Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Katalin Szabad

16 The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary

Authors: András Medve, Katalin Szabad, István Patkó


According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.

Keywords: sustainable energy, renewable energy, development of geothermic energy in Hungary

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15 Human Health Risks Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution in Romania

Authors: Katalin Bodor, Zsolt Bodor, Robert Szep


The particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 μm are less studied due to the limited availability of PM₂.₅, and less information is available on the health effects attributable to PM₁₀ in Central-Eastern Europe. The objective of the current study was to assess the human health risk and characterize the spatial and temporal variation of PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ in eight Romanian regions between the 2009-2018 and. The PM concentrations showed high variability over time and spatial distribution. The highest concentration was detected in the Bucharest region in the winter period, and the lowest was detected in West. The relative risk caused by the PM₁₀ for all-cause mortality varied between 1.017 (B) and 1.025 (W), with an average 1.020. The results demonstrate a positive relative risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer disease due to exposure to PM₂.₅ on the national average 1.26 ( ± 0.023) and 1.42 ( ± 0.037), respectively.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, relative risk, health effect

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14 Highly Skilled Migrants Trapped in the Brain Waste: The Eastern European Graduates in the Western European Underemployment

Authors: Katalin Bándy


The European emigration of highly educated immigrants draws attention to the problem of brain drain. Due to the Eastern European countries joining the EU and the opening of the Western European labour market the west-wards migration brisked up. By now another problem has been intensified correlated to migration: the migration of highly skilled workers related to brain waste tendencies. With some exceptions, educated immigrants from Eastern European countries are more likely to end up in unskilled jobs than residents. This paper is about to reveal the above-mentioned problems and this study is supported by the results of secondary pieces of research and the own survey made in the EU-15 among the Hungarian highly skilled (especially economics graduated) migrants, and it also examines the causes and in the focus there are the migrant motivations of the high-skilled young generation after the crisis.

Keywords: brain drain, brain waste, migration of highly-skilled, underemployment

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13 Dimensions of Guest Experience in Themed Hotels

Authors: Katalin Juhasz-Dora


Several studies have shown that physical environments, milieu, atmosphere and service space play a significant role in the consumer experience. In the case of themed servicescapes, different tangible assets (design, decoration, facilities, amenities), intangible assets (service, activities) contribute to the luxury guest experience. This current study summarizes the literature related to the guest experience in the case of luxury hotels. Based on the results of a case study, additional dimensions of guest experience are explored. The research findings contribute to the extension of literature by providing a conceptual framework in specific themed luxury hotels. Understanding the elements of themed servicescape and dimensions of guest experience play a significant role in consumer behavior. Implications for management and future research directions are presented.

Keywords: atmosphere, guest experience, luxury service, themed hotel

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12 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró


The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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11 Mental Health of Female Runners - Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Zsuzsanna Gurdan, Krisztian Kvell, Attila Trabert


Introduction: On a worldwide scale running has become an increasingly popular leisure time activity during the past decade. Since the participation rate of women has risen significantly the aim of our study was to analyze the mental status, sleeping habits and the prevalence of depression among female runners. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis included the use of validated and globally used surveys for the comprehensive evaluation of insomnia (AIS), depression (BDI), exercise dependence (EDS) and exercise addiction (EAI). Recreational and amateur female runners participating at half-marathon events in Hungary were asked to take part in our pilot study. Results: Participants mean age was 42.03±9.03 years. The prevalence of imsomnia was 18.87%. 60.34% has worries regarding their weight and 43.1% think that they have an actual weight problem. 77.6% stated that their body weight has an influence on their mood. 2.7% displayed borderline clinical depression, the prevalence of mild mood disorders was 10.81%. 17.2% had previously problems with disordered eating. Participants had a mean total EDS score of 46.94±15.55 and a mean total of 13.49±3.80 on EAI. Component scores were the highest for tolerance (a need for increased amounts of exercise to achieve the desired effect or a diminished effect occurs with continued use of the same amount of exercise). Conclusion: Even tough running can help improve mental health, tackle depression and overcome adversity, athletes are at risk of experiencing psychological difficulties which have an impact on their physical perfomance as well. Further research can help initiate targeted educational and screening programs to ensure that female athletes find a path to emotional well-being.

Keywords: depression, eating disorder, exercise addiction, exercise dependence, insomnia, running

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10 Vertebrate Model to Examine the Biological Effectiveness of Different Radiation Qualities

Authors: Rita Emília Szabó, Róbert Polanek, Tünde Tőkés, Zoltán Szabó, Szabolcs Czifrus, Katalin Hideghéty


Purpose: Several feature of zebrafish are making them amenable for investigation on therapeutic approaches such as ionizing radiation. The establishment of zebrafish model for comprehensive radiobiological research stands in the focus of our investigation, comparing the radiation effect curves of neutron and photon irradiation. Our final aim is to develop an appropriate vertebrate model in order to investigate the relative biological effectiveness of laser driven ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: After careful dosimetry series of viable zebrafish embryos were exposed to a single fraction whole-body neutron-irradiation (1,25; 1,875; 2; 2,5 Gy) at the research reactor of the Technical University of Budapest and to conventional 6 MeV photon beam at 24 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The survival and morphologic abnormalities (pericardial edema, spine curvature) of each embryo were assessed for each experiment at 24-hour intervals from the point of fertilization up to 168 hpf (defining the dose lethal for 50% (LD50)). Results: In the zebrafish embryo model LD50 at 20 Gy dose level was defined and the same lethality were found at 2 Gy dose from the reactor neutron beam resulting RBE of 10. Dose-dependent organ perturbations were detected on macroscopic (shortening of the body length, spine curvature, microcephaly, micro-ophthalmia, micrognathia, pericardial edema, and inhibition of yolk sac resorption) and microscopic (marked cellular changes in skin, cardiac, gastrointestinal system) with the same magnitude of dose difference. Conclusion: In our observations, we found that zebrafish embryo model can be used for investigating the effects of different type of ionizing radiation and this system proved to be highly efficient vertebrate model for preclinical examinations.

Keywords: ionizing radiation, LD50, relative biological effectiveness, zebrafish embryo

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9 Yoga Offers Protection for Premenstrual Syndrome

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Vanda A Nemes, Charlotte Briest


Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a psychoneuroendocrinological disorder adversely affecting life-quality for over 80% of hormonally active women. PMS has a negative impact on women’s daily life in terms of work, interpersonal relationships and leisure time activities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of a yoga intervention focusing on the female pelvic area. Materials and methods: 34 women (ages 18-40) with PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome Screening Tool) and no previous experience in yoga were recruited and randomly assigned to either the yoga or the control group. The intervention consisted of 90’ yoga sessions twice a week and a daily 15’ self-practice module with carefully chosen yogic exercises addressing the reproductive organs by toning the pelvic floor and opening the hips as well as relieving stress and improving concentration. Severity of symptoms of PMS was assessed at the beginning and after the 8-week-long intervention. Pre- and post-program data collection included physical and psychological parameters and the evaluation of ACOQ PMS questionnaire and daily symptom diary. Results: Age and educational background were similar in the control and intervention group with an overall mean age of 29.11±4.78 years. PSST scores significantly improved in the yoga group (p=0.002), while difference in the control group’s pre and post-program values were non-significant (p=0.38). Perception and tolerance of anxiety and stress was significantly better after the intervention (p=0.008). As for changes in physical symptoms distinct improvement was registered for breast tenderness (p=0.028) and for meteorism (p=0.015). Discussion: Yoga’s success originates from the synergic positive effects of stress relief and regular physical activity. Benefits (both mental and physical) of strategically planned, focused yoga practice are apparent even after shorter time periods and can help women with PMS manage or eliminate symptoms in order to improve their life-quality.

Keywords: life-quality, physical symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, psychological impact, yoga

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8 Determination of Rare Earth Element Patterns in Uranium Matrix for Nuclear Forensics Application: Method Development for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Measurements

Authors: Bernadett Henn, Katalin Tálos, Éva Kováss Széles


During the last 50 years, the worldwide permeation of the nuclear techniques induces several new problems in the environmental and in the human life. Nowadays, due to the increasing of the risk of terrorism worldwide, the potential occurrence of terrorist attacks using also weapon of mass destruction containing radioactive or nuclear materials as e.g. dirty bombs, is a real threat. For instance, the uranium pellets are one of the potential nuclear materials which are suitable for making special weapons. The nuclear forensics mainly focuses on the determination of the origin of the confiscated or found nuclear and other radioactive materials, which could be used for making any radioactive dispersive device. One of the most important signatures in nuclear forensics to find the origin of the material is the determination of the rare earth element patterns (REE) in the seized or found radioactive or nuclear samples. The concentration and the normalized pattern of the REE can be used as an evidence of uranium origin. The REE are the fourteen Lanthanides in addition scandium and yttrium what are mostly found together and really low concentration in uranium pellets. The problems of the REE determination using ICP-MS technique are the uranium matrix (high concentration of uranium) and the interferences among Lanthanides. In this work, our aim was to develop an effective chemical sample preparation process using extraction chromatography for separation the uranium matrix and the rare earth elements from each other following some publications can be found in the literature and modified them. Secondly, our purpose was the optimization of the ICP-MS measuring process for REE concentration. During method development, in the first step, a REE model solution was used in two different types of extraction chromatographic resins (LN® and TRU®) and different acidic media for environmental testing the Lanthanides separation. Uranium matrix was added to the model solution and was proved in the same conditions. Methods were tested and validated using REE UOC (uranium ore concentrate) reference materials. Samples were analyzed by sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS).

Keywords: extraction chromatography, nuclear forensics, rare earth elements, uranium

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7 Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Injury and Stress Fractures in Male and Female Runners

Authors: Balazs Patczai, Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Dorottya Szabo, Tibor Mintal


Introduction: Running has become increasingly popular on a global scale in the past decades. Amateur athletes are taking their sport to a new level in an attempt to surpass their performance goals. The aim of our study was to assess the musculoskeletal condition of amateur runners and the prevalence of injuries with a special focus on stress fracture risk. Methods: The cross sectional analysis included ankle mobility, hamstring and lower back flexibility, the use of Renne’s test for iliotibial band syndrome, functional tests for trunk and rotary stability, and measurements of bone density. Data was collected at 2 major half-marathon events in Hungary. Results: Participants (n=134) mean age was 41.76±8.57 years (males: 40.67±8.83, females: 42.08±8.56). Measures of hamstring and lower back flexibility fell into the category of good for both genders (males: 7.13±6.83cm, females: 10.17±6.67cm). No side asymmetry nor gender differences were characteristic in the case of ankle mobility. Trunk stability was significantly better for males than in females (p=0.004). Markers of bone health were in the low normal range for females and were significantly better for males (T-score: p=0.003, T-ratio: p=0.014, Z-score: p=0.034, Z-ratio: p=0.011). 5.2% of females had a previous stress fracture and 24.1% experienced irregular menstrual cycles during the past year. As for the knowledge on the possible association of energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and their effect on bone health, Only 8.6% of females have heard of the female athlete triad either during their studies or from a health professional. Discussion: The overall musculoskeletal state was satisfactory for both genders both physically and functionally. More attention and effort should be placed on primary and secondary prevention of amateur runners. Very few active women are well informed about the effects of low energy availability and menstrual dysfunction and the negative impact these have on bone health.

Keywords: bone health, flexibility, running, stress fracture

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6 The Effects of Leadership on the Claim of Responsibility

Authors: Katalin Kovacs


In most forms of violence the perpetrators intend to hide their identities. Terrorism is different. Terrorist groups often take responsibility for their attacks, and consequently they reveal their identities. This unique characteristic of terrorism has been largely overlooked, and scholars are still puzzled as to why terrorist groups claim responsibility for their attacks. Certainly, the claim of responsibility is worth analysing. It would help to have a clearer picture of what terrorist groups try to achieve and how, but also to develop an understanding of the strategic planning of terrorist attacks and the message the terrorists intend to deliver. The research aims to answer the question why terrorist groups choose to claim responsibility for some of their attacks and not for others. In order to do so the claim of responsibility is considered to be a tactical choice, based on the assumption that terrorists weigh the costs and benefits of claiming responsibility. The main argument is that terrorist groups do not claim responsibility in cases when there is no tactical advantage gained from claiming responsibility. The idea that the claim of responsibility has tactical value offers the opportunity to test these assertions using a large scale empirical analysis. The claim of responsibility as a tactical choice depends on other tactical choices, such as the choice of target, the internationality of the attack, the number of victims and whether the group occupies territory or operates as an underground group. The structure of the terrorist groups and the level of decision making also affects the claim of responsibility. Terrorists on the lower level are less disciplined than the leaders. This means that the terrorists on lower levels pay less attention to the strategic objectives and engage easier in indiscriminate violence, and consequently they would less like to claim responsibility. Therefore, the research argues that terrorists, who are on a highest level of decision making would claim responsibility for the attacks as those are who takes into account the strategic objectives. As most studies on terrorism fail to provide definitions; therefore the researches are fragmented and incomparable. Separate, isolated researches do not support comprehensive thinking. It is also very important to note that there are only a few researches using quantitative methods. The aim of the research is to develop a new and comprehensive overview of the claim of responsibility based on strong quantitative evidence. By using well-established definitions and operationalisation the current research focuses on a broad range of attributes that can have tactical values in order to determine circumstances when terrorists are more likely to claim responsibility.

Keywords: claim of responsibility, leadership, tactical choice, terrorist group

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5 Postpartum Female Sexual Dysfunctions in Hungary: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Katalin Szöllősi, László Szabó


Introduction and purpose: Even though female sexual dysfunctions are common among women in the postpartum period, the profile of these disturbances has not been well investigated in Hungary yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the postpartum female sexual functions in Hungary. This research sought to investigate the possible predictor factors which can influence postpartum female sexual functions. Method and sample: This was a cross-sectional study, including patients from two maternity clinics in Budapest. 113 women were recruited into our study 3 months after their childbirth. 53 had vaginal birth, 60 had a caesarian section. Data were collected from medical reports in addition by using self-developed questions and validated questionnaires in order to measure important predictors which may be responsible for postpartum sexual dysfunctions such as mode of delivery, parity, urinary incontinence and body image. Sexual functions were evaluated by the Hungarian version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The Hungarian version of Body Image Questionnaire-Short Form14 (BSQ-SF14) was applied for assessing body image. Results: 82,3% of the participants began to have sexual intercourse within three months postpartum. 53,98% of the participants reported sexual dysfunctions (cut-off FSFI score 26,55). According to our results mode of delivery, parity, hemorrhoids, time of intercourse, resumption was not associated with female sexual dysfunctions. We found correlation at a tendential level between urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunctions (p=0,003, R=0,26). We found a negative correlation at a tendential level between the total score of BSQ-SF14 and FSFI (p=0,03, R=-0,269). Only 32,74% of women reported discussing sexual life with health care professionals. However, 67,25% of them would have had the need to be asked about their postpartum health issues. Conclusions and recommendations: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunctions were relatively high after childbirth. We found that incontinence and body image was associated with sexual dysfunctions; other risk factors remained unknown. Despite regular contact with health care professionals, women rarely get any information about postpartum sexual health issues. The high prevalence of dysfunctions indicates the need for further investigation to address other risk factors and proper counselling of women after childbirth.

Keywords: body image, postpartum, sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence

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4 Historical Development of Negative Emotive Intensifiers in Hungarian

Authors: Martina Katalin Szabó, Bernadett Lipóczi, Csenge Guba, István Uveges


In this study, an exhaustive analysis was carried out about the historical development of negative emotive intensifiers in the Hungarian language via NLP methods. Intensifiers are linguistic elements which modify or reinforce a variable character in the lexical unit they apply to. Therefore, intensifiers appear with other lexical items, such as adverbs, adjectives, verbs, infrequently with nouns. Due to the complexity of this phenomenon (set of sociolinguistic, semantic, and historical aspects), there are many lexical items which can operate as intensifiers. The group of intensifiers are admittedly one of the most rapidly changing elements in the language. From a linguistic point of view, particularly interesting are a special group of intensifiers, the so-called negative emotive intensifiers, that, on their own, without context, have semantic content that can be associated with negative emotion, but in particular cases, they may function as intensifiers (e.g.borzasztóanjó ’awfully good’, which means ’excellent’). Despite their special semantic features, negative emotive intensifiers are scarcely examined in literature based on large Historical corpora via NLP methods. In order to become better acquainted with trends over time concerning the intensifiers, The exhaustively analysed a specific historical corpus, namely the Magyar TörténetiSzövegtár (Hungarian Historical Corpus). This corpus (containing 3 millions text words) is a collection of texts of various genres and styles, produced between 1772 and 2010. Since the corpus consists of raw texts and does not contain any additional information about the language features of the data (such as stemming or morphological analysis), a large amount of manual work was required to process the data. Thus, based on a lexicon of negative emotive intensifiers compiled in a previous phase of the research, every occurrence of each intensifier was queried, and the results were stored in a separate data frame. Then, basic linguistic processing (POS-tagging, lemmatization etc.) was carried out automatically with the ‘magyarlanc’ NLP-toolkit. Finally, the frequency and collocation features of all the negative emotive words were automatically analyzed in the corpus. Outcomes of the research revealed in detail how these words have proceeded through grammaticalization over time, i.e., they change from lexical elements to grammatical ones, and they slowly go through a delexicalization process (their negative content diminishes over time). What is more, it was also pointed out which negative emotive intensifiers are at the same stage in this process in the same time period. Giving a closer look to the different domains of the analysed corpus, it also became certain that during this process, the pragmatic role’s importance increases: the newer use expresses the speaker's subjective, evaluative opinion at a certain level.

Keywords: historical corpus analysis, historical linguistics, negative emotive intensifiers, semantic changes over time

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3 Oxidative Stress Related Alteration of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cellular Models

Authors: Orsolya Horvath, Laszlo Deres, Krisztian Eros, Katalin Ordog, Tamas Habon, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi


Introduction: Oxidative stress induces an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion and fission processes, finally leading to cell death. The two antioxidant molecules, BGP-15 and L2286 have beneficial effects on mitochondrial functions and on cellular oxidative stress response. In this work, we studied the effects of these compounds on the processes of mitochondrial quality control. Methods: We used H9c2 cardiomyoblast and isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) for the experiments. The concentration of stressors and antioxidants was beforehand determined with MTT test. We applied 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in 125 µM, 400 µM and 800 µM concentrations for 4 and 8 hours on H9c2 cells. H₂O₂ was applied in 150 µM and 300 µM concentration for 0.5 and 4 hours on both models. L2286 was administered in 10 µM, while BGP-15 in 50 µM doses. Cellular levels of the key proteins playing role in mitochondrial dynamics were measured in Western blot samples. For the analysis of mitochondrial network dynamics, we applied electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Results: Due to MNNG treatment the level of fusion proteins (OPA1, MFN2) decreased, while the level of fission protein DRP1 elevated markedly. The levels of fusion proteins OPA1 and MNF2 increased in the L2286 and BGP-15 treated groups. During the 8 hour treatment period, the level of DRP1 also increased in the treated cells (p < 0.05). In the H₂O₂ stressed cells, administration of L2286 increased the level of OPA1 in both H9c2 and NRCM models. MFN2 levels in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes raised considerably due to BGP-15 treatment (p < 0.05). L2286 administration decreased the DRP1 level in H9c2 cells (p < 0.05). We observed that the H₂O₂-induced mitochondrial fragmentation could be decreased by L2286 treatment. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the PARP-inhibitor L2286 has beneficial effect on mitochondrial dynamics during oxidative stress scenario, and also in the case of directly induced DNA damage. We could make the similar conclusions in case of BGP-15 administration, which, via reducing ROS accumulation, propagates fusion processes, this way aids preserving cellular viability. Funding: GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00049; GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048; GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00025; EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00004; ÚNKP-17-4-I-PTE-209

Keywords: H9c2, mitochondrial dynamics, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress

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2 The Usage of Negative Emotive Words in Twitter

Authors: Martina Katalin Szabó, István Üveges


In this paper, the usage of negative emotive words is examined on the basis of a large Hungarian twitter-database via NLP methods. The data is analysed from a gender point of view, as well as changes in language usage over time. The term negative emotive word refers to those words that, on their own, without context, have semantic content that can be associated with negative emotion, but in particular cases, they may function as intensifiers (e.g. rohadt jó ’damn good’) or a sentiment expression with positive polarity despite their negative prior polarity (e.g. brutális, ahogy ez a férfi rajzol ’it’s awesome (lit. brutal) how this guy draws’. Based on the findings of several authors, the same phenomenon can be found in other languages, so it is probably a language-independent feature. For the recent analysis, 67783 tweets were collected: 37818 tweets (19580 tweets written by females and 18238 tweets written by males) in 2016 and 48344 (18379 tweets written by females and 29965 tweets written by males) in 2021. The goal of the research was to make up two datasets comparable from the viewpoint of semantic changes, as well as from gender specificities. An exhaustive lexicon of Hungarian negative emotive intensifiers was also compiled (containing 214 words). After basic preprocessing steps, tweets were processed by ‘magyarlanc’, a toolkit is written in JAVA for the linguistic processing of Hungarian texts. Then, the frequency and collocation features of all these words in our corpus were automatically analyzed (via the analysis of parts-of-speech and sentiment values of the co-occurring words). Finally, the results of all four subcorpora were compared. Here some of the main outcomes of our analyses are provided: There are almost four times fewer cases in the male corpus compared to the female corpus when the negative emotive intensifier modified a negative polarity word in the tweet (e.g., damn bad). At the same time, male authors used these intensifiers more frequently, modifying a positive polarity or a neutral word (e.g., damn good and damn big). Results also pointed out that, in contrast to female authors, male authors used these words much more frequently as a positive polarity word as well (e.g., brutális, ahogy ez a férfi rajzol ’it’s awesome (lit. brutal) how this guy draws’). We also observed that male authors use significantly fewer types of emotive intensifiers than female authors, and the frequency proportion of the words is more balanced in the female corpus. As for changes in language usage over time, some notable differences in the frequency and collocation features of the words examined were identified: some of the words collocate with more positive words in the 2nd subcorpora than in the 1st, which points to the semantic change of these words over time.

Keywords: gender differences, negative emotive words, semantic changes over time, twitter

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1 The Correspondence between Self-regulated Learning, Learning Efficiency and Frequency of ICT Use

Authors: Maria David, Tunde A. Tasko, Katalin Hejja-Nagy, Laszlo Dorner


The authors have been concerned with research on learning since 1998. Recently, the focus of our interest is how prevalent use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences students' learning abilities, skills of self-regulated learning and learning efficiency. Nowadays, there are three dominant theories about the psychic effects of ICT use: According to social optimists, modern ICT devices have a positive effect on thinking. As to social pessimists, this effect is rather negative. And, regarding the views of biological optimists, the change is obvious, but these changes can fit into the mankind's evolved neurological system as did writing long ago. Mentality of 'digital natives' differ from that of elder people. They process information coming from the outside world in an other way, and different experiences result in different cerebral conformation. In this regard, researchers report about both positive and negative effects of ICT use. According to several studies, it has a positive effect on cognitive skills, intelligence, school efficiency, development of self-regulated learning, and self-esteem regarding learning. It is also proven, that computers improve skills of visual intelligence such as spacial orientation, iconic skills and visual attention. Among negative effects of frequent ICT use, researchers mention the decrease of critical thinking, as permanent flow of information does not give scope for deeper cognitive processing. Aims of our present study were to uncover developmental characteristics of self-regulated learning in different age groups and to study correlations of learning efficiency, the level of self-regulated learning and frequency of use of computers. Our subjects (N=1600) were primary and secondary school students and university students. We studied four age groups (age 10, 14, 18, 22), 400 subjects of each. We used the following methods: the research team developed a questionnaire for measuring level of self-regulated learning and a questionnaire for measuring ICT use, and we used documentary analysis to gain information about grade point average (GPA) and results of competence-measures. Finally, we used computer tasks to measure cognitive abilities. Data is currently under analysis, but as to our preliminary results, frequent use of computers results in shorter response time regarding every age groups. Our results show that an ordinary extent of ICT use tend to increase reading competence, and had a positive effect on students' abilities, though it didn't show relationship with school marks (GPA). As time passes, GPA gets worse along with the learning material getting more and more difficult. This phenomenon draws attention to the fact that students are unable to switch from guided to independent learning, so it is important to consciously develop skills of self-regulated learning.

Keywords: digital natives, ICT, learning efficiency, reading competence, self-regulated learning

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