Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: greedy snake

76 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani


In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network

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75 Objects Tracking in Catadioptric Images Using Spherical Snake

Authors: Khald Anisse, Amina Radgui, Mohammed Rziza


Tracking objects on video sequences is a very challenging task in many works in computer vision applications. However, there is no article that treats this topic in catadioptric vision. This paper is an attempt that tries to describe a new approach of omnidirectional images processing based on inverse stereographic projection in the half-sphere. We used the spherical model proposed by Gayer and al. For object tracking, our work is based on snake method, with optimization using the Greedy algorithm, by adapting its different operators. The algorithm will respect the deformed geometries of omnidirectional images such as spherical neighborhood, spherical gradient and reformulation of optimization algorithm on the spherical domain. This tracking method that we call "spherical snake" permitted to know the change of the shape and the size of object in different replacements in the spherical image.

Keywords: computer vision, spherical snake, omnidirectional image, object tracking, inverse stereographic projection

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74 A Novel Exploration/Exploitation Policy Accelerating Learning In Both Stationary And Non Stationary Environment Navigation Tasks

Authors: Wiem Zemzem, Moncef Tagina


In this work, we are addressing the problem of an autonomous mobile robot navigating in a large, unknown and dynamic environment using reinforcement learning abilities. This problem is principally related to the exploration/exploitation dilemma, especially the need to find a solution letting the robot detect the environmental change and also learn in order to adapt to the new environmental form without ignoring knowledge already acquired. Firstly, a new action selection strategy, called ε-greedy-MPA (the ε-greedy policy favoring the most promising actions) is proposed. Unlike existing exploration/exploitation policies (EEPs) such as ε-greedy and Boltzmann, the new EEP doesn’t only rely on the information of the actual state but also uses those of the eventual next states. Secondly, as the environment is large, an exploration favoring least recently visited states is added to the proposed EEP in order to accelerate learning. Finally, various simulations with ball-catching problem have been conducted to evaluate the ε-greedy-MPA policy. The results of simulated experiments show that combining this policy with the Qlearning method is more effective and efficient compared with the ε-greedy policy in stationary environments and the utility-based reinforcement learning approach in non stationary environments.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robot, exploration/ exploitation policy, large, dynamic environment, reinforcement learning

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73 Anti-Angiogenic Effects of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snake Crude Venom and Obtustatin

Authors: Narine Ghazaryan, Joana Catarina Macedo, Sara Vaz, Naira Ayvazyan, Elsa Logarinho


Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) is a poisonous snake in Armenia. Obtustatin represents the shortest known monomeric disintegrin, isolated from the snake venom of MLO, and is known to specifically inhibit α1β1 integrin. Its oncostatic effect is due to the inhibition of angiogenesis, which likely arises from α1β1 integrin inhibition in the endothelial cells. To explore the therapeutic potential of the MLO snake venom and obtustatin, we studied activity of obtustatin and MLO venom in vitro, by testing their efficacy in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) and in vivo, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Our in vitro results showed that obtustatin in comparison with MLO venom did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in HMVEC-D cells in comparison to MLO venom. But in vivo results have shown that 4µg /embryo (90 µM) of obtustatin inhibited angiogenesis induced by FGF2 by 17% while MLO snake venom induced 22% reduction of the angiogenic index. The concentration of obtustatin in the crude MLO venom was 0.3 nM, which is 300.000 times less than the concentration of the obtustatin itself. Given this enormous difference in concentration, it is likely that some components of the crude venom contribute to the observed anti-angiogenic effect. Hypotheses will be ascertained to justify this action: components in the MLO venom may increase obtustatin efficacy or have independent but synergic anti-angiogenic activities.

Keywords: angiogenesis, alpa1 beta 1 integrin, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, obtustatin

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72 Ultrastructure of the Tongue of the African Beauty Snake Psammophis sibilans

Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour, Neveen E. R. El-Bakary


The present work performed on the six tongues of African Beauty snake (Psammophis sibilans) that were obtained immediately after their catching, from agricultural fields, Desouk city, Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt. These collected snakes should be from any oral abnormalities or injuries. The lingual surface of the Psammophis sibilans was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface of the bifurcated apex was smoother than the lingual body. The median lingual sulcus was deep and contained a number of the taste pores. By the high magnification of SEM of each part of a bifurcated area of the lingual apex have numerous taste buds and no lingual papillae were observed. A few numbers of papillae were observed in the lingual body. The microridges and microvilli distributed in the lingual body helped in spreading of mucus over the epithelial surface. Taste pores and papillae in the tongue indicate the presence of a direct chemo-sensory function for the tongue of these snakes as the chemicals dissolved in the mucus then transferred to Jacobson organ. To conclude, the bifurcation appearance of the snake lingual tip act as a chemical or edge detector help in the process named chemo-mechano-reception.

Keywords: African beauty snake, taste buds, taste pores, tongue, papillae

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71 Gross Morphological Study on Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake

Authors: Jonnalagadda Naveen, M. P. S. Tomar, Putluru Satish, Palanisamy Dharani


Present investigation was carried out on a single specimen of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake, which accidentally came to the seashore with the fisherman’s net. After the death, these specimens was preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and observe for its morphology. The literature cited revealed that meager information was available on the anatomy of the heart of this species of snake thus present study was planned on the gross anatomy of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake. The heart of yellow-bellied sea snake was located between 28-35th rib in an oblique direction in the pericardial sac. It was three chambered with the complete division of atria but the ventricular cavity was incompletely divided. The apex did not show any gubernaculum cordis. The sinus venosus was the common cavity for confluence of anterior and posterior vana cava and the jugular vein was opened with anterior vena cava. The opening of posterior vena cava was slit-like and it was guarded by membranous valves whereas no valve could be observed at the opening of anterior vana cava and the jugular vein. Both the caval veins ran along the right border of the heart. Pulmonary vein was single which later divided into two branches. The length-width index for the atria was 1.33 whereas it was 1.67 for the ventricle. The atrioventricular canal was situated slightly towards the left of the midline of the heart and was divided into a right cavum pulmonale and left cavum arteriosum of which the right one was slightly larger and longer than the left. The cavum venosum was present in between the cavum pulmonale and the cavum arteriosum. The Ventricle was elongated triangle muscular compartment with ventrally located apex. Internally the cavity of ventricle was divided into two partial chambers dorsally by a muscular ridge and ventrally by an incomplete inter ventricular septum.

Keywords: aorta, atrium, heart, sea snake, sinus venosus, ventricle

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70 Model-Based Software Regression Test Suite Reduction

Authors: Shiwei Deng, Yang Bao


In this paper, we present a model-based regression test suite reducing approach that uses EFSM model dependence analysis and probability-driven greedy algorithm to reduce software regression test suites. The approach automatically identifies the difference between the original model and the modified model as a set of elementary model modifications. The EFSM dependence analysis is performed for each elementary modification to reduce the regression test suite, and then the probability-driven greedy algorithm is adopted to select the minimum set of test cases from the reduced regression test suite that cover all interaction patterns. Our initial experience shows that the approach may significantly reduce the size of regression test suites.

Keywords: dependence analysis, EFSM model, greedy algorithm, regression test

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69 Understanding the Dynamics of Human-Snake Negative Interactions: A Study of Indigenous Perceptions in Tamil Nadu, Southern India

Authors: Ramesh Chinnasamy, Srishti Semalty, Vishnu S. Nair, Thirumurugan Vedagiri, Mahesh Ganeshan, Gautam Talukdar, Karthy Sivapushanam, Abhijit Das


Snakes form an integral component of ecological systems. Human population explosion and associated acceleration of habitat destruction and degradation, has led to a rapid increase in human-snake encounters. The study aims at understanding the level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of the people towards human-snake negative interaction and role of awareness programmes in the Moyar river valley, Tamil Nadu. The study area is part of the Mudumalai and the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserves, which are significant wildlife corridors between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The data was collected using questionnaire covering 644 respondents spread across 18 villages between 2018 and 2019. The study revealed that 86.5% of respondents had strong negative perceptions towards snakes which were propelled by fear, superstitions, and threat of snakebite which was common and did not vary among different villages (F=4.48; p = <0.05) and age groups (X2 = 1.946; p = 0.962). Cobra 27.8% (n = 294) and rat snake 21.3% (n = 225) were the most sighted species and most snake encounter occurred during the monsoon season i.e., July 35.6 (n = 218), June 19.1% (n = 117) and August 18.4% (n = 113). At least 1 out of 5 respondents was reportedly bitten by snakes during their lifetime. The most common species of snakes that were the cause of snakebite were Saw scaled viper (32.6%, n = 42) followed by Cobra 17.1% (n = 22). About 21.3% (n = 137) people reported livestock loss due to pythons and other snakes 21.3% (n = 137). Most people, preferred medical treatment for snakebite (87.3%), whereas 12.7%, still believed in traditional methods. The majority (82.3%) used precautionary measure by keeping traditional items such as garlic, kerosene, and snake plant to avoid snakes. About 30% of the respondents expressed need for technical and monetary support from the forest department that could aid in reducing the human-snake conflict. It is concluded that the general perception in the study area is driven by fear and negative attitude towards snakes. Though snakes such as Cobra were widely worshiped in the region, there are still widespread myths and misconceptions that have led to the irrational killing of snakes. Awareness and innovative education programs rooted in the local context and language should be integrated at the village level, to minimize risk and the associated threat of snakebite among the people. Results from this study shall help policy makers to devise appropriate conservation measures to reduce human-snake conflicts in India.

Keywords: Envenomation, Health-Education, Human-Wildlife Conflict, Neglected Tropical Disease, Snakebite Mitigation, Traditional Practitioners

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68 Optimal Management of Internal Capital of Company

Authors: S. Sadallah


In this paper, dynamic programming is used to determine the optimal management of financial resources in company. Solution of the problem by consider into simpler substructures is constructed. The optimal management of internal capital of company are simulated. The tools applied in this development are based on graph theory. The software of given problems is built by using greedy algorithm. The obtained model and program maintenance enable us to define the optimal version of management of proper financial flows by using visual diagram on each level of investment.

Keywords: management, software, optimal, greedy algorithm, graph-diagram

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67 Development of the Squamate Egg Tooth on the Basis of Grass Snake Natrix natrix Studies

Authors: Mateusz Hermyt, Pawel Kaczmarek, Weronika Rupik


The egg tooth is a crucial structure during hatching of lizards and snakes. In contrast to birds, turtles, crocodiles, and monotremes, egg tooth of squamate reptiles is a true tooth sharing common features of structure and development with all the other teeth of vertebrates. The egg tooth; however, due to its function, exhibits structural differences in relation to regular teeth. External morphology seems to be important in the context of phylogenetic relationships within Squamata but up to date, there is scarce information concerning structure and development of the egg tooth at the submicroscopical level. In presented studies detailed analysis of the egg tooth development in grass snake has been performed with the usage of light (including fluorescent), transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Grass snake embryo’s heads have been used in our studies. Grass snake is common snake species occurring in most of Europe including Poland. The grass snake is characterized by the presence of single unpaired egg tooth (as in most squamates) in contrast to geckos and dibamids possessing paired egg teeth. Studies show changes occurring on the external morphology, tissue and cellular levels of differentiating egg tooth. The egg tooth during its development changes its curvature. Initially, faces directly downward and in the course of its differentiation, it gradually changes to rostro-ventral orientation. Additionally, it forms conical dentinal protrusions on the sides. Histological analysis showed that egg tooth development occurs in similar steps in relation to regular teeth. It undergoes initiation, bud, cap and bell morphological stages. Analyses focused on describing morphological changes in hard tissues (mainly dentin and predentin) of egg tooth and in cells which enamel organ consists of. It included: outer enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts, and cells of dental pulp. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).

Keywords: hatching, organogenesis, reptile, Squamata

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66 Survey Paper on Graph Coloring Problem and Its Application

Authors: Prateek Chharia, Biswa Bhusan Ghosh


Graph coloring is one of the prominent concepts in graph coloring. It can be defined as a coloring of the various regions of the graph such that all the constraints are fulfilled. In this paper various graphs coloring approaches like greedy coloring, Heuristic search for maximum independent set and graph coloring using edge table is described. Graph coloring can be used in various real time applications like student time tabling generation, Sudoku as a graph coloring problem, GSM phone network.

Keywords: graph coloring, greedy coloring, heuristic search, edge table, sudoku as a graph coloring problem

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65 Ethnobotanical Medicines for Treating Snakebites among the Indigenous Maya Populations of Belize

Authors: Kerry Hull, Mark Wright


This paper brings light to ethnobotanical medicines used by the Maya of Belize to treat snake bites. The varying ecological zones of Belize boast over fifty species of snakes, nine of which are poisonous and dangerous to humans. Two distinct Maya groups occupy neighboring regions of Belize, the Q’eqchi’ and the Mopan. With Western medical care often far from their villages, what traditional methods are used to treat poisonous snake bites? Based primarily on data gathered with native consultants during the authors’ fieldwork with both groups, this paper details the ethnobotanical resources used by the Q’eqchi’ and Mopan traditional healers. The Q’eqchi’ and Mopan most commonly rely on traditional ‘bush doctors’ (ilmaj in Mopan), both male and female, and specialized ‘snake doctors’ to heal bites from venomous snakes. First, this paper presents each plant employed by healers for bites for the nine poisonous snakes in Belize along with the specific botanical recipes and methods of application for each remedy. Individual chemical and therapeutic qualities of some of those plants are investigated in an effort to explain their possible medicinal value for different toxins or the symptoms caused by those toxins. In addition, this paper explores mythological associations with certain snakes that inform local understanding regarding which plants are considered efficacious in each case, arguing that numerous oral traditions (recorded by the authors) help to link botanical medicines to episodes within their mythic traditions. Finally, the use of plants to counteract snakebites brought about through sorcery is discussed inasmuch as some snakes are seen as ‘helpers’ of sorcerers. Snake bites given under these circumstances can only be cured by those who know both the proper corresponding plant(s) and ritual prayer(s). This paper provides detailed documentation of traditional ethnomedicines and practices from the dying art of traditional Maya healers and argues for multi-faceted diagnostic techniques to determine toxin severity, the presence or absence of sorcery, and the appropriate botanical remedy.

Keywords: ethnobotany, Maya, medicine, snake bites

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64 Remarkable Difference in Neurotoxicity Between Two Phospholipases from Russell's Viper Venom: Insight Through Molecular Approach

Authors: Kalyan S. Ghosh, B. L. Dhananjaya


Snake bite causes fatal injuries in multi-organs and even many deaths due to several adverse physiological effects of various phospholipases (PLA2s) present in snake venom. Though these PLA2s bear highly homologues sequences and also structure but exhibit a different extent of those pharmacological effects. In this study, we have explored the difference in the neurotoxicity of two PLA2 namely PLA2-V, PLA2-VIIIa present in the venom from Vipera russellii. Bioinformatics studies on sequences of these two proteins along with detailed structural comparison enable us to explore the differences unambiguously. The identification of the residues involved in neurotoxicity will further lead towards proper designing of inhibitors against such killing effects of the venom.

Keywords: electrostatic potential, homology modeling, hydrophobicity, neurotoxicity, Phospholipase A2

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63 Extraction of Road Edge Lines from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Energy Function and Snake Model

Authors: Zuoji Huang, Haiming Qian, Chunlin Wang, Jinyan Sun, Nan Xu


In this paper, the strategy to extract double road edge lines from acquired road stripe image was explored. The workflow is as follows: the road stripes are acquired by probabilistic boosting tree algorithm and morphological algorithm immediately, and road centerlines are detected by thinning algorithm, so the initial road edge lines can be acquired along the road centerlines. Then we refine the results with big variation of local curvature of centerlines. Specifically, the energy function of edge line is constructed by gradient feature and spectral information, and Dijkstra algorithm is used to optimize the initial road edge lines. The Snake model is constructed to solve the fracture problem of intersection, and the discrete dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve the model. After that, we could get the final road network. Experiment results show that the strategy proposed in this paper can be used to extract the continuous and smooth road edge lines from high-resolution remote sensing images with an accuracy of 88% in our study area.

Keywords: road edge lines extraction, energy function, intersection fracture, Snake model

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62 Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling with Skill Level and Time Bound Constraints

Authors: Salam Saudagar, Ankit Kamboj, Niraj Mohan, Satgounda Patil, Nilesh Powar


Task Assignment and Scheduling is a challenging Operations Research problem when there is a limited number of resources and comparatively higher number of tasks. The Cost Management team at Cummins needs to assign tasks based on a deadline and must prioritize some of the tasks as per business requirements. Moreover, there is a constraint on the resources that assignment of tasks should be done based on an individual skill level, that may vary for different tasks. Another constraint is for scheduling the tasks that should be evenly distributed in terms of number of working hours, which adds further complexity to this problem. The proposed greedy approach to solve assignment and scheduling problem first assigns the task based on management priority and then by the closest deadline. This is followed by an iterative selection of an available resource with the least allocated total working hours for a task, i.e. finding the local optimal choice for each task with the goal of determining the global optimum. The greedy approach task allocation is compared with a variant of Hungarian Algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed approach gives an equal allocation of working hours among the resources. The comparative study of the proposed approach is also done with manual task allocation and it is noted that the visibility of the task timeline has increased from 2 months to 6 months. An interactive dashboard app is created for the greedy assignment and scheduling approach and the tasks with more than 2 months horizon that were waiting in a queue without a delivery date initially are now analyzed effectively by the business with expected timelines for completion.

Keywords: assignment, deadline, greedy approach, Hungarian algorithm, operations research, scheduling

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61 Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated with Andrographolide Ameliorates Viper Venom-Induced Inflammatory Response and Organ Toxicity in Animal Model

Authors: Sourav Ghosh, Antony Gomes


Since 1894 anti-snake venom serum (ASVS) is the only available treatment against snake envenomation, although there are many side effects and limitations. The need for a supportive treatment was felt for a long time to overcome the side effects and limitations of ASVS. Andrographolide conjugated with gold nanoparticle (A-GNP) has been found to antagonize viper venom-induced local damages. The present study was aimed to study the protective efficacy of A-GNP against Viper venom-induced inflammatory response and organ toxicity in animal model. Ethical clearance was obtained from animal experiments. Physico-chemical characterization of A-GNP was done by DLS (diameter and zeta potential), FE-SEM and XRD. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 4 groups: Gr.1-Sham control, Gr.2- Russell’s Viper venom (RVV) control, Gr.3- andrographolide treated and Gr.4- A-GNP treated. The 1/5th minimum lethal dose of RVV (500µg/kg, s.c.) was induced in animals of group 2, 3 & 4 animals, followed by treatment with andrographolide (100mg/kg, i.p.) and A-GNP (100mg/kg, i.v.) in group 3 & 4 animals, respectively. Blood was collected after 18 h, serum was prepared, and inflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17a, 10, TNF α) and biochemical markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) were assessed. Values were expressed as mean±SEM (n=4), one way ANOVA was done, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. DLS size showed the hydrodynamic diameter of A-GNP to be 230-260nm with polydispersity index of 0.103 and zeta potential was -18.32mV. XRD data confirmed the presence of crystalline gold in A-GNP, and FESEM indicated the presence of nearly spherical particle with size18-24nm.Treatment with A-GNP significantly decreased viper venom-induced proinflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17, TNF α) increased anti-inflammatory markers (IL 10) and decreased organ toxicity markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) in animal model. Venom neutralization efficacy of A-GNP was > andrographolide, which confirmed the increased efficacy of andrographolide after gold nanoparticle conjugation. Venom neutralization by A-GNP was due to anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, which showed increased efficacy after gold nanoparticle tagging. Thus, A-GNP may serve as a supportive therapy in snake-bite (against inflammatory response and organ toxicity) subject to further detail studies.

Keywords: andrographolide, gold nanoparticle, inflammatory response, organ toxicity, snake venom, snake venom neutralization, viper venom

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60 Histological Characteristics of the Organs of Adult Zebrafish as a Biomarker for the Study of New Drugs with Effect on the Snake Venom of Bothrops alternatus

Authors: Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Hady Keita, Giovanna Rocha Santana, Igor Victor Ferreira Dos Santos, Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado, Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Adriana Maciel Ferreira, Helison Oliveira


Summary: As animal model, zebrafish can be a good opportunity to establish a profile of tissue alteration caused by Bothrops alternatus venom and to screen new anti-venom drugs. Objective: To establish tissue biomarkers from zebrafish injected by snake venom and elucidate the use of glucocorticoids in ophidic accidents. Materials and Methods: The Danio rerio fish were randomly divided into four groups: control group, venom group, Dexamethasone1h before venom injected group and Dexamethasone 1 h after venom injected group. The concentration of Bothrops alternatus venom was 0.13 mg/ml and the fish received 20µl/Fish. The Body weight measurement and histological characteristics of gills, kidneys, liver, and intestine were determinate. Results: Physical analysis shows necrosis accompanied by inflammation in animals receiving the Bothrops alternatus venom. Significant difference was observed in the variation of weight between the control group, and the groups received the venom (t student test, p < 0.05). The average histological alterations index of gill, liver, kidney or intestine was statistically higher in animals received the venom (t Student test, p < 0.05). The alterations were lower in the groups that received Dexamethasone 1h before and after venom injected compared to the group that received only the venom. Dexamethasone 1h before venom injected group had minor histopathological alterations. Conclusion: The organs of zebrafish may be a tissue biomarker of alterations from Bothrops alternatus venom and dexamethasone reduced the damage caused by this venom in the organs studied, which may suggest the use of zebrafish as animal model for research related to screening new drug against snake venom.

Keywords: zebrafish, snake venom, biomarker, drugs

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59 Steps of the Pancreatic Differentiation in the Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) Embryos

Authors: Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik


The pancreas is an important organ present in all vertebrate species. It contains two different tissues, exocrine and endocrine, that act as two glands in one. The development and differentiation of the pancreas in reptiles is poorly known in comparison to other vertebrates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particular steps concerning the differentiation of the pancreas in the grass snake (Natrix natrix) embryos. For this, histological methods (including hematoxylin and eosin, and Heidenhain's AZAN staining), transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from serial paraffin sections were used. The results of this study indicated that the first step of pancreas development in Natrix was the connection of the two pancreatic buds: dorsal and ventral one. Then, duct walls in both buds started to be remodeled from the multilayered to single-layered epithelium. This remodeling started in the dorsal bud and was simultaneously with the differentiation of the duct lumens which occurred by the cavition. During this process, the cells that had no contact with the mesenchyme underwent cell death named anoikis. These findings indicated that the walls of ducts in the embryonic pancreas of the grass snake were initially formed by the abundant principal and single endocrine cells. Later the basal and goblet cells differentiated. Among the endocrine cells, as the first the B and A cells differentiated, then the D and PP cells. The next step of the pancreatic development was the withdrawing of the endocrine cells from the duct walls to form the pancreatic islets. The endocrine cells and islets were found only in the dorsal part of the pancreas in Natrix embryos what is different than in other vertebrate species. The islets were formed mainly by the A cells. Simultaneously, with the differentiation of the endocrine pancreas, the acinar tissue started to differentiate. The source of the acinar cells were pancreatic ducts similar as in other vertebrates. The acini formation began at the proximal part of the pancreas and went towards the caudal direction. Differentiating pancreatic ducts developed into the branched system that can be divided into extralobular, intralobular, and intercalated ducts, similarly as in other vertebrate species. However, the pattern of branching was different. In conclusions, particular steps of the pancreas differentiation in the grass snake were different than in other vertebrates. It can be supposed that these differences are related to the specific topography of the snake’s internal organs and their taxonomy position. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).

Keywords: embryogenesis, organogenesis, pancreas, Squamata

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58 Heuristic Algorithms for Time Based Weapon-Target Assignment Problem

Authors: Hyun Seop Uhm, Yong Ho Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Young Hoon Lee


Weapon-target assignment (WTA) is a problem that assigns available launchers to appropriate targets in order to defend assets. Various algorithms for WTA have been developed over past years for both in the static and dynamic environment (denoted by SWTA and DWTA respectively). Due to the problem requirement to be solved in a relevant computational time, WTA has suffered from the solution efficiency. As a result, SWTA and DWTA problems have been solved in the limited situation of the battlefield. In this paper, the general situation under continuous time is considered by Time based Weapon Target Assignment (TWTA) problem. TWTA are studied using the mixed integer programming model, and three heuristic algorithms; decomposed opt-opt, decomposed opt-greedy, and greedy algorithms are suggested. Although the TWTA optimization model works inefficiently when it is characterized by a large size, the decomposed opt-opt algorithm based on the linearization and decomposition method extracted efficient solutions in a reasonable computation time. Because the computation time of the scheduling part is too long to solve by the optimization model, several algorithms based on greedy is proposed. The models show lower performance value than that of the decomposed opt-opt algorithm, but very short time is needed to compute. Hence, this paper proposes an improved method by applying decomposition to TWTA, and more practical and effectual methods can be developed for using TWTA on the battlefield.

Keywords: air and missile defense, weapon target assignment, mixed integer programming, piecewise linearization, decomposition algorithm, military operations research

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57 Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chiao-Wei Yu, Pei-Chann Chang


Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, artificial chromosomes, greedy search, imperial competitive algorithm

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56 Joint Optimization of Carsharing Stations with Vehicle Relocation and Demand Selection

Authors: Jiayuan Wu. Lu Hu


With the development of the sharing economy and mobile technology, carsharing becomes more popular. In this paper, we focus on the joint optimization of one-way station-based carsharing systems. We model the problem as an integer linear program with six elements: station locations, station capacity, fleet size, initial vehicle allocation, vehicle relocation, and demand selection. A greedy-based heuristic is proposed to address the model. Firstly, initialization based on the location variables relaxation using Gurobi solver is conducted. Then, according to the profit margin and demand satisfaction of each station, the number of stations is downsized iteratively. This method is applied to real data from Chengdu, Sichuan taxi data, and it’s efficient when dealing with a large scale of candidate stations. The result shows that with vehicle relocation and demand selection, the profit and demand satisfaction of carsharing systems are increased.

Keywords: one-way carsharing, location, vehicle relocation, demand selection, greedy algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
55 Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Optical Networks with Protection

Authors: Qusay Alghazali, Tibor Cinkler, Abdulhalim Fayad


In modern optical networks, the flex grid spectrum usage is most widespread, where higher bit rate streams get larger spectrum slices while lower bit rate traffic streams get smaller spectrum slices. To our practice, under the ITU-T recommendation, G.694.1, spectrum slices of 50, 75, and 100 GHz are being used with central frequency at 193.1 THz. However, when these spectrum slices are not sufficient, multiple spectrum slices can use either one next to another or anywhere in the optical wavelength. In this paper, we propose the analysis of the wavelength assignment problem. We compare different algorithms for this spectrum assignment with and without protection. As a reference for comparisons, we concluded that the Integer Linear Programming (ILP) provides the global optimum for all cases. The most scalable algorithm is the greedy one, which yields results in subsequent ranges even for more significant network instances. The algorithms’ benchmark implemented using the LEMON C++ optimization library and simulation runs based on a minimum number of spectrum slices assigned to lightpaths and their execution time.

Keywords: spectrum assignment, integer linear programming, greedy algorithm, international telecommunication union, library for efficient modeling and optimization in networks

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54 The Military and Motherhood: Identity and Role Expectation within Two Greedy Institutions

Authors: Maureen Montalban


The military is a predominantly male-dominated organisation that has entrenched hierarchical and patriarchal norms. Since 1975, women have been allowed to continue active service in the Australian Defence Force during pregnancy and after the birth of a child; prior to this time, pregnancy was grounds for automatic termination. The military and family, as institutions, make great demands on individuals with respect to their commitment, loyalty, time and energy. This research explores what it means to serve in the Australian Army as a woman through a gender lens, overlaid during a specific time period of their service; that is, during pregnancy, birth, and being a mother. It investigates the external demands faced by servicewomen who are mothers, whether it be from society, the Army, their teammates, their partners, or their children; and how they internally make sense of that with respect to their own identity and role as a mother, servicewoman, partner and as an individual. It also seeks to uncover how Australian Army servicewomen who are also mothers attempt to manage the dilemma of serving two greedy institutions when both expect and demand so much and whether this is, in fact, an impossible dilemma.

Keywords: women's health, gender studies, military culture, identity

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53 A Greedy Alignment Algorithm Supporting Medication Reconciliation

Authors: David Tresner-Kirsch


Reconciling patient medication lists from multiple sources is a critical task supporting the safe delivery of patient care. Manual reconciliation is a time-consuming and error-prone process, and recently attempts have been made to develop efficiency- and safety-oriented automated support for professionals performing the task. An important capability of any such support system is automated alignment – finding which medications from a list correspond to which medications from a different source, regardless of misspellings, naming differences (e.g. brand name vs. generic), or changes in treatment (e.g. switching a patient from one antidepressant class to another). This work describes a new algorithmic solution to this alignment task, using a greedy matching approach based on string similarity, edit distances, concept extraction and normalization, and synonym search derived from the RxNorm nomenclature. The accuracy of this algorithm was evaluated against a gold-standard corpus of 681 medication records; this evaluation found that the algorithm predicted alignments with 99% precision and 91% recall. This performance is sufficient to support decision support applications for medication reconciliation.

Keywords: clinical decision support, medication reconciliation, natural language processing, RxNorm

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52 First Documented Anesthesia with Use of Low Doses of Tiletamine-Zolazepam Combination in Ovoviparous Amazon Tree Boa Undergoing Emergency Coeliotomy-Case Report

Authors: Krzysztof Buczak, Sonia Lachowska, Pawel Kucharski, Agnieszka Antonczyk


Tiletamine - zolazepam combination is increasingly used in veterinary anaesthesiology in wild animals, including snakes. The available literature shows a lack of information about anesthesia in this mixture in ovoviviparous snakes. The studies show the possibility of using the combination at a dose of 20 mg/kg or more for snake immobilization. This paper presents an anesthetic protocol with the use of a combination of tiletamine - zolazepam at the dose of 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and maintenance with inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane in pure oxygen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the anesthetic protocol to proceed with coeliotomy in Amazon Tree Boa. The patient was a five years old bicolor female Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus hortulanus) with dystocia. The clinical examination reveals significant emaciation (bodyweight 520g), high degree of dehydration, heart rate (HR = 60 / min), pale mucous membranes and poor reactivity. Meloxicam (1 mg/kg) and tramadol (10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously and the patient was placed in an incubator with access to fresh oxygen. Four hours later, the combination of tiletamine - zolazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for induction of anesthesia. The snake was intubated and connected to inhalant anesthesia equipment. For maintenance, the anesthesia isoflurane in pure oxygen was used due to apnea, which occurs 30 minutes after the induction semi-closed system was attached and the ventilator was turned on (PCV system, four breaths per minute, 8 cm of H2O). Cardiopulmonary parameters (HR, RR, SPO2, ETCO2, ETISO) were assessed throughout the procedure. During the entire procedure, the operating room was heated to a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the hose was placed on a heating mat, which maintained a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius. For 15 minutes after induction, the loss of muscle tone was observed from the head to the tail. Induction of general anesthesia was scored as good because of the possibility of intubation. During the whole procedure, the heart rate was at the rate of 58 beats per minute (bpm). Ventilation parameters were stable throughout the procedure. The recovery period lasts for about 4 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The muscle tension returned from tail to head. The snake started to breathe spontaneously within 1,5 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The protocol of general anesthesia with the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam with a dose of 10 mg/kg is useful for proceeding with the emergency coeliotomy in maintenance with isoflurane in oxygen. Further study about the impact of the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam for the recovery period is needed.

Keywords: anesthesia, corallus hortulanus, ovoviparous, snake, tiletamine, zolazepam

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51 Scalar Equilibria for Normal-Form Games

Authors: Herbert W. Corley


A scalar equilibrium (SE) is an alternative type of equilibrium in pure strategies for an n-person normal-form game G. It is defined using optimization techniques to obtain a pure strategy for each player of G by maximizing an appropriate utility function over the acceptable joint actions. The players’ actions are determined by choice of the utility function. Such a utility function could be agreed upon by the players or chosen by an arbitrator. An SE is an equilibrium since no players of G can increase the value of this utility function by changing their strategies. SEs are formally defined, and examples are given. In a greedy SE, the goal is to assign actions to the players giving them the largest individual payoffs jointly possible. In a weighted SE, players select the degree to which they help other players get higher payoffs. In a compromise SE, each player wants a payoff in approximately the same percentile of their payoff range as the other players. In a parity SE, the players want their payoffs to be approximately equal. Finally, a satisficing SE achieves a target payoff value for each player. Except for the parity SE, the vector payoffs associated with each of these SEs are shown to be Pareto optimal.

Keywords: compromise equilibrium, greedy equilibrium, normal-form game, parity equilibrium, pure strategy, satisficing equilibrium, scalar equilibria, utility2functions, weighted equilibrium

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50 Performance Evaluation of Hierarchical Location-Based Services Coupled to the Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rania Khadim, Mohammed Erritali, Abdelhakim Maaden


Nowadays Wireless Sensor Networks have attracted worldwide research and industrial interest, because they can be applied in various areas. Geographic routing protocols are very suitable to those networks because they use location information when they need to route packets. Obviously, location information is maintained by Location-Based Services provided by network nodes in a distributed way. In this paper we choose to evaluate the performance of two hierarchical rendezvous location based-services, GLS (Grid Location Service) and HLS (Hierarchical Location Service) coupled to the GPSR routing protocol (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) for Wireless Sensor Network. The simulations were performed using NS2 simulator to evaluate the performance and power of the two services in term of location overhead, the request travel time (RTT) and the query Success ratio (QSR). This work presents also a new scalability performance study of both GLS and HLS, specifically, what happens if the number of nodes N increases. The study will focus on three qualitative metrics: The location maintenance cost, the location query cost and the storage cost.

Keywords: location based-services, routing protocols, scalability, wireless sensor networks

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49 A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and Chemical Reaction Optimization for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows

Authors: Imen Boudali, Marwa Ragmoun


The Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows (VRPHTW) is a basic distribution management problem that models many real-world problems. The objective of the problem is to deliver a set of customers with known demands on minimum-cost vehicle routes while satisfying vehicle capacity and hard time windows for customers. In this paper, we propose to deal with our optimization problem by using a new hybrid stochastic algorithm based on two metaheuristics: Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The first method is inspired by the natural process of chemical reactions enabling the transformation of unstable substances with excessive energy to stable ones. During this process, the molecules interact with each other through a series of elementary reactions to reach minimum energy for their existence. This property is embedded in CRO to solve the VRPHTW. In order to enhance the population diversity throughout the search process, we integrated the GRASP in our method. Simulation results on the base of Solomon’s benchmark instances show the very satisfactory performances of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Benchmark Problems, Combinatorial Optimization, Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows, Meta-heuristics, Hybridization, GRASP, CRO

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48 Snake Locomotion: From Sinusoidal Curves and Periodic Spiral Formations to the Design of a Polymorphic Surface

Authors: Ennios Eros Giogos, Nefeli Katsarou, Giota Mantziorou, Elena Panou, Nikolaos Kourniatis, Socratis Giannoudis


In the context of the postgraduate course Productive Design, Department of Interior Architecture of the University of West Attica in Athens, under the guidance of Professors Nikolaos Koyrniatis and Socratis Giannoudis, kinetic mechanisms with parametric models were examined for their further application in the design of objects. In the first phase, the students studied a motion mechanism that they chose from daily experience and then analyzed its geometric structure in relation to the geometric transformations that exist. In the second phase, the students tried to design it through a parametric model in Grasshopper3d for Rhino algorithmic processor and plan the design of its application in an everyday object. For the project presented, our team began by studying the movement of living beings, specifically the snake. By studying the snake and the role that the environment has in its movement, four basic typologies were recognized: serpentine, concertina, sidewinding and rectilinear locomotion, as well as its ability to perform spiral formations. Most typologies are characterized by ripples, a series of sinusoidal curves. For the application of the snake movement in a polymorphic space divider, the use of a coil-type joint was studied. In the Grasshopper program, the simulation of the desired motion for the polymorphic surface was tested by applying a coil on a sinusoidal curve and a spiral curve. It was important throughout the process that the points corresponding to the nodes of the real object remain constant in number, as well as the distances between them and the elasticity of the construction had to be achieved through a modular movement of the coil and not some elastic element (material) at the nodes. Using mesh (repeating coil), the whole construction is transformed into a supporting body and combines functionality with aesthetics. The set of elements functions as a vertical spatial network, where each element participates in its coherence and stability. Depending on the positions of the elements in terms of the level of support, different perspectives are created in terms of the visual perception of the adjacent space. For the implementation of the model on the scale (1:3), (0.50m.x2.00m.), the load-bearing structure that was studied has aluminum rods for the basic pillars Φ6mm and Φ 2.50 mm, for the secondary columns. Filling elements and nodes are of similar material and were made of MDF surfaces. During the design process, four trapezoidal patterns were picketed, which function as filling elements, while in order to support their assembly, a different engraving facet was done. The nodes have holes that can be pierced by the rods, while their connection point with the patterns has a half-carved recess. The patterns have a corresponding recess. The nodes are of two different types depending on the column that passes through them. The patterns and knots were designed to be cut and engraved using a Laser Cutter and attached to the knots using glue. The parameters participate in the design as mechanisms that generate complex forms and structures through the repetition of constantly changing versions of the parts that compose the object.

Keywords: polymorphic, locomotion, sinusoidal curves, parametric

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47 Arithmetic Operations Based on Double Base Number Systems

Authors: K. Sanjayani, C. Saraswathy, S. Sreenivasan, S. Sudhahar, D. Suganya, K. S. Neelukumari, N. Vijayarangan


Double Base Number System (DBNS) is an imminent system of representing a number using two bases namely 2 and 3, which has its application in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).The previous binary method representation included only base 2. DBNS uses an approximation algorithm namely, Greedy Algorithm. By using this algorithm, the number of digits required to represent a larger number is less when compared to the standard binary method that uses base 2 algorithms. Hence, the computational speed is increased and time being reduced. The standard binary method uses binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a number whereas the DBNS method uses binary digit 1 alone to represent any number (canonical form). The greedy algorithm uses two ways to represent the number, one is by using only the positive summands and the other is by using both positive and negative summands. In this paper, arithmetic operations are used for elliptic curve cryptography. Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem is the foundation for most of the day to day elliptic curve cryptography. This appears to be a momentous hard slog compared to digital logarithm problem. In elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, the key generation requires 160 bit of data by usage of standard binary representation. Whereas, the number of bits required generating the key can be reduced with the help of double base number representation. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to generate key during encryption and extraction of key in decryption.

Keywords: cryptography, double base number system, elliptic curve cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithm

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