Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Yasunori Sumi

16 Comparing the Gap Formation around Composite Restorations in Three Regions of Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Yasushi Shimada, Yuan Zhou, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami


Background and Purpose: Swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric imaging technique that has been recently used in cariology. In spite of progress made in adhesive dentistry, the composite restoration has been failing due to secondary caries which occur due to environmental factors in oral cavities. Therefore, a precise assessment to effective marginal sealing of restoration is highly required. The aim of this study was evaluating gap formation at composite/cavity walls interface with or without phosphoric acid etching using SS-OCT. Materials and Methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in three locations, mid-coronal, cervical, and root of bovine incisors teeth in two groups (SE and PA Groups). While self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for the both groups, Group PA had been already pretreated with phosphoric acid etching (K-Etchant gel). Subsequently, both groups were restored by Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin. Following 5000 thermal cycles, three cross-sectionals were obtained from each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength at 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the average percentage of gap length was calculated using image analysis software, and the difference of mean between both groups was statistically analyzed by t-test. Subsequently, the results were confirmed by sectioning and observing representative specimens under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Results: The results showed that pretreatment with phosphoric acid etching, Group PA, led to significantly bigger gaps in mid-coronal and cervical compared to SE group, while in the root cavity no significant difference was observed between both groups. On the other hand, the gaps formed in root’s cavities were significantly bigger than those in mid-coronal and cervical within the same group. This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid on gap length progress on the composite restorations. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap formation even in different regions of the tooth. Significance: The cervical region of tooth was more exposing to gap formation than mid-coronal region, especially when we added pre-etching treatment.

Keywords: image analysis, optical coherence tomography, phosphoric acid etching, self-etch adhesives

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15 Optical Assessment of Marginal Sealing Performance around Restorations Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Yasushi Shimada, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami


Background and purpose: The resin composite has become the main material for the restorations of caries in recent years due to aesthetic characteristics, especially with the development of the adhesive techniques. The quality of adhesion to tooth structures is depending on an exchange process between inorganic tooth material and synthetic resin and a micromechanical retention promoted by resin infiltration in partially demineralized dentin. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for obtaining cross-sectional images that produce high-resolution of the biological tissue at the micron scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gap formation at adhesive/tooth interface of two-step self-etch adhesives that are preceded with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching in different regions of teeth using SS-OCT. Materials and methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in cervical part of bovine incisors teeth and divided into 2 groups (n=10): first group self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for SE group and second group treated with acid etching before applying the self-etch adhesive for PA group. Subsequently, both groups were restored with Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin and observed under OCT. Following 5000 thermal cycles, the same section was obtained again for each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the gap length was measured using image analysis software, and the statistics analysis were done between both groups using SPSS software. After that, the cavities were sectioned and observed under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to confirm the result of OCT. Results: Gaps formed at the bottom of the cavity was longer than the gap formed at the margin and dento-enamel junction in both groups. On the other hand, pre-etching treatment led to damage the DEJ regions creating longer gap. After 2 months the results showed almost progress in the gap length significantly at the bottom regions in both groups. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap lrngth in most regions of the cavity. Significance: The bottom region of tooth was more exposed to gap formation than margin and DEJ regions, The DEJ damaged with phosphoric acid treatment.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, self-etch adhesives, bottom, dento enamel junction

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14 Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Sumi, Kiichiro Hayashi


Now, the use of renewable energy power generation has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the expansion support policy of photovoltaic power generation which was researched using The internet and the amount of resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using the NEDO formula in the municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no consideration of the amount of resources. We think it would need to consider the suitability between the policies and resources.

Keywords: photovoltaic power generation, dissemination and support policy, amount of resources, Japan

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13 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai


The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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12 Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

Authors: Sumi Manjipparambil Surendran, Subrata Majumdar


Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.

Keywords: pregnancy, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, PAPP-A, fetal growth restriction, trimester

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11 High Efficiency ZPS-PWM Dual-Output Converters with EMI Reduction Method

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


In this paper, we study a Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) controlled Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters. This method can meet the industry demands for high efficiency due to ZVS and small size and low cost, thanks to single-inductor per multiple voltages. We show the single inductor single-output (SISO) ZVS buck converter with its operation and simulation and then the experimental results. Next proposed ZVS-PWM controlled SIDO converters are explained in the simulation. Finally we have proposed EMI reduction method with spread spectrum.

Keywords: DC-DC switching converter, zero-oltage switching control, single-inductor dual-output converter, EMI reduction, spread spectrum

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10 Single-Inductor Multi-Output Converters with Four-Level Output Voltages

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Murong Li, Feng Zhao, Shu Wu, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors with capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the average of LED current of 350 mA.

Keywords: DC-DC buck converter, four-level output voltage, single inductor multi output (SIMO), switching converter

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9 Column Studies on Chromium(VI) Adsorption onto Kala Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seed Powder

Authors: Sumi Deka, Krishna Gopal Bhattacharyya


This paper evaluate the industrial use of Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed powder (KSP) for the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI) in a column adsorption process. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Kala jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed Powder have been examined with the variation of (a) bed depth of the adsorbents, (b) flow rate of the adsorbents and (c) Cr(VI) concentration. The results showed that both the adsorption and the regeneration of the Cr(VI) onto Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) seed Powder (KSP) can effectively occur in the column mode of adsorption. On increasing the bed depth, the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto KSP increases whereas on increasing the flow rate and the Cr(VI) concentration of KSP adsorption decreases. The results of the column studies were also fitted to Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model. The BDST model was appropriate for designing the column for industrial purpose.

Keywords: bed-depth-service-time, continuous adsorption, Cr(VI), KSP

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8 Biosocial Determinants of Maternal and Child Health in Northeast India: A Case Study

Authors: Benrithung Murry


This paper highlights the biosocial determinants of health-seeking behavior in tribal population groups of northeast India, focusing on maternal and child health. The northeastern region of India is a conglomeration of several ethnic groups, most of which are scheduled as tribal groups. A total of 750 ever-married women in reproductive ages (15-49 years) were interviewed from three tribal groups of Nagaland, India using pre-tested and modified maternal health schedule. Data pertaining to reproductive performance of the mothers and their children health status were collected from 12 villages of Dimapur district, Nagaland, India. The sample for study comprises 212 Angami women, 267 Ao women, and 271 Sumi women, all of which belonging to tribal populations of Northeast India. Sex ratios of 15-49 years in these three populations are 1018.18, 1086.69, and 1106.92, respectively. 90% of the populations in the study are nuclear families, with about 10% of households falling below the poverty line as per the cutoffs for India. Female literacy level in these population groups is higher than the national average of 65.46%; however, about 30% of all married women are not engaged in any sort of earnings. Total fertility rates of these populations are alarming (Total Fertility Rate ≥ 6) and far from replacement fertility level, while infant mortality rates are found to be much lower than the national average of 34 per 1000. The perception and practice of maternal health in this region is unimpressive despite the availability of medical amenities. Only 3 % of mothers in the study have reported 4 times antenatal checkups during last two pregnancies. Other mothers have reported 1 to 3 times of antenatal checkups, but about 25% of them never visited a doctor during the entire pregnancy period. About 15% of mothers never took tetanus injection, while 40% of mothers never took iron folic supplements during pregnancy. Almost half of all women and their husbands do not use birth control measures even for the spacing of children, which has an immense impact on prenatal mortality mainly due to deliberate abortions: the percentage of prenatal mortality among Angami, Ao and Sumi populations is 44.88, 31.88 and 54.98, respectively per 1000 live births. The steep decline in fertility levels in most countries is a consequence of the increasing use of modern methods of contraception. However, among users of birth control measures in these populations, it is seen that most couples use it only after they have the desired number of children, thus its use having no substantial influence in reducing fertility. It is also seen that the majority of the children were only partially vaccinated. With many child deliveries being done at home, many newborns are not administered with polio at birth. Two-third of all children do not have complete basic immunization against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, bacillus, and hepatitis besides others. Certain adherence to traditional beliefs and customs apart from the socio-economic factors is believed to have been operating in these populations, which determines their health-seeking behavior. While a more in-depth study combining biological, socio-cultural, economic, and genetic factors is suggested, there is an urgent need for intervention in these populations to combat with the poor maternal and child health status.

Keywords: case study, health behavior, mother and child, northeast india

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7 Electrolytic Capacitor-Less Transformer-Less AC-DC LED Driver with Current Ripple Canceller

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Li Quan, Shu Wu, Nizam Mohyar, Zachary Nosker, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors which capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the typical current of 350 mA. We are now making the proposed circuit on a universal board in order to measure the experimental characteristics.

Keywords: LED driver, electrolytic, capacitor-less, AC-DC converter, buck-boost converter, current ripple canceller

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6 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

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5 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based on Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system, and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: First experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; second experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics

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4 An Explanatory Study Approach Using Artificial Intelligence to Forecast Solar Energy Outcome

Authors: Agada N. Ihuoma, Nagata Yasunori


Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques play a crucial role in predicting the expected energy outcome and its performance, analysis, modeling, and control of renewable energy. Renewable energy is becoming more popular for economic and environmental reasons. In the face of global energy consumption and increased depletion of most fossil fuels, the world is faced with the challenges of meeting the ever-increasing energy demands. Therefore, incorporating artificial intelligence to predict solar radiation outcomes from the intermittent sunlight is crucial to enable a balance between supply and demand of energy on loads, predict the performance and outcome of solar energy, enhance production planning and energy management, and ensure proper sizing of parameters when generating clean energy. However, one of the major problems of forecasting is the algorithms used to control, model, and predict performances of the energy systems, which are complicated and involves large computer power, differential equations, and time series. Also, having unreliable data (poor quality) for solar radiation over a geographical location as well as insufficient long series can be a bottleneck to actualization. To overcome these problems, this study employs the anaconda Navigator (Jupyter Notebook) for machine learning which can combine larger amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features to predict the performance and outcome of Solar Energy which in turns enables the balance of supply and demand on loads as well as enhance production planning and energy management.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, backward elimination, linear regression, solar energy

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3 Determination of Anti-Fungal Activity of Cedrus deodara Oil against Oligoporus placentus, Trametes versicolor and Xylaria acuminata on Populus deltoids

Authors: Sauradipta Ganguly, Akhato Sumi, Sanjeet Kumar Hom, Ajan T. Lotha


Populus deltoides is a hardwood used predominantly for the manufacturing of plywood, matchsticks, and paper in India and hence has a higher economical significance. Wood-decaying fungi cause serious damage to Populus deltoides products, as the wood itself is perishable and vulnerable to decaying agents, decreasing their aesthetical value which in return results in significant monetary loss for the wood industries concerned. The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal activity of Cedrus deodara oil against three primary wood-decaying fungi namely white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor), brown-rot fungi (Oligoporus placentus) and soft-rot fungi (Xylaria acuminata) on Populus deltoides samples under optimum laboratory conditions. The susceptibility of Populus deltoides samples on the fungal attack and the ability of deodar oil to control colonization of the wood rotting fungi on the samples were assessed. Three concentrations of deodar oil were considered for the study as treating solutions, i.e., 4%, 5%, and 6%. The Populus deltoides samples were treated with treating solutions, and the ability of the same to prevent a fungal attack on the samples were assessed using accelerated test in the laboratory at Biochemical Oxygen Demand incubator at temperature (25 ± 2°C) and relative humidity 70 ± 4%. Efficacy test and statistical analysis of deodar oil against Trametes versicolor, Oligoporus placentus, and Xylariaacuminataon P. deltoides samples exhibited light, minor and negligible mycelia growth at 4 %, 5% and 6% concentrations of deodar oil, respectively. Whereas, moderate to heavy attack was observed on the surface of the control samples. Statistical analysis further established that the treatments were statistically significant and had significantly inhibited fungal growth of all the three fungus spp by almost 3 to 5 times.

Keywords: populus deltoides, Trametes versicolor, Oligoporus placentus, Xylaria acuminata, Deodar oil, treatment

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2 Developing Sustainable Rammed Earth Material Using Pulp Mill Fly Ash as Cement Replacement

Authors: Amin Ajabi, Chinchu Cherian, Sumi Siddiqua


Rammed earth (RE) is a traditional soil-based building material made by compressing a mixture of natural earth and binder ingredients such as chalk or lime, in temporary formworks. However, the modern RE uses 5 to 10% cement as a binder in order to meet the strength and durability requirements as per the standard specifications and guidelines. RE construction is considered to be an energy-efficient and environmental-friendly approach when compared to conventional concrete systems, which use 20 to 30% cement. The present study aimed to develop RE mix designs by utilizing non-hazardous wood-based fly ash generated by pulp and paper mills as a partial replacement for cement. The pulp mill fly ash (PPFA)-stabilized RE is considered to be a sustainable approach keeping in view of the massive carbon footprints associated with cement production as well as the adverse environmental impacts due to disposal of PPFA in landfills. For the experimental study, as-received PPFA, as well as PPFA-based geopolymer (synthesized by alkaline activation method), were incorporated as cement substitutes in the RE mixtures. Initially, local soil was collected and characterized by index and engineering properties. The PPFA was procured from a pulp manufacturing mill, and its physicochemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization, as well as environmental impact assessment, was conducted. Further, the various mix designs of RE material incorporating local soil and different proportions of cement, PPFA, and alkaline activator (a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions) were developed. The compacted RE specimens were cured and tested for 7-day and 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) variations. Based on UCS results, the optimum mix design was identified corresponding to maximum strength improvement. Further, the cured RE specimens were subjected to freeze-thaw cycle testing for evaluating its performance and durability as a sustainable construction technique under extreme climatic conditions.

Keywords: sustainability, rammed earth, stabilization, pulp mill fly ash, geopolymer, alkaline activation, strength, durability

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1 Remote BioMonitoring of Mothers and Newborns for Temperature Surveillance Using a Smart Wearable Sensor: Techno-Feasibility Study and Clinical Trial in Southern India

Authors: Prem K. Mony, Bharadwaj Amrutur, Prashanth Thankachan, Swarnarekha Bhat, Suman Rao, Maryann Washington, Annamma Thomas, N. Sheela, Hiteshwar Rao, Sumi Antony


The disease burden among mothers and newborns is caused mostly by a handful of avoidable conditions occurring around the time of childbirth and within the first month following delivery. Real-time monitoring of vital parameters of mothers and neonates offers a potential opportunity to impact access as well as the quality of care in vulnerable populations. We describe the design, development and testing of an innovative wearable device for remote biomonitoring (RBM) of body temperatures in mothers and neonates in a hospital in southern India. The architecture consists of: [1] a low-cost, wearable sensor tag; [2] a gateway device for ‘real-time’ communication link; [3] piggy-backing on a commercial GSM communication network; and [4] an algorithm-based data analytics system. Requirements for the device were: long battery-life upto 28 days (with sampling frequency 5/hr); robustness; IP 68 hermetic sealing; and human-centric design. We undertook pre-clinical laboratory testing followed by clinical trial phases I & IIa for evaluation of safety and efficacy in the following sequence: seven healthy adult volunteers; 18 healthy mothers; and three sets of babies – 3 healthy babies; 10 stable babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and 1 baby with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). The 3-coin thickness, pebble-design sensor weighing about 8 gms was secured onto the abdomen for the baby and over the upper arm for adults. In the laboratory setting, the response-time of the sensor device to attain thermal equilibrium with the surroundings was 4 minutes vis-a-vis 3 minutes observed with a precision-grade digital thermometer used as a reference standard. The accuracy was ±0.1°C of the reference standard within the temperature range of 25-40°C. The adult volunteers, aged 20 to 45 years, contributed a total of 345 hours of readings over a 7-day period and the postnatal mothers provided a total of 403 paired readings. The mean skin temperatures measured in the adults by the sensor were about 2°C lower than the axillary temperature readings (sensor =34.1 vs digital = 36.1); this difference was statistically significant (t-test=13.8; p<0.001). The healthy neonates provided a total of 39 paired readings; the mean difference in temperature was 0.13°C (sensor =36.9 vs digital = 36.7; p=0.2). The neonates in the NICU provided a total of 130 paired readings. Their mean skin temperature measured by the sensor was 0.6°C lower than that measured by the radiant warmer probe (sensor =35.9 vs warmer probe = 36.5; p < 0.001). The neonate with HIE provided a total of 25 paired readings with the mean sensor reading being not different from the radian warmer probe reading (sensor =33.5 vs warmer probe = 33.5; p=0.8). No major adverse events were noted in both the adults and neonates; four adult volunteers reported mild sweating under the device/arm band and one volunteer developed mild skin allergy. This proof-of-concept study shows that real-time monitoring of temperatures is technically feasible and that this innovation appears to be promising in terms of both safety and accuracy (with appropriate calibration) for improved maternal and neonatal health.

Keywords: public health, remote biomonitoring, temperature surveillance, wearable sensors, mothers and newborns

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