Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15532

Search results for: method of moments

15532 Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: Rafid Saeed Abdulrazak Alshkaki

Abstract:

In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.

Keywords: zero one inflated models, negative binomial distribution, moments estimator, non negative integer sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
15531 Video Text Information Detection and Localization in Lecture Videos Using Moments

Authors: Belkacem Soundes, Guezouli Larbi

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust and accurate method for text detection and localization over lecture videos. Frame regions are classified into text or background based on visual feature analysis. However, lecture video shows significant degradation mainly related to acquisition conditions, camera motion and environmental changes resulting in low quality videos. Hence, affecting feature extraction and description efficiency. Moreover, traditional text detection methods cannot be directly applied to lecture videos. Therefore, robust feature extraction methods dedicated to this specific video genre are required for robust and accurate text detection and extraction. Method consists of a three-step process: Slide region detection and segmentation; Feature extraction and non-text filtering. For robust and effective features extraction moment functions are used. Two distinct types of moments are used: orthogonal and non-orthogonal. For orthogonal Zernike Moments, both Pseudo Zernike moments are used, whereas for non-orthogonal ones Hu moments are used. Expressivity and description efficiency are given and discussed. Proposed approach shows that in general, orthogonal moments show high accuracy in comparison to the non-orthogonal one. Pseudo Zernike moments are more effective than Zernike with better computation time.

Keywords: text detection, text localization, lecture videos, pseudo zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
15530 Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments

Authors: Fatima Akhmedova, Simon Liao

Abstract:

One of the most critical decision points in the design of a face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation. Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant and non-redundant facial information. In this work, we propose a set of Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, non-redundancy and the ability to extract features either globally and locally. To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection. Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.

Keywords: face recognition, Hahn moments, recognition-by-parts, time-lapse

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
15529 Spectral Domain Fast Multipole Method for Solving Integral Equations of One and Two Dimensional Wave Scattering

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Dayalan Kasilingam

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral domain implementation of the fast multipole method is presented. It is shown that the aggregation, translation, and disaggregation stages of the fast multipole method (FMM) can be performed using the spectral domain (SD) analysis. The spectral domain fast multipole method (SD-FMM) has the advantage of eliminating the near field/far field classification used in conventional FMM formulation. The study focuses on the application of SD-FMM to one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electric field integral equation (EFIE). The case of perfectly conducting strip, circular and square cylinders are numerically analyzed and compared with the results from the standard method of moments (MoM).

Keywords: electric field integral equation, fast multipole method, method of moments, wave scattering, spectral domain

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15528 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

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15527 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

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15526 An Accurate Computation of 2D Zernike Moments via Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Rawi, J. Bastos, J. Rodriguez

Abstract:

Object detection and object recognition are essential components of every computer vision system. Despite the high computational complexity and other problems related to numerical stability and accuracy, Zernike moments of 2D images (ZMs) have shown resilience when used in object recognition and have been used in various image analysis applications. In this work, we propose a novel method for computing ZMs via Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Notably, this is the first algorithm that can generate ZMs up to extremely high orders accurately, e.g., it can be used to generate ZMs for orders up to 1000 or even higher. Furthermore, the proposed method is also simpler and faster than the other methods due to the availability of FFT software and/or hardware. The accuracies and numerical stability of ZMs computed via FFT have been confirmed using the orthogonality property. We also introduce normalizing ZMs with Neumann factor when the image is embedded in a larger grid, and color image reconstruction based on RGB normalization of the reconstructed images. Astonishingly, higher-order image reconstruction experiments show that the proposed methods are superior, both quantitatively and subjectively, compared to the q-recursive method.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, fourier transform, fast algorithms, image recognition, pseudo Zernike moments, Zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
15525 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation

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15524 Determining the Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient for Armchair Polyhex BN Nanotubes Using Topological Indices

Authors: Esmat Mohammadinasab

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate theoretically and establish a predictive model for determination LogP of armchair polyhex BN nanotubes by using simple descriptors. The relationship between the octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP) and quantum chemical descriptors, electric moments, and topological indices of some armchair polyhex BN nanotubes with various lengths and fixed circumference are represented. Based on density functional theory (DFT) electric moments and physico-chemical properties of those nanotubes are calculated. The DFT method performed based on the Becke’s 3-parameter formulation with the Lee-Yang-Parr functional (B3LYP) method and 3-21G standard basis sets. For the first time, the relationship between partition coefficient and different properties of polyhex BN nanotubes is investigated.

Keywords: topological indices, quantum descriptors, DFT method, nanotubes

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15523 Human Gait Recognition Using Moment with Fuzzy

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, Navneet Manjhi, M. K.Gupta, Bimi Jain

Abstract:

A reliable gait features are required to extract the gait sequences from an images. In this paper suggested a simple method for gait identification which is based on moments. Moment values are extracted on different number of frames of gray scale and silhouette images of CASIA database. These moment values are considered as feature values. Fuzzy logic and nearest neighbour classifier are used for classification. Both achieved higher recognition.

Keywords: gait, fuzzy logic, nearest neighbour, recognition rate, moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
15522 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, statistical moments, indexing, similarity distance, histograms intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
15521 A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors

Authors: Nicolay Zarutskiy, Roman Bulkin

Abstract:

The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality.

Keywords: automation, calibration, calibration device, calibration method, force-torque sensors

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15520 Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components

Authors: Prodromos E. Atlamazoglou

Abstract:

The method of moments combined with the method of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents, which are simply related to the conduction current distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration. Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between the antennas.

Keywords: hyperthermia, integral equations, insulated antennas, method of symmetrical components

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15519 Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis For Meteorological Sub-Division 4 Of India Using L-Moments.

Authors: Arti Devi, Parthasarthi Choudhury

Abstract:

Extreme rainfall frequency analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India was analysed using L-moments approach. Serial Correlation and Mann Kendall tests were conducted for checking serially independent and stationarity of the observations. The discordancy measure for the sites was conducted to detect the discordant sites. The regional homogeneity was tested by comparing with 500 generated homogeneous regions using a 4 parameter Kappa distribution. The best fit distribution was selected based on ZDIST statistics and L-moments ratio diagram from the five extreme value distributions GPD, GLO, GEV, P3 and LP3. The LN3 distribution was selected and regional rainfall frequency relationship was established using index-rainfall procedure. A regional mean rainfall relationship was developed using multiple linear regression with latitude and longitude of the sites as variables.

Keywords: L-moments, ZDIST statistics, serial correlation, Mann Kendall test

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15518 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam

Abstract:

A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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15517 The Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution: Properties and Applications

Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh

Abstract:

In this paper, a new four-parameter univariate continuous distribution called the Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution (NGHS) is defined and studied. Some general and structural distributional properties are investigated and discussed, including: central and non-central n-th moments and incomplete moments, quantile and generating functions, hazard function, Rényi and Shannon entropies, shapes: skewed right, skewed left, and symmetric, modality regions: unimodal and bimodal, maximum likelihood (MLE) estimators for the parameters. Finally, two real data sets are used to demonstrate empirically its flexibility and prove the strength of the new distribution.

Keywords: bimodality, estimation, hazard function, moments, Shannon’s entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
15516 A Fuzzy Approach to Liver Tumor Segmentation with Zernike Moments

Authors: Abder-Rahman Ali, Antoine Vacavant, Manuel Grand-Brochier, Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi, Jean-Yves Boire

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new segmentation approach for liver lesions in regions of interest within MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). This approach, based on a two-cluster Fuzzy C-Means methodology, considers the parameter variable compactness to handle uncertainty. Fine boundaries are detected by a local recursive merging of ambiguous pixels with a sequential forward floating selection with Zernike moments. The method has been tested on both synthetic and real images. When applied on synthetic images, the proposed approach provides good performance, segmentations obtained are accurate, their shape is consistent with the ground truth, and the extracted information is reliable. The results obtained on MR images confirm such observations. Our approach allows, even for difficult cases of MR images, to extract a segmentation with good performance in terms of accuracy and shape, which implies that the geometry of the tumor is preserved for further clinical activities (such as automatic extraction of pharmaco-kinetics properties, lesion characterization, etc).

Keywords: defuzzification, floating search, fuzzy clustering, Zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
15515 Refined Procedures for Second Order Asymptotic Theory

Authors: Gubhinder Kundhi, Paul Rilstone

Abstract:

Refined procedures for higher-order asymptotic theory for non-linear models are developed. These include a new method for deriving stochastic expansions of arbitrary order, new methods for evaluating the moments of polynomials of sample averages, a new method for deriving the approximate moments of the stochastic expansions; an application of these techniques to gather improved inferences with the weak instruments problem is considered. It is well established that Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators in the presence of weak instruments can be poorly behaved, in particular, be quite biased in finite samples. In our application, finite sample approximations to the distributions of these estimators are obtained using Edgeworth and Saddlepoint expansions. Departures from normality of the distributions of these estimators are analyzed using higher order analytical corrections in these expansions. In a Monte-Carlo experiment, the performance of these expansions is compared to the first order approximation and other methods commonly used in finite samples such as the bootstrap.

Keywords: edgeworth expansions, higher order asymptotics, saddlepoint expansions, weak instruments

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15514 A Novel Breast Cancer Detection Algorithm Using Point Region Growing Segmentation and Pseudo-Zernike Moments

Authors: Aileen F. Wang

Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, mammography misses about 17% and up to 30% of breast cancers due to the subtle and unstable appearances of breast cancer in their early stages. Recent computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) technology using Zernike moments has improved detection accuracy. However, it has several drawbacks: it uses manual segmentation, Zernike moments are not robust, and it still has a relatively high false negative rate (FNR)–17.6%. This project will focus on the development of a novel breast cancer detection algorithm to automatically segment the breast mass and further reduce FNR. The algorithm consists of automatic segmentation of a single breast mass using Point Region Growing Segmentation, reconstruction of the segmented breast mass using Pseudo-Zernike moments, and classification of the breast mass using the root mean square (RMS). A comparative study among the various algorithms on the segmentation and reconstruction of breast masses was performed on randomly selected mammographic images. The results demonstrated that the newly developed algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness. More importantly, the new classifier RMS has the lowest FNR–6%.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, mammography, point region growing segmentation, pseudo-zernike moments, root mean square

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
15513 Reliability Levels of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Obtained by Mixing Approaches

Authors: Adrián D. García-Soto, Alejandro Hernández-Martínez, Jesús G. Valdés-Vázquez, Reyna A. Vizguerra-Alvarez

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete bridges designed by code are intended to achieve target reliability levels adequate for the geographical environment where the code is applicable. Several methods can be used to estimate such reliability levels. Many of them require the establishment of an explicit limit state function (LSF). When such LSF is not available as a close-form expression, the simulation techniques are often employed. The simulation methods are computing intensive and time consuming. Note that if the reliability of real bridges designed by code is of interest, numerical schemes, the finite element method (FEM) or computational mechanics could be required. In these cases, it can be quite difficult (or impossible) to establish a close-form of the LSF, and the simulation techniques may be necessary to compute reliability levels. To overcome the need for a large number of simulations when no explicit LSF is available, the point estimate method (PEM) could be considered as an alternative. It has the advantage that only the probabilistic moments of the random variables are required. However, in the PEM, fitting of the resulting moments of the LSF to a probability density function (PDF) is needed. In the present study, a very simple alternative which allows the assessment of the reliability levels when no explicit LSF is available and without the need of extensive simulations is employed. The alternative includes the use of the PEM, and its applicability is shown by assessing reliability levels of reinforced concrete bridges in Mexico when a numerical scheme is required. Comparisons with results by using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique are included. To overcome the problem of approximating the probabilistic moments from the PEM to a PDF, a well-known distribution is employed. The approach mixes the PEM and other classic reliability method (first order reliability method, FORM). The results in the present study are in good agreement whit those computed with the MCS. Therefore, the alternative of mixing the reliability methods is a very valuable option to determine reliability levels when no close form of the LSF is available, or if numerical schemes, the FEM or computational mechanics are employed.

Keywords: structural reliability, reinforced concrete bridges, combined approach, point estimate method, monte carlo simulation

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15512 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
15511 A Methodology for Characterising the Tail Behaviour of a Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Yishan Zang

Abstract:

Following a review of various approaches that are utilized for classifying the tail behavior of a distribution, an easily implementable methodology that relies on an arctangent transformation is presented. The classification criterion is actually based on the difference between two specific quantiles of the transformed distribution. The resulting categories enable one to classify distributional tails as distinctly short, short, nearly medium, medium, extended medium and somewhat long, providing that at least two moments exist. Distributions possessing a single moment are said to be long tailed while those failing to have any finite moments are classified as having an extremely long tail. Several illustrative examples will be presented.

Keywords: arctangent transformation, tail classification, heavy-tailed distributions, distributional moments

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15510 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo

Abstract:

This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element method, plates, static analysis

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15509 An Improved Amplified Sway Method for Semi-Rigidly Jointed Sway Frames

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho

Abstract:

A simple method of calculating satisfactory of the effect of instability on the distribution of in-plane bending moments in unbraced semi-rigidly multistory steel framed structures is presented in this paper. This method, which is a modified form of the current amplified sway method of BS5950: part1:2000, uses an approximate load factor at elastic instability in each storey of a frame which in turn dependent up on the axial loads acting in the columns. The calculated factors are then used to represent the geometrical deformations due to the presence of axial loads, acting in that storey. Only a first order elastic analysis is required to accomplish the calculation. Comparison of the prediction of the proposed method and the current BS5950 amplified sway method with an accurate second order elastic computation shows that the proposed method leads to predictions which are markedly more accurate than the current approach of BS5950.

Keywords: improved amplified sway method, steel frames, semi-rigid connections, secondary effects

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15508 Speeding-up Gray-Scale FIC by Moments

Authors: Eman A. Al-Hilo, Hawraa H. Al-Waelly

Abstract:

In this work, fractal compression (FIC) technique is introduced based on using moment features to block indexing the zero-mean range-domain blocks. The moment features have been used to speed up the IFS-matching stage. Its moments ratio descriptor is used to filter the domain blocks and keep only the blocks that are suitable to be IFS matched with tested range block. The results of tests conducted on Lena picture and Cat picture (256 pixels, resolution 24 bits/pixel) image showed a minimum encoding time (0.89 sec for Lena image and 0.78 of Cat image) with appropriate PSNR (30.01dB for Lena image and 29.8 of Cat image). The reduction in ET is about 12% for Lena and 67% for Cat image.

Keywords: fractal gray level image, fractal compression technique, iterated function system, moments feature, zero-mean range-domain block

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15507 Rectenna Modeling Based on MoM-GEC Method for RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Soulayma Smirani, Mourad Aidi, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

Energy harvesting has arisen as a prominent research area for low power delivery to RF devices. Rectennas have become a key element in this technology. In this paper, electromagnetic modeling of a rectenna system is presented. In our approach, a hybrid technique was demonstrated to associate both the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and MoM-GEC (the method of moments combined with the generalized equivalent circuit technique). Auxiliary sources were used in order to substitute specific electronic devices. Therefore, a simple and controllable model is obtained. Also, it can easily be interconnected to form different topologies of rectenna arrays for more energy harvesting. At last, simulation results show the feasibility and simplicity of the proposed rectenna model with high precision and computation efficiency.

Keywords: computational electromagnetics, MoM-GEC method, rectennas, RF energy harvesting

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15506 Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking

Authors: Salam M. Elhafez, Ahmed A. Ashour, Naglaa M. Elhafez, Ghada M. Elhafez, Azza M. Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.

Keywords: gait analysis, ground reaction force, moment contribution, normal walking

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15505 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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15504 Polynomially Adjusted Bivariate Density Estimates Based on the Saddlepoint Approximation

Authors: S. B. Provost, Susan Sheng

Abstract:

An alternative bivariate density estimation methodology is introduced in this presentation. The proposed approach involves estimating the density function associated with the marginal distribution of each of the two variables by means of the saddlepoint approximation technique and applying a bivariate polynomial adjustment to the product of these density estimates. Since the saddlepoint approximation is utilized in the context of density estimation, such estimates are determined from empirical cumulant-generating functions. In the univariate case, the saddlepoint density estimate is itself adjusted by a polynomial. Given a set of observations, the coefficients of the polynomial adjustments are obtained from the sample moments. Several illustrative applications of the proposed methodology shall be presented. Since this approach relies essentially on a determinate number of sample moments, it is particularly well suited for modeling massive data sets.

Keywords: density estimation, empirical cumulant-generating function, moments, saddlepoint approximation

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15503 Electromagnetic Modeling of a MESFET Transistor Using the Moments Method Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Takoua Soltani, Imen Soltani, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

The communications' and radar systems' demands give rise to new developments in the domain of active integrated antennas (AIA) and arrays. The main advantages of AIA arrays are the simplicity of fabrication, low cost of manufacturing, and the combination between free space power and the scanner without a phase shifter. The integrated active antenna modeling is the coupling between the electromagnetic model and the transport model that will be affected in the high frequencies. Global modeling of active circuits is important for simulating EM coupling, interaction between active devices and the EM waves, and the effects of EM radiation on active and passive components. The current review focuses on the modeling of the active element which is a MESFET transistor immersed in a rectangular waveguide. The proposed EM analysis is based on the Method of Moments combined with the Generalised Equivalent Circuit method (MOM-GEC). The Method of Moments which is the most common and powerful software as numerical techniques have been used in resolving the electromagnetic problems. In the class of numerical techniques, MOM is the dominant technique in solving of Maxwell and Transport’s integral equations for an active integrated antenna. In this situation, the equivalent circuit is introduced to the development of an integral method formulation based on the transposition of field problems in a Generalised equivalent circuit that is simpler to treat. The method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit (MGEC) was suggested in order to represent integral equations circuits that describe the unknown electromagnetic boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit presents a true electric image of the studied structures for describing the discontinuity and its environment. The aim of our developed method is to investigate the antenna parameters such as the input impedance and the current density distribution and the electric field distribution. In this work, we propose a global EM modeling of the MESFET AsGa transistor using an integral method. We will begin by describing the modeling structure that allows defining an equivalent EM scheme translating the electromagnetic equations considered. Secondly, the projection of these equations on common-type test functions leads to a linear matrix equation where the unknown variable represents the amplitudes of the current density. Solving this equation resulted in providing the input impedance, the distribution of the current density and the electric field distribution. From electromagnetic calculations, we were able to present the convergence of input impedance for different test function number as a function of the guide mode numbers. This paper presents a pilot study to find the answer to map out the variation of the existing current evaluated by the MOM-GEC. The essential improvement of our method is reducing computing time and memory requirements in order to provide a sufficient global model of the MESFET transistor.

Keywords: active integrated antenna, current density, input impedance, MESFET transistor, MOM-GEC method

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