymeric Materials. The highly hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol has sparked our interest in developing a Solid Polymeric based e-caprolactone and poly (ethylene glycol). PCL and PEG are biocompatible materials. Their ring-opening copolymerization using Maghnite H+ makes to the Solid Polymeric Materials. The morphology and structure of Solid polymeric Materials were characterized by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR spectra and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). This paper developed the application of Maghnite-H+ as an efficient catalyst by an easy-to-handle procedure to get solid polymeric materials. A cationic mechanism for the copolymerization reaction was proposed.

Keywords: block copolymers, maghnite, montmorillonite, poly(e-caprolactone)

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2022 Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Patients’ Disposition Holding Time from Emergency Department to Ward

Authors: Kamonwat Suksumek, Seeronk Prichanont

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Access block refers to the situation where Emergency Department (ED) patients requiring hospital admission spend an unreasonable holding time in an ED because their access to a ward is blocked by the full utilization of the ward’s beds. Not only it delays the proper treatments required by the patients, but access block is also the cause of ED’s overcrowding. Clearly, access block is an inter-departmental problem that needs to be brought to management’s attention. This paper focuses on the analysis of strategies to address the access block problem, both in the operational and intermediate levels. These strategies were analyzed through a simulation model with a real data set from a university hospital in Thailand. The paper suggests suitable variable levels for each strategy so that the management will make the final decisions.

Keywords: access block, emergency department, health system analysis, simulation

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2021 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni

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In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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2020 A Randomized Controlled Trial Study on the Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine in Supraclavicular Block Using Ultrasound Guidance

Authors: Nazia Nazir

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Background: The benefits of regional anesthetic techniques are well established. Use of additives to local anesthetics can prolong these benefits. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine for the supraclavicular block. Methods (Design): In this randomized, double-blind study, seventy ASA I & II patients of either sex undergoing elective surgeries on the upper limb were given supraclavicular block under ultrasound guidance. Group C (n=35), received 38 mL 0.25% bupivacaine + 2mL normal saline and group D received 38 mL 0.25% bupivacaine + 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (2mL). Patients were observed for onset, duration of motor and sensory block, duration of analgesia, sedation score, hemodynamic changes and any adverse events. Results: In group D the onset was faster (P < 0.001), duration of sensory and motor block, as well as duration of analgesia, was prolonged as compared to group C (P < 0.0001). There was significant drop in heart rate (HR) from the baseline in group D (P < 0.05) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, however, none of the patients dropped HR below 50/min. Mean arterial Pressure (MAP) remained unaffected. The patients in group D were effectively sedated than those in group C (P < 0.05). No adverse event was reported in either group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine as adjuvant to bupivacaine in supraclavicular block resulted in faster action, prolonged motor and sensory block, prolonged analgesia with hemodynamic stability and adequate sedation.

Keywords: Analgesia, bupivacaine, dexmedetomidine, supraclavicular block

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2019 Practical Guide To Design Dynamic Block-Type Shallow Foundation Supporting Vibrating Machine

Authors: Dodi Ikhsanshaleh

Abstract:

When subjected to dynamic load, foundation oscillates in the way that depends on the soil behaviour, the geometry and inertia of the foundation and the dynamic exctation. The practical guideline to analysis block-type foundation excitated by dynamic load from vibrating machine is presented. The analysis use Lumped Mass Parameter Method to express dynamic properties such as stiffness and damping of soil. The numerical examples are performed on design block-type foundation supporting gas turbine compressor which is important equipment package in gas processing plant

Keywords: block foundation, dynamic load, lumped mass parameter

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2018 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

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Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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2017 Bundle Block Detection Using Spectral Coherence and Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network

Authors: K. Padmavathi, K. Sri Ramakrishna

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This study describes a procedure for the detection of Left and Right Bundle Branch Block (LBBB and RBBB) ECG patterns using spectral Coherence(SC) technique and LM Neural Network. The Coherence function finds common frequencies between two signals and evaluate the similarity of the two signals. The QT variations of Bundle Blocks are observed in lead V1 of ECG. Spectral Coherence technique uses Welch method for calculating PSD. For the detection of normal and Bundle block beats, SC output values are given as the input features for the LMNN classifier. Overall accuracy of LMNN classifier is 99.5 percent. The data was collected from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Keywords: bundle block, SC, LMNN classifier, welch method, PSD, MIT-BIH, arrhythmia database

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2016 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2015 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh

Abstract:

Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. The polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition, the step over and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
2014 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü

Abstract:

Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 82