Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Samy H. Darwish

42 Directivity and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Array Antenna with Directors

Authors: Hassan M. Elkamchouchi, Samy H. Darwish, Yasser H. Elkamchouchi, M. E. Morsy


Methodology is suggested to design a linear rectangular microstrip array antenna based on Yagi antenna theory. The antenna with different directors' lengths as parasitic elements were designed, simulated, and analyzed using HFSS. The calculus and results illustrate the effectiveness of using specific parasitic elements to improve the directivity and gain for microstrip array antenna. The results have shown that the suggested methodology has the potential to be applied for improving the antenna performance. Maximum radiation intensity (Umax) of the order of 0.47w/st was recorded, directivity of 6.58dB, and gain better than 6.07dB are readily achievable for the antenna that working.

Keywords: directivity, director, microstrip antenna, gain improvment

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41 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan


The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Arab contemporary poetry, identity, memory, argumentation

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40 Economical Working Hours per Workday for a Production Worker under Hazardous Environment

Authors: Mohammed Darwish


Workplace injuries cost organizations significant amount of money. Causes of injuries at workplace are very well documented in the literature and attributed to variety of reasons. One important reason is the long working-hours. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model that finds the optimal working-hours at workplace. The developed model minimizes the expected total cost which consists of the expected cost incurred due to unsafe conditions of workplace, the other cost is related to the lost production due to work incidents, and the production cost.

Keywords: 8-hour workday, mathematical model, optimal working hours, workplace injuries

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39 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai


The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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38 Optical and Double Folding Analysis for 6Li+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Abd Elrahman Elgamala, N. Darwish, I. Bondouk, Sh. Hamada


Available experimental angular distributions for 6Li elastically scattered from 16O nucleus in the energy range 13.0–50.0 MeV are investigated and reanalyzed using optical model of the conventional phenomenological potential and also using double folding optical model of different interaction models: DDM3Y1, CDM3Y1, CDM3Y2, and CDM3Y3. All the involved models of interaction are of M3Y Paris except DDM3Y1 which is of M3Y Reid and the main difference between them lies in the different values for the parameters of the incorporated density distribution function F(ρ). We have extracted the renormalization factor NR for 6Li+16O nuclear system in the energy range 13.0–50.0 MeV using the aforementioned interaction models.

Keywords: elastic scattering, optical model, folding potential, density distribution

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37 One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity

Authors: Samy M. Shaban, Ismail Aiad, Mohamed M. El-Sukkary, E. A. Soliman, Moshira Y. El-Awady


In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: photosynthesis, hexaonal shapes, zetapotential, biological activity

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36 Software Assessment Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Saad M. Darwish


Recently, software quality issues have come to be seen as important subject as we see an enormous growth of agencies involved in software industries. However,these agencies cannot guarantee the quality of their products, thus leaving users in uncertainties. Software certification is the extension of quality by means that quality needs to be measured prior to certification granting process. This research participates in solving the problem of software assessment by proposing a model for assessment and certification of software product that uses a fuzzy inference engine to integrate both of process–driven and application-driven quality assurance strategies. The key idea of the on hand model is to improve the compactness and the interpretability of the model’s fuzzy rules via employing an ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), which tries to find good rules description by dint of compound rules initially expressed with traditional single rules. The model has been tested by case study and the results have demonstrated feasibility and practicability of the model in a real environment.

Keywords: optimization technique, quality assurance, software certification model, software assessment

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35 The Influence of Online Marketing Tactics in Tourist Destination Reputation: Egypt as a Case Study

Authors: Alyaa Darwish, Peter Burns, Sofia Reino


Online marketing has been the key focus of attention for the majority of destinations since the Internet became the primarily information tool for travel marketing. Tourism is a reputation-dependent industry; potential travelers who do not have previous experience with the destination face numerous risks during the process of decision-making. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps to minimize risk against unsatisfying travel experiences. However, there has been limited investigation with regards to the reputation of tourist destination. Taking the importance of reputation to the tourism industry, this research aims to: 1) Develop a destination reputation model; 2) Assess the tourist destination approach towards online marketing tactics; 3) Evaluate the impact of differentiated online marketing tactics on reputation; and 4) Measure the potential for using online marketing tactics to manage the destination’s online reputation. This research follows an interpretivism epistemological research approach through using four research methods; interviews, questionnaire, content analysis, and experiment to achieve the research goals.

Keywords: destination reputation, online marketing, reputation, tactics

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
34 Evolving Software Assessment and Certification Models Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Saad M. Darwish


Recently, software quality issues have come to be seen as important subject as we see an enormous growth of agencies involved in software industries. However, these agencies cannot guarantee the quality of their products, thus leaving users in uncertainties. Software certification is the extension of quality by means that quality needs to be measured prior to certification granting process. This research participates in solving the problem of software assessment by proposing a model for assessment and certification of software product that uses a fuzzy inference engine to integrate both of process–driven and application-driven quality assurance strategies. The key idea of the on hand model is to improve the compactness and the interpretability of the model’s fuzzy rules via employing an ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), which tries to find good rules description by dint of compound rules initially expressed with traditional single rules. The model has been tested by case study and the results have demonstrated feasibility and practicability of the model in a real environment.

Keywords: software quality, quality assurance, software certification model, software assessment

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33 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: waste water, nickel, bentonite, adsorption

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32 A Polynomial Time Clustering Algorithm for Solving the Assignment Problem in the Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Lydia Wahid, Mona F. Ahmed, Nevin Darwish


The vehicle routing problem (VRP) consists of a group of customers that needs to be served. Each customer has a certain demand of goods. A central depot having a fleet of vehicles is responsible for supplying the customers with their demands. The problem is composed of two subproblems: The first subproblem is an assignment problem where the number of vehicles that will be used as well as the customers assigned to each vehicle are determined. The second subproblem is the routing problem in which for each vehicle having a number of customers assigned to it, the order of visits of the customers is determined. Optimal number of vehicles, as well as optimal total distance, should be achieved. In this paper, an approach for solving the first subproblem (the assignment problem) is presented. In the approach, a clustering algorithm is proposed for finding the optimal number of vehicles by grouping the customers into clusters where each cluster is visited by one vehicle. Finding the optimal number of clusters is NP-hard. This work presents a polynomial time clustering algorithm for finding the optimal number of clusters and solving the assignment problem.

Keywords: vehicle routing problems, clustering algorithms, Clarke and Wright Saving Method, agglomerative hierarchical clustering

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31 Relaxation Behavior of Biorenewable Waterborne Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane-Lignin Thin Films

Authors: Samy Madbouly


The relaxation behavior of biorenewable castor oil-based polyurethane-lignin thin films synthesized in homogenous waterborne dispersions was investigated as a function of concentration at different temperatures and frequencies using broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (BDRS). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process and the local relaxation process of the PU-LS thin films were studied over a wide range of temperatures (-70 to 30 ℃) and frequencies (5 × 10−2 to 0.5 × 107 Hz) for different lignin concentration. Four relaxation processes have been observed namely; ?-, β-, γ-relaxations and ionic conductivity for pure castor oil-based PU and castor oil-lignin-based PU thin films at different temperatures and frequencies ranges. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation was found to be well described the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times of the ?-relaxation process. However, on the other hand, the molecular dynamics of both β- and γ-relaxation processes were given by the Arrhenius equation. The incorporation of lignin into the castor oil-based PU significantly increased the glass transition temperature and primitivity of the thin films. In addition, the broadness, intensity, and molecular dynamics of the only observed ?-relaxation process were found to be strongly dependent on lignin concentration.

Keywords: castor oil, lignin, polyurethane, dielectric, dispersions

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30 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah


In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions

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29 Simulation on Influence of Environmental Conditions on Part Distortion in Fused Deposition Modelling

Authors: Anto Antony Samy, Atefeh Golbang, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the additive manufacturing techniques that has become highly attractive in the industrial and academic sectors. However, parts fabricated through FDM are highly susceptible to geometrical defects such as warpage, shrinkage, and delamination that can severely affect their function. Among the thermoplastic polymer feedstock for FDM, semi-crystalline polymers are highly prone to part distortion due to polymer crystallization. In this study, the influence of FDM processing conditions such as chamber temperature and print bed temperature on the induced thermal residual stress and resulting warpage are investigated using the 3D transient thermal model for a semi-crystalline polymer. The thermo-mechanical properties and the viscoelasticity of the polymer, as well as the crystallization physics, which considers the crystallinity of the polymer, are coupled with the evolving temperature gradient of the print model. From the results, it was observed that increasing the chamber temperature from 25°C to 75°C lead to a decrease of 1.5% residual stress, while decreasing bed temperature from 100°C to 60°C, resulted in a 33% increase in residual stress and a significant rise of 138% in warpage. The simulated warpage data is validated by comparing it with the measured warpage values of the samples using 3D scanning.

Keywords: finite element analysis, fused deposition modelling, residual stress, warpage

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28 Teachers’ Attitudes and Techniques in EFL Writing in Secondary Schools in Egypt

Authors: Hosam Mohamed Darwish


In 2008, the Egyptian Ministry of Education introduced a new national coursebook ‘Hello for Secondary Schools, which recommends a shift in EFL teachers’ instructional practices. Since then, very little attention has been paid to teachers’ techniques in EFL writing classes. Hence, this study aimed at investigating teaching writing practices in secondary schools and exploring the teachers’ attitudes towards EFL writing skill in addition to exploring the difficulties that teachers encountered in EFL writing lessons. The study depended on data triangulation through administering two questionnaires: one to 44 teachers and the other to 24 students, and conducting semi-structured interviews with 11 teachers. Both teachers and students were asked to describe teaching practices in EFL writing classes while the open-ended questions and interviews collected data about the teachers’ difficulties in writing lessons. The questionnaires indicate that teachers have negative attitudes towards teaching writing, and most of their practices are still traditional. Five factors have influenced teachers’ practices: backwash of the test, teachers’ professional development, students’ culture of reading and large classes. The study recommends there has to be a necessary change in the students’ examination system, and ongoing teachers’ professional development should be considered. Finally, a teaching model and implications are suggested.

Keywords: EFL writing, Egyptian secondary schools, teachers’ attitudes, teachers’ techniques

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27 Automated Vehicle Traffic Control Tower: A Solution to Support the Next Level Automation

Authors: Xiaoyun Zhao, Rami Darwish, Anna Pernestål


Automated vehicles (AVs) have the potential to enhance road capacity, improving road safety and traffic efficiency. Research and development on AVs have been going on for many years. However, when the complicated traffic rules and real situations interacted, AVs fail to make decisions on contradicting situations, and are not able to have control in all conditions due to highly dynamic driving scenarios. This limits AVs’ usage and restricts the full potential benefits that they can bring. Furthermore, regulations, infrastructure development, and public acceptance cannot keep up at the same pace as technology breakthroughs. Facing these challenges, this paper proposes automated vehicle traffic control tower (AVTCT) acting as a safe, efficient and integrated solution for AV control. It introduces a concept of AVTCT for control, management, decision-making, communication and interaction with various aspects in transportation. With the prototype demonstrations and simulations, AVTCT has the potential to overcome the control challenges with AVs and can facilitate AV reaching their full potential. Possible functionalities, benefits as well as challenges of AVTCT are discussed, which set the foundation for the conceptual model, simulation and real application of AVTCT.

Keywords: automated vehicle, connectivity and automation, intelligent transport system, traffic control, traffic safety

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26 Towards Reliable Mobile Cloud Computing

Authors: Khaled Darwish, Islam El Madahh, Hoda Mohamed, Hadia El Hennawy


Cloud computing has been one of the fastest growing parts in IT industry mainly in the context of the future of the web where computing, communication, and storage services are main services provided for Internet users. Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is gaining stream which can be used to extend cloud computing functions, services and results to the world of future mobile applications and enables delivery of a large variety of cloud application to billions of smartphones and wearable devices. This paper describes reliability for MCC by determining the ability of a system or component to function correctly under stated conditions for a specified period of time to be able to deal with the estimation and management of high levels of lifetime engineering uncertainty and risks of failure. The assessment procedures consists of determine Mean Time between Failures (MTBF), Mean Time to Failure (MTTF), and availability percentages for main components in both cloud computing and MCC structures applied on single node OpenStack installation to analyze its performance with different settings governing the behavior of participants. Additionally, we presented several factors have a significant impact on rates of change overall cloud system reliability should be taken into account in order to deliver highly available cloud computing services for mobile consumers.

Keywords: cloud computing, mobile cloud computing, reliability, availability, OpenStack

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25 Antibacterial Activities, Chemical Constitutes and Acute Toxicity of Peganum Harmala L. Essential Oil

Authors: Samy Selim


Natural products are still major sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases. Peganum harmala L. oil had wide range uses as traditional medicinal plants. The current study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of P. harmala essential oil. The chemical constitutes and toxicity of these oils was also determined to obtain further information on the correlation between the chemical contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial effect of the essential oils of P. harmala oil was studied against some foodborne pathogenic bacteria species. The oil of plant was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The impact of oils administration on the change in rate of weight gain and complete blood picture in hamsters were investigated. P. harmala oil had strong antibacterial effect against bacterial species especially at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than 75.0 μg/ml. From the oil of P. harmala, forty one compounds were identified, and the major constituent was 1-hexyl-2-nitrocyclohexane (9.07%). Acute toxicity test was performed on hamsters and showed complete survival after 14 days, and there were no toxicity symptoms occurred. This study demonstrated that these essential oils seemed to be destitute of toxic effect which could compromise the medicinal use of these plants in folk medicine.

Keywords: analysis mass spectrometry, antibacterial activities, acute toxicity, chemical constitutes, gas chromatography, weight gain, Peganum harmala

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24 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm


The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Blue Nile Basin, climate change, hydrological modeling, watershed

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23 Enhancement of Mechanical Properties for Al-Mg-Si Alloy Using Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: W. H. El Garaihy, A. Nassef, S. Samy


Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy was conducted using two strain rates. The ECAP processing was conducted at room temperature and at 250 °C. Route A was adopted up to a total number of four passes in the present work. Structural evolution of the aluminum alloy discs was investigated before and after ECAP processing using optical microscopy (OM). Following ECAP, simple compression tests and Vicker’s hardness were performed. OM micrographs showed that, the average grain size of the as-received Al-Mg-Si disc tends to be larger than the size of the ECAP processed discs. Moreover, significant difference in the grain morphologies of the as-received and processed discs was observed. Intensity of deformation was observed via the alignment of the Al-Mg-Si consolidated particles (grains) in the direction of shear, which increased with increasing the number of passes via ECAP. Increasing the number of passes up to 4 resulted in increasing the grains aspect ratio up to ~5. It was found that the pressing temperature has a significant influence on the microstructure, Hv-values, and compressive strength of the processed discs. Hardness measurements demonstrated that 1-pass resulted in increase of Hv-value by 42% compared to that of the as-received alloy. 4-passes of ECAP processing resulted in additional increase in the Hv-value. A similar trend was observed for the yield and compressive strength. Experimental data of the Hv-values demonstrated that there is a lack of any significant dependence on the processing strain rate.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Si alloy, equal channel angular pressing, grain refinement, severe plastic deformation

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22 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar


Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman

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21 Amelioration of Over-Expression of bax, Nrf2 and NFК–β in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Intoxicated Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry


The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems resulting in demand for parallel risk assessment. The objective of this study is investigating either the effect of individual or combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on amelioration of some biochemical indices of nano sized titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) induced metabolic disorders in mice liver. TiO2-NPS was administered in an oral dose of 150 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days followed by oral daily doses of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum level of ALT and AST, hepatic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover, mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation-2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down-regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion, idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with a variable degree with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: idebenone, carnosine, vitamin E, TiO2 NPS, caspase-3, NrF2, NF-KB

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20 Automatic Multi-Label Image Annotation System Guided by Firefly Algorithm and Bayesian Method

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Mohamed A. El-Iskandarani, Guitar M. Shawkat


Nowadays, the amount of available multimedia data is continuously on the rise. The need to find a required image for an ordinary user is a challenging task. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) computes relevance based on the visual similarity of low-level image features such as color, textures, etc. However, there is a gap between low-level visual features and semantic meanings required by applications. The typical method of bridging the semantic gap is through the automatic image annotation (AIA) that extracts semantic features using machine learning techniques. In this paper, a multi-label image annotation system guided by Firefly and Bayesian method is proposed. Firstly, images are segmented using the maximum variance intra cluster and Firefly algorithm, which is a swarm-based approach with high convergence speed, less computation rate and search for the optimal multiple threshold. Feature extraction techniques based on color features and region properties are applied to obtain the representative features. After that, the images are annotated using translation model based on the Net Bayes system, which is efficient for multi-label learning with high precision and less complexity. Experiments are performed using Corel Database. The results show that the proposed system is better than traditional ones for automatic image annotation and retrieval.

Keywords: feature extraction, feature selection, image annotation, classification

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19 Hand Gesture Recognition for Sign Language: A New Higher Order Fuzzy HMM Approach

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Magda M. Madbouly, Murad B. Khorsheed


Sign Languages (SL) are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challenge, which is interestingly implied to their lexical and syntactic organization levels. Hidden Markov models (HMM’s) have been used prominently and successfully in speech recognition and, more recently, in handwriting recognition. Consequently, they seem ideal for visual recognition of complex, structured hand gestures such as are found in sign language. In this paper, several results concerning static hand gesture recognition using an algorithm based on Type-2 Fuzzy HMM (T2FHMM) are presented. The features used as observables in the training as well as in the recognition phases are based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). SVD is an extension of Eigen decomposition to suit non-square matrices to reduce multi attribute hand gesture data to feature vectors. SVD optimally exposes the geometric structure of a matrix. In our approach, we replace the basic HMM arithmetic operators by some adequate Type-2 fuzzy operators that permits us to relax the additive constraint of probability measures. Therefore, T2FHMMs are able to handle both random and fuzzy uncertainties existing universally in the sequential data. Experimental results show that T2FHMMs can effectively handle noise and dialect uncertainties in hand signals besides a better classification performance than the classical HMMs. The recognition rate of the proposed system is 100% for uniform hand images and 86.21% for cluttered hand images.

Keywords: hand gesture recognition, hand detection, type-2 fuzzy logic, hidden Markov Model

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18 Seam Slippage of Light Woven Fabrics with Regards to Sewing Parameters

Authors: Mona Shawky, Khaled M. Elsheikh, Heba M. Darwish, Eman Abd El Elsamea


Seams are the basic component in the structure of any apparel. The seam quality of the garment is a term that indicates both the aesthetic and functional performance of the garment. Seam slippage is one of the important properties that determine garment performance. Lightweight fabrics are preferred for their aesthetic properties. Since seam slippage is one of the most occurable faults for woven garments, in this study, a design of experiment of the following sewing parameters (three levels of needle size, three levels of stitch density, three levels of the seam allowance, two levels of sewing thread count, and two fabric types) was used to obtain the effect of the interaction between different sewing parameters on-seam slippage force. Two lightweight polyester woven fabrics with different constructions were used with lock stitch 301 to perform this study. Regression equations which can predict seam slippage force in both warp and weft directions were concluded. It was found that fabric type has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force in the warp direction, while it has a significant negative effect on seam slippage force on weft direction. Also, the interaction between needle size and stitch density has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force on warp direction, while the interaction between stitch density and seam allowance has a negative effect on seam slippage force in the weft direction.

Keywords: needle size, regression equation, seam allowance, seam slippage, stitch density

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17 Predatory Potential of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus on Different Prey Species

Authors: Adnan A. E. Darwish


The predatory potential and preference of both larvae and adult of seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and the eleven-spot ladybird, Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were investigated under laboratory conditions at varying prey densities at faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour university, Egypt. There were significant differences between the consumed numbers of the four different species by the two different lady beetle species. The most consumed prey by C. septempunctata was the A. gossypii followed by R. padi then M. persicae and finally T. tabaci and these results were repeated in case of C. undecimpunctata. As the grubs of C. septempunctata and C. undecimpunctata developed from 1st to 4th larval instars, the consumption rate from aphid species and thrips increased. The consumption rate of M. persicae, A. gossypii, R. padi and T. tabaci significantly increased with the advancement in the larval stage of the predator. The forth larval instar of C. septempunctata and C. undecimpunctata exhibited the highest predatory potential comparing to the first, second and third larval instars. The number of prey eaten by adult stage or different instars of larvae of the two predators increased significantly with prey density, reaching the maximum value when 150 preys were provided compared with 50 and 100 preys.

Keywords: predatory potential, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella undecimpunctata, Thrips tabaci, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Rhopalosiphum padi

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16 Improving Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Grid Computing Using Fractal Transform

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Adel A. El-Zoghabi, Moustafa F. Ashry


The popularity of the Internet and the availability of powerful computers and high-speed networks as low-cost commodity components are changing the way we use computers today. These technical opportunities have led to the possibility of using geographically distributed and multi-owner resources to solve large-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Recent research on these topics has led to the emergence of a new paradigm known as Grid computing. To achieve the promising potentials of tremendous distributed resources, effective and efficient load balancing algorithms are fundamentally important. Unfortunately, load balancing algorithms in traditional parallel and distributed systems, which usually run on homogeneous and dedicated resources, cannot work well in the new circumstances. In this paper, the concept of a fast fractal transform in heterogeneous grid computing based on R-tree and the domain-range entropy is proposed to improve fault tolerance and load balancing algorithm by improve connectivity, communication delay, network bandwidth, resource availability, and resource unpredictability. A novel two-dimension figure of merit is suggested to describe the network effects on load balance and fault tolerance estimation. Fault tolerance is enhanced by adaptively decrease replication time and message cost while load balance is enhanced by adaptively decrease mean job response time. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields superior performance over other methods.

Keywords: Grid computing, load balancing, fault tolerance, R-tree, heterogeneous systems

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15 A contribution to Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Ailanthus Alitssima Swingle Cultivated in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Samy Elnoby


Ailanthus altissima native to Asia which belongs to the family Simaroubaceae was subjected to phytochemical screening and biological investigations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, sterols, flavonoids and traces of saponins. In addition, quantitative determination of phenolics and flavonoid content were performed. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of the leaves was determined against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria in addition to fungi using a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method that was compared with standard discs ampicillin which acts as an antibacterial agent and amphotericin B which acts as an antifungal agent. A high potency was observed against gram-positive bacteria mainly staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria mainly Escherichia coli and showed no potency against fungi mainly Aspergillus flavus and candida albicans. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH). A very low potency was shown by using DPPH for the antioxidant effect so IC50 = 0 ug/ml, IC90 =0 ug /ml and remark gave 47.2 % at 100 ug/ml which is very weak. Cytotoxic activity was determined by using MTT assay (3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) against MCF7 (Human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. A moderate potency was shown by using MCF7 cell line for cytotoxic effect so LC50= 90.2 ug/ml, LC90=139.9 ug/ml and the remark gave 55.2% at 100 ug/ml which is of moderate activity so, Ailanthus altissima can be considered to be a promising antimicrobial agent from natural origin.

Keywords: Ailanthus altissima, TLC, HPLC, anti-microbial activity, antifungal activity, antioxidant, cytotoxic activity

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14 Microgravity, Hydrological and Metrological Monitoring of Shallow Ground Water Aquifer in Al-Ain, UAE

Authors: Serin Darwish, Hakim Saibi, Amir Gabr


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is situated within an arid zone where the climate is arid and the recharge of the groundwater is very low. Groundwater is the primary source of water in the United Arab Emirates. However, rapid expansion, population growth, agriculture, and industrial activities have negatively affected these limited water resources. The shortage of water resources has become a serious concern due to the over-pumping of groundwater to meet demand. In addition to the deficit of groundwater, the UAE has one of the highest per capita water consumption rates in the world. In this study, a combination of time-lapse measurements of microgravity and depth to groundwater level in selected wells in Al Ain city was used to estimate the variations in groundwater storage. Al-Ain is the second largest city in Abu Dhabi Emirates and the third largest city in the UAE. The groundwater in this region has been overexploited. Relative gravity measurements were acquired using the Scintrex CG-6 Autograv. This latest generation gravimeter from Scintrex Ltd provides fast, precise gravity measurements and automated corrections for temperature, tide, instrument tilt and rejection of data noise. The CG-6 gravimeter has a resolution of 0.1μGal. The purpose of this study is to measure the groundwater storage changes in the shallow aquifers based on the application of microgravity method. The gravity method is a nondestructive technique that allows collection of data at almost any location over the aquifer. Preliminary results indicate a possible relationship between microgravity and water levels, but more work needs to be done to confirm this. The results will help to develop the relationship between monthly microgravity changes with hydrological and hydrogeological changes of shallow phreatic. The study will be useful in water management considerations and additional future investigations.

Keywords: Al-Ain, arid region, groundwater, microgravity

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13 Facilitating Waste Management to Achieve Sustainable Residential Built Environments

Authors: Ingy Ibrahim El-Darwish, Neveen Youssef Azmy


The endowment of a healthy environment can be implemented by endorsing sustainable fundamentals. Design of sustainable buildings through recycling of waste, can reduce health problems, provide good environments and contribute to the aesthetically pleasing entourage. Such environments can help in providing energy-saving alternatives to consolidate the principles of sustainability. The poor community awareness and the absence of laws and legislation in Egypt for waste management specifically in residential areas have led to an inability to provide an integrated system for waste management in urban and rural areas. Many problems and environmental challenges face the Egyptian urban environments. From these problems, is the lack of a cohesive vision for waste collection and recycling for energy-saving. The second problem is the lack public awareness of the short term and long term vision of waste management. Bad practices have adversely affected the efficiency of environmental management systems due to lack of urban legislations that codify collection and recycling of residential communities in Egyptian urban environments. Hence, this research tries to address residents on waste management matters to facilitate legislative process on waste collection and classification within residential units and outside them in a preparation phase for recycling in the Egyptian urban environments. In order to achieve this goal, one of the Egyptian communities has been addressed, analyzed and studied. Waste collection, classification, separation and access to recycling places in the urban city are proposed in preparation for a legislation ruling and regulating the process. Hence, sustainable principles are to be achieved.

Keywords: recycling, residential buildings, sustainability, waste

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