Search results for: István Patkó
26 The Optimization of Sun Collector Parameters
Authors: István Patkó, Hosam Bayoumi Hamuda, András Szeder
Abstract:In order to efficiently solve the problems created by the deepening energy crisis affecting Europe and the world, governments cannot neglect the opportunities of using the energy produced by sun collectors. In many of the EU countries there are sun collectors producing heat energy, e.g. in 2011 in the area of EU27 (countries which belong to European Union) + Switzerland altogether 37519126 m2 were operated, which are capable of producing 26.3 GWh heat energy. The energy produced by these sun collectors is utilized at the place of production. In the near future governments will have to focus more on spreading and using sun collectors. Among the complex problems of operating sun collectors, this article deals with determining the optimal tilt angle, directions of sun collectors. We evaluate the contamination of glass surface of sun collector to the produced energy. Our theoretically results are confirmed by laboratory measurements. The purpose of our work is to help users and engineers in determination of optimal operation parameters of sun collectors.
Keywords: heat energy, tilt angle, direction of sun collector, contamination of surfaceProcedia PDF Downloads 378
25 The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary
Authors: András Medve, Katalin Szabad, István Patkó
Abstract:According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.
Keywords: sustainable energy, renewable energy, development of geothermic energy in HungaryProcedia PDF Downloads 521
24 Preparation and Characterization of CO-Tolerant Electrocatalyst for PEM Fuel Cell
Authors: Ádám Vass, István Bakos, Irina Borbáth, Zoltán Pászti, István Sajó, András Tompos
Abstract:Important requirements for the anode side electrocatalysts of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are CO-tolerance, stability and corrosion resistance. Carbon is still the most common material for electrocatalyst supports due to its low cost, high electrical conductivity and high surface area, which can ensure good dispersion of the Pt. However, carbon becomes degraded at higher potentials and it causes problem during application. Therefore it is important to explore alternative materials with improved stability. Molybdenum-oxide can improve the CO-tolerance of the Pt/C catalysts, but it is prone to leach in acidic electrolyte. The Mo was stabilized by isovalent substitution of molybdenum into the rutile phase titanium-dioxide lattice, achieved by a modified multistep sol-gel synthesis method optimized for preparation of Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite. High degree of Mo incorporation into the rutile lattice was developed. The conductivity and corrosion resistance across the anticipated potential/pH window was ensured by mixed oxide – activated carbon composite. Platinum loading was carried out using NaBH4 and ethylene glycol; platinum content was 40 wt%. The electrocatalyst was characterized by both material investigating methods (i.e. XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS techniques) and electrochemical methods (cyclic-voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry, hydrogen oxidation reaction on rotating disc electrode). The electrochemical activity of the sample was compared to commercial 40 wt% Pt/C (Quintech) and PtRu/C (Quintech, Pt= 20 wt%, Ru= 10 wt%) references. Enhanced CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst prepared using the Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material was evidenced by the appearance of a CO-oxidation related 'pre-peak' and by the pronounced shift of the maximum of the main CO oxidation peak towards less positive potential compared to Pt/C. Fuel cell polarization measurements were also carried out using Bio-Logic and Paxitech FCT-150S test device. All details on the design, preparation, characterization and testing by both electrochemical measurements and fuel cell test device of electrocatalyst supported on Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material will be presented and discussed.
Keywords: anode electrocatalyst, composite material, CO-tolerance, TiMoOxProcedia PDF Downloads 225
23 Improving the Quality of Transport Management Services with Fuzzy Signatures
Authors: Csaba I. Hencz, István Á. Harmati
Abstract:Nowadays the significance of road transport is gradually increasing. All transport companies are working in the same external environment where the speed of transport is defined by traffic rules. The main objective is to accelerate the speed of service and it is only dependent on the individual abilities of the managing members. These operational control units make decisions quickly (in a typically experiential and/or intuitive way). For this reason, support for these decisions is an important task. Our goal is to create a decision support model based on fuzzy signatures that can assist the work of operational management automatically. If the model sets parameters properly, the management of transport could be more economical and efficient.
Keywords: freight transport, decision support, information handling, fuzzy methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 186
22 Periodicity Analysis of Long-Term Waterquality Data Series of the Hungarian Section of the River Tisza Using Morlet Wavelet Spectrum Estimation
Authors: Péter Tanos, József Kovács, Angéla Anda, Gábor Várbíró, Sándor Molnár, István Gábor Hatvani
Abstract:The River Tisza is the second largest river in Central Europe. In this study, Morlet wavelet spectrum (periodicity) analysis was used with chemical, biological and physical water quality data for the Hungarian section of the River Tisza. In the research 15, water quality parameters measured at 14 sampling sites in the River Tisza and 4 sampling sites in the main artificial changes were assessed for the time period 1993 - 2005. Results show that annual periodicity was not always to be found in the water quality parameters, at least at certain sampling sites. Periodicity was found to vary over space and time, but in general, an increase was observed in the company of higher trophic states of the river heading downstream.
Keywords: annual periodicity water quality, spatiotemporal variability of periodic behavior, Morlet wavelet spectrum analysis, River TiszaProcedia PDF Downloads 275
21 Calcium Complexing Properties of Isosaccharinate Ion in Highly Alkaline Environment
Authors: Csilla Dudás, Éva Böszörményi, Bence Kutus, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos
Abstract:In this study the behavior of alpha-D-isosaccharinate (2-hydroxymethyl-3-deoxy-D-erythro-pentonate, ISA−) in alkaline medium in the presence of calcium was studied. At first the Ca–ISA system was studied by Ca-ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) in neutral medium at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl to determine the formation constant of the CaISA+ monocomplex, which was found to be logK = 1.01 ± 0.01 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– = CaISA+. In alkaline medium pH potentiometric titrations were carried out to determine the composition and stability constant of the complex(es) formed. It was found that in these systems above pH = 12.5 the predominant species is the CaISAOH complex. Its formation constant was found to be logK = 3.04 ± 0.05 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– + H2O = CaISAOH + H+ at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl. Solubility measurements resulted in data consistent with those of the potentiometric titrations. Temperature dependent NMR spectra showed that the slow exchange range between the complex and the free ligand is below 5 °C. It was also showed that ISA– acts as a multidentate ligand forming macrochelate Ca-complexes. The structure of the complexes was determined by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations.
Keywords: Ca-ISE potentiometry, calcium complexes, isosaccharinate ion, NMR spectroscopy, pH potentiometryProcedia PDF Downloads 203
20 Memories of Lost Fathers: The Unfinished Transmission of Generational Values in Hungarian Cinema by Peter Falanga
Authors: Peter Falanga
Abstract:During the process of de-Stalinization that began in 1956 with the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, many filmmakers in Hungary chose to explore their country’s political discomforts by using Socialist Realism as a negative model against which they could react to the dominating ideology. A renewed national film industry and a more permissive political regime would allow filmmakers to take to task the plight of the preceding generation who had experienced the fatal political turmoil of both World Wars and the purges of Stalin. What follows is no longer the multigenerational unity found in Socialist Realism wherein both the old and the young embrace Stalin’s revolutionary optimism; instead, the protagonists are parentless, and thus their connection to the previous generation is partially severed. In these films, violent historical forces leave one generation to search for both a connection with their family’s past, and for moral guidance to direct their future. István Szabó’s Father (1966), Márta Mészáros Diary for My Children (1984), and Pál Gábor’s Angi Vera (1978) each consider the fraught relationship between successive generations through the lens of postwar youth. A characteristic each of their protagonist’s share is that they are all missing one or both parents, and cope with familial loss either through recalling memories of their parents in dream-like sequences, or, in the case of Angi Vera, through embracing the surrogate paternalism that the Communist Party promises to provide. This paper considers the argument these films present about the progress of Hungarian history, and how this topic is explored in more recent films that similarly focus on the transmission of generational values. Scholars such as László Strausz and John Cunningham have written on the continuous concern with the transmission of generational values in more recent films such as István Szabó’s Sunshine (1999), Béla Tarr’s Werckmeister Harmonies (2000), György Pálfi’s Taxidermia (2006), Ágnes Kocsis’ Pál Adrienn (2010), and Kornél Mundruczó’s Evolution (2021). These films, they argue, make intimate portrayals of the various sweeping political changes in Hungary’s history and question how these epochs or events have impacted Hungarian identities. If these films attempt to personalize historical shifts of Hungary, then what is the significance of featuring characters who have lost one or both parents? An attempt to understand this coherent trend in Hungarian cinema will profit from examining the earlier, celebrated films of Szabó, Mészáros, and Gábor, who inaugurated this preoccupation with generational values. The pervasive interplay of dreams and memory in their films invites an additional element to their argument concerning historical progression. This paper incorporates Richard Teniman’s notion of the “dialectics of memory” in which memory is in a constant process of negation and reinvention to explain why these Directors prefer to explore Hungarian identity through the disarranged form of psychological realism over the linear causality structure of historical realism.
Keywords: film theory, Eastern European Studies, film history, Eastern European HistoryProcedia PDF Downloads 43
19 Environmental and Toxicological Impacts of Glyphosate with Its Formulating Adjuvant
Authors: I. Székács, Á. Fejes, S. Klátyik, E. Takács, D. Patkó, J. Pomóthy, M. Mörtl, R. Horváth, E. Madarász, B. Darvas, A. Székács
Abstract:Environmental and toxicological characteristics of formulated pesticides may substantially differ from those of their active ingredients or other components alone. This phenomenon is demonstrated in the case of the herbicide active ingredient glyphosate. Due to its extensive application, this active ingredient was found in surface and ground water samples collected in Békés County, Hungary, in the concentration range of 0.54–0.98 ng/ml. The occurrence of glyphosate appeared to be somewhat higher at areas under intensive agriculture, industrial activities and public road services, but the compound was detected at areas under organic (ecological) farming or natural grasslands, indicating environmental mobility. Increased toxicity of the formulated herbicide product Roundup, compared to that of glyphosate was observed on the indicator aquatic organism Daphnia magna Straus. Acute LC50 values of Roundup and its formulating adjuvant Polyethoxylated Tallowamine (POEA) exceeded 20 and 3.1 mg/ml, respectively, while that of glyphosate (as isopropyl salt) was found to be substantially lower (690-900 mg/ml) showing good agreement with literature data. Cytotoxicity of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate has been determined on the neuroectodermal cell line, NE-4C measured both by cell viability test and holographic microscopy. Acute toxicity (LC50) of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate on NE-4C cells was found to be 0.013±0.002%, 0.017±0.009% and 6.46±2.25%, respectively (in equivalents of diluted Roundup solution), corresponding to 0.022±0.003 and 53.1±18.5 mg/ml for POEA and glyphosate, respectively, indicating no statistical difference between Roundup and POEA and 2.5 orders of magnitude difference between these and glyphosate. The same order of cellular toxicity seen in average cell area has been indicated under quantitative cell visualization. The results indicate that toxicity of the formulated herbicide is caused by the formulating agent, but in some parameters toxicological synergy occurs between POEA and glyphosate.
Keywords: glyphosate, polyethoxylated tallowamine, Roundup, combined aquatic and cellular toxicity, synergyProcedia PDF Downloads 256
18 Normalizing Scientometric Indicators of Individual Publications Using Local Cluster Detection Methods on Citation Networks
Authors: Levente Varga, Dávid Deritei, Mária Ercsey-Ravasz, Răzvan Florian, Zsolt I. Lázár, István Papp, Ferenc Járai-Szabó
Abstract:One of the major shortcomings of widely used scientometric indicators is that different disciplines cannot be compared with each other. The issue of cross-disciplinary normalization has been long discussed, but even the classification of publications into scientific domains poses problems. Structural properties of citation networks offer new possibilities, however, the large size and constant growth of these networks asks for precaution. Here we present a new tool that in order to perform cross-field normalization of scientometric indicators of individual publications relays on the structural properties of citation networks. Due to the large size of the networks, a systematic procedure for identifying scientific domains based on a local community detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is tested with different benchmark and real-world networks. Then, by the use of this algorithm, the mechanism of the scientometric indicator normalization process is shown for a few indicators like the citation number, P-index and a local version of the PageRank indicator. The fat-tail trend of the article indicator distribution enables us to successfully perform the indicator normalization process.
Keywords: citation networks, cross-field normalization, local cluster detection, scientometric indicatorsProcedia PDF Downloads 139
17 Efficient Ni(II)-Containing Layered Triple Hydroxide-Based Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterisation and Their Role in the Heck Reaction
Authors: Gabor Varga, Krisztina Karadi, Zoltan Konya, Akos Kukovecz, Pal Sipos, Istvan Palinko
Abstract:Nickel can efficiently replace palladium in the Heck, Suzuki and Negishi reactions. This study focuses on the synthesis and catalytic application of Ni(II)-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered triple hydroxides (LTHs). Our goals were to incorporate Ni(II) ions among the layers of LDHs or LTHs, or binding it to their surface or building it into their layers in such a way that their catalytic activities are maintained or even increased. The LDHs and LTHs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as co-solvent. In several cases, post-synthetic modifications (e.g., thermal treatment) were performed. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the composites displayed good crystallinity and were free of byproducts. The success of the syntheses and the post-synthetic modifications was confirmed by relevant characterization methods (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDX and combined IR techniques). Catalytic activities of the produced and well-characterized solids were investigated through the Heck reaction. The composites behaved as efficient, recyclable catalysts in the Heck reaction between 4-bromoanisole and styrene. Through varying the reaction parameters, we were able to obtain acceptable conversions under mild conditions. Our study highlights the possibility of the application of Ni(II)-containing composites as efficient catalysts in coupling reactions.
Keywords: layered double hydroxide, layered triple hydroxide, heterogeneous catalysis, heck reactionProcedia PDF Downloads 102
16 Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications
Authors: Istvan Csarnovics, Attila Bonyar, Miklos Veres, Laszlo Himics, Attila Csik, Judit Kaman, Julia Burunkova, Geza Szanto, Laszlo Balazs, Sandor Kokenyesi
Abstract:In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Keywords: light sensitive nanocomposites, metallic nanoparticles, photonic application, plasmonic nanostructuresProcedia PDF Downloads 233
15 Harmonic Distortion Analysis in Low Voltage Grid with Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
Authors: Hedi Dghim, Ahmed El-Naggar, Istvan Erlich
Abstract:Power electronic converters are being introduced in low voltage (LV) grids at an increasingly rapid rate due to the growing adoption of power electronic-based home appliances in residential grid. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered one of the potential installed renewable energy sources in distribution power systems. This trend has led to high distortion in the supply voltage which consequently produces harmonic currents in the network and causes an inherent voltage unbalance. In order to investigate the effect of harmonic distortions, a case study of a typical LV grid configuration with high penetration of 3-phase and 1-phase rooftop mounted PV from southern Germany was first considered. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulations were then carried out under the MATLAB/Simulink environment which contain detailed models for power electronic-based loads, ohmic-based loads as well as 1- and 3-phase PV. Note that, the switching patterns of the power electronic circuits were considered in this study. Measurements were eventually performed to analyze the distortion levels when PV operating under different solar irradiance. The characteristics of the load-side harmonic impedances were analyzed, and their harmonic contributions were evaluated for different distortion levels. The effect of the high penetration of PV on the harmonic distortion of both positive and negative sequences was also investigated. The simulation results are presented based on case studies. The current distortion levels are in agreement with relevant standards, otherwise the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) increases under low PV power generation due to its inverse relation with the fundamental current.
Keywords: harmonic distortion analysis, power quality, PV systems, residential distribution systemProcedia PDF Downloads 187
14 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers
Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel
Abstract:Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.
Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheatProcedia PDF Downloads 432
13 Impacts of Climate Elements on the Annual Periodic Behavior of the Shallow Groundwater Level: Case Study from Central-Eastern Europe
Authors: Tamas Garamhegyi, Jozsef Kovacs, Rita Pongracz, Peter Tanos, Balazs Trasy, Norbert Magyar, Istvan G. Hatvani
Abstract:Like most environmental processes, shallow groundwater fluctuation under natural circumstances also behaves periodically. With the statistical tools at hand, it can easily be determined if a period exists in the data or not. Thus, the question may be raised: Does the estimated average period time characterize the whole time period, or not? This is especially important in the case of such complex phenomena as shallow groundwater fluctuation, driven by numerous factors. Because of the continuous changes in the oscillating components of shallow groundwater time series, the most appropriate method should be used to investigate its periodicity, this is wavelet spectrum analysis. The aims of the research were to investigate the periodic behavior of the shallow groundwater time series of an agriculturally important and drought sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe and its relationship to the European pressure action centers. During the research ~216 shallow groundwater observation wells located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain with a temporal coverage of 50 years were scanned for periodicity. By taking the full-time interval as 100%, the presence of any period could be determined in percentages. With the complex hydrogeological/meteorological model developed in this study, non-periodic time intervals were found in the shallow groundwater levels. On the local scale, this phenomenon linked to drought conditions, and on a regional scale linked to the maxima of the regional air pressures in the Gulf of Genoa. The study documented an important link between shallow groundwater levels and climate variables/indices facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, which have to take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.
Keywords: climate change, drought, groundwater periodicity, wavelet spectrum and coherence analysesProcedia PDF Downloads 261
12 Architectural Design Strategies and Visual Perception of Contemporary Spatial Design
Authors: Nora Geczy
Abstract:In today’s architectural practice, during the process of designing public, educational, healthcare and cultural space, human-centered architectural designs helping spatial orientation, safe space usage and the appropriate spatial sequence of actions are gaining increasing importance. Related to the methodology of designing public buildings, several scientific experiments in spatial recognition, spatial analysis and spatial psychology with regard to the components of space producing mental and physiological effects have been going on at the Department of Architectural Design and the Interdisciplinary Student Workshop (IDM) at the Széchenyi István University, Győr since 2013. Defining the creation of preventive, anticipated spatial design and the architectural tools of spatial comfort of public buildings and their practical usability are in the limelight of our research. In the experiments applying eye-tracking cameras, we studied the way public spaces are used, especially concentrating on the characteristics of spatial behaviour, orientation, recognition, the sequence of actions, and space usage. Along with the role of mental maps, human perception, and interaction problems in public spaces (at railway stations, galleries, and educational institutions), we analyzed the spatial situations influencing psychological and ergonomic factors. We also analyzed the eye movements of the experimental subjects in dynamic situations, in spatial procession, using stairs and corridors. We monitored both the consequences and the distorting effects of the ocular dominance of the right eye on spatial orientation; we analyzed the gender-based differences of women and men’s orientation, stress-inducing spaces, spaces affecting concentration and the spatial situation influencing territorial behaviour. Based on these observations, we collected the components of creating public interior spaces, which -according to our theory- contribute to the optimal usability of public spaces. We summed up our research in criteria for design, including 10 points. Our further goals are testing design principles needed for optimizing orientation and space usage, their discussion, refinement, and practical usage.
Keywords: architecture, eye-tracking, human-centered spatial design, public interior spaces, visual perceptionProcedia PDF Downloads 56
11 Comparison of Soils of Hungarian Dry and Humid Oak Forests Based on Changes in Nutrient Content
Authors: István Fekete, Imre Berki, Áron Béni, Katalin Juhos, Marianna Makádi, Zsolt Kotroczó
Abstract:The average annual precipitation significantly influences the moisture content of the soils and, through this, the decomposition of the organic substances in the soils, the leaching of nutrients from the soils, and the pH of the soils. Climate change, together with the lengthening of the vegetation period and the increasing CO₂ level, can increase the amount of biomass that is formed. Degradation processes, which accelerate as the temperature increases and slow down due to the drying climate, and the change in the degree of leaching can cancel out or strengthen each other's effects. In the course of our research, we looked for oak forests with climate-zonal soils where the geological, geographical and ecological background conditions are as similar as possible, apart from the different annual precipitation averages and the differences that can arise from them. We examined 5 dry and 5 humid Hungarian oak soils. Climate change affects the soils of drier and wetter forests differently. The aim of our research was to compare the content of carbon, nitrogen and some other nutrients, as well as the pH of the soils of humid and dry forests. Showing the effects of the drier climate on the tested soil parameters. In the case of the examined forest soils, we found a significant difference between the soils of dry and humid forests: in the case of the annual average precipitation values (p≥ 0.0001, for dry forest soils: 564±5.2 mm; for humid forest soils: 716±3.8 mm) for pH (p= 0.0004, for dry forest soils: 5.49±0.16; for wet forest soils: 5.36±0.21); for C content (p= 0.0054, for dry forest soils: 6.92%±0.59; for humid forest soils 3.09%±0.24), for N content (p= 0.0022, dry forest in the case of soils: 0.44%±0.047; in the case of humid forest soils: 0.23%±0.013), for the K content (p=0.0017, in the case of dry forest soils: 5684±732 (mg/kg); in the case of humid forest soils 2169±196 (mg/kg)), for the Ca content (p= 0.0096, for dry forest soils: 8207±2118 (mg/kg); for wet forest soils 957±320 (mg/kg)). No significant difference was found in the case of Mg. In a wetter environment, especially if the moisture content of the soil is also optimal for the decomposing organisms during the growing season, the decomposition of organic residues accelerates, and the processes of leaching from the soil are also intensified. The different intensity of the leaching processes is also well reflected in the quantitative differences of Ca and K, and in connection with these, it is also reflected in the difference in pH values. The differences in the C and N content can be explained by differences in the intensity of the decomposition processes. In addition to warming, drying is expected in a significant part of Hungary due to climate change. Thus, the comparison of the soils of dry and humid forests allows us to predict the subsequent changes in the case of the examined parameters.
Keywords: soil nutrients, precipitation difference, climate change, organic matter decomposition, leachingProcedia PDF Downloads 9
10 Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Surface of Orthopedic Implant Materials
Authors: Bertalan Jillek, Péter Szabó, Judit Kopniczky, István Szabó, Balázs Patczai, Kinga Turzó
Abstract:Hip and knee prostheses are one of the most frequently used medical implants, that can significantly improve patients’ quality of life. Long term success and biointegration of these prostheses depend on several factors, like bulk and surface characteristics, construction and biocompatibility of the material. The applied surgical technique, the general health condition and life-quality of the patient are also determinant factors. Medical devices used in orthopedic surgeries have different surfaces depending on their function inside the human body. Surface roughness of these implants determines the interaction with the surrounding tissues. Numerous modifications have been applied in the recent decades to improve a specific property of an implant. Our goal was to compare the surface characteristics of typical implant materials used in orthopedic surgery and traumatology. Morphological and chemical structure of Vortex plate anodized titanium, cemented THR (total hip replacement) stem high nitrogen REX steel (SS), uncemented THR stem and cup titanium (Ti) alloy with titanium plasma spray coating (TPS), cemented cup and uncemented acetabular liner HXL and UHMWPE and TKR (total knee replacement) femoral component CoCrMo alloy (Sanatmetal Ltd, Hungary) discs were examined. Visualization and elemental analysis were made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Surface roughness was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. SEM and AFM revealed the morphological and roughness features of the examined materials. TPS Ti presented the highest Ra value (25 ± 2 μm, followed by CoCrMo alloy (535 ± 19 nm), Ti (227 ± 15 nm) and stainless steel (170 ± 11 nm). The roughness of the HXL and UHMWPE surfaces was in the same range, 147 ± 13 nm and 144 ± 15 nm, respectively. EDS confirmed typical elements on the investigated prosthesis materials: Vortex plate Ti (Ti, O, P); TPS Ti (Ti, O, Al); SS (Fe, Cr, Ni, C) CoCrMo (Co, Cr, Mo), HXL (C, Al, Ni) and UHMWPE (C, Al). The results indicate that the surface of prosthesis materials have significantly different features and the applied investigation methods are suitable for their characterization. Contact angle measurements and in vitro cell culture testing are further planned to test their surface energy characteristics and biocompatibility.
Keywords: morphology, PE, roughness, titaniumProcedia PDF Downloads 47
9 The Role of Autophagy Modulation in Angiotensin-II Induced Hypertrophy
Authors: Kitti Szoke, Laszlo Szoke, Attila Czompa, Arpad Tosaki, Istvan Lekli
Abstract:Autophagy plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy, which is one of the most common causes of heart failure in the world. This self-degradative catabolic process, responsible for protein quality control, balancing sources of energy at critical times, and elimination of damaged organelles. The autophagic activity can be triggered by starvation, oxidative stress, or pharmacological agents, like rapamycin. This induced autophagy can promote cell survival during starvation or pathological stress. In this study, it is investigated the effect of the induced autophagic process on angiotensin induced hypertrophic H9c2 cells. In our study, it is used H9c2 cells as an in vitro model. To induce hypertrophy, cells were treated with 10000 nM angiotensin-II, and to activate autophagy, 100 nM rapamycin treatment was used. The following groups were formed: 1: control, 2: 10000 nM AT-II, 3: 100 nM rapamycin, 4: 100 nM rapamycin pretreatment then 10000 nM AT-II. The cell viability was examined via MTT (cell proliferation assay) assay. The cells were stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and DAPI to visualize F-actin filaments and cell nuclei then the cell size alteration was examined in a fluorescence microscope. Furthermore, the expression levels of autophagic and apoptotic proteins such as Beclin-1, p62, LC3B-II, Cleaved Caspase-3 were evaluated by Western blot. MTT assay result suggests that the used pharmaceutical agents in the tested concentrations did not have a toxic effect; however, at group 3, a slight decrement was detected in cell viability. In response to AT-II treatment, a significant increase was detected in the cell size; cells became hypertrophic. However, rapamycin pretreatment slightly reduced the cell size compared to group 2. Western blot results showed that AT-II treatment-induced autophagy, because the increased expression of Beclin-1, p62, LC3B-II were observed. However, due to the incomplete autophagy, the apoptotic Cleaved Caspase-3 expression also increased. Rapamycin pretreatment up-regulated Beclin-1 and LC3B-II, down-regulated p62 and Cleaved Caspase-3, indicating that rapamycin-induced autophagy can restore the normal autophagic flux. Taken together, our results suggest that rapamycin activated autophagy reduces angiotensin-II induced hypertrophy.
Keywords: angiotensin-II, autophagy, H9c2 cell line, hypertrophy, rapamycinProcedia PDF Downloads 77
8 Historical Development of Negative Emotive Intensifiers in Hungarian
Authors: Martina Katalin Szabó, Bernadett Lipóczi, Csenge Guba, István Uveges
Abstract:In this study, an exhaustive analysis was carried out about the historical development of negative emotive intensifiers in the Hungarian language via NLP methods. Intensifiers are linguistic elements which modify or reinforce a variable character in the lexical unit they apply to. Therefore, intensifiers appear with other lexical items, such as adverbs, adjectives, verbs, infrequently with nouns. Due to the complexity of this phenomenon (set of sociolinguistic, semantic, and historical aspects), there are many lexical items which can operate as intensifiers. The group of intensifiers are admittedly one of the most rapidly changing elements in the language. From a linguistic point of view, particularly interesting are a special group of intensifiers, the so-called negative emotive intensifiers, that, on their own, without context, have semantic content that can be associated with negative emotion, but in particular cases, they may function as intensifiers (e.g.borzasztóanjó ’awfully good’, which means ’excellent’). Despite their special semantic features, negative emotive intensifiers are scarcely examined in literature based on large Historical corpora via NLP methods. In order to become better acquainted with trends over time concerning the intensifiers, The exhaustively analysed a specific historical corpus, namely the Magyar TörténetiSzövegtár (Hungarian Historical Corpus). This corpus (containing 3 millions text words) is a collection of texts of various genres and styles, produced between 1772 and 2010. Since the corpus consists of raw texts and does not contain any additional information about the language features of the data (such as stemming or morphological analysis), a large amount of manual work was required to process the data. Thus, based on a lexicon of negative emotive intensifiers compiled in a previous phase of the research, every occurrence of each intensifier was queried, and the results were stored in a separate data frame. Then, basic linguistic processing (POS-tagging, lemmatization etc.) was carried out automatically with the ‘magyarlanc’ NLP-toolkit. Finally, the frequency and collocation features of all the negative emotive words were automatically analyzed in the corpus. Outcomes of the research revealed in detail how these words have proceeded through grammaticalization over time, i.e., they change from lexical elements to grammatical ones, and they slowly go through a delexicalization process (their negative content diminishes over time). What is more, it was also pointed out which negative emotive intensifiers are at the same stage in this process in the same time period. Giving a closer look to the different domains of the analysed corpus, it also became certain that during this process, the pragmatic role’s importance increases: the newer use expresses the speaker's subjective, evaluative opinion at a certain level.
Keywords: historical corpus analysis, historical linguistics, negative emotive intensifiers, semantic changes over timeProcedia PDF Downloads 142
7 The Usage of Negative Emotive Words in Twitter
Authors: Martina Katalin Szabó, István Üveges
Abstract:In this paper, the usage of negative emotive words is examined on the basis of a large Hungarian twitter-database via NLP methods. The data is analysed from a gender point of view, as well as changes in language usage over time. The term negative emotive word refers to those words that, on their own, without context, have semantic content that can be associated with negative emotion, but in particular cases, they may function as intensifiers (e.g. rohadt jó ’damn good’) or a sentiment expression with positive polarity despite their negative prior polarity (e.g. brutális, ahogy ez a férfi rajzol ’it’s awesome (lit. brutal) how this guy draws’. Based on the findings of several authors, the same phenomenon can be found in other languages, so it is probably a language-independent feature. For the recent analysis, 67783 tweets were collected: 37818 tweets (19580 tweets written by females and 18238 tweets written by males) in 2016 and 48344 (18379 tweets written by females and 29965 tweets written by males) in 2021. The goal of the research was to make up two datasets comparable from the viewpoint of semantic changes, as well as from gender specificities. An exhaustive lexicon of Hungarian negative emotive intensifiers was also compiled (containing 214 words). After basic preprocessing steps, tweets were processed by ‘magyarlanc’, a toolkit is written in JAVA for the linguistic processing of Hungarian texts. Then, the frequency and collocation features of all these words in our corpus were automatically analyzed (via the analysis of parts-of-speech and sentiment values of the co-occurring words). Finally, the results of all four subcorpora were compared. Here some of the main outcomes of our analyses are provided: There are almost four times fewer cases in the male corpus compared to the female corpus when the negative emotive intensifier modified a negative polarity word in the tweet (e.g., damn bad). At the same time, male authors used these intensifiers more frequently, modifying a positive polarity or a neutral word (e.g., damn good and damn big). Results also pointed out that, in contrast to female authors, male authors used these words much more frequently as a positive polarity word as well (e.g., brutális, ahogy ez a férfi rajzol ’it’s awesome (lit. brutal) how this guy draws’). We also observed that male authors use significantly fewer types of emotive intensifiers than female authors, and the frequency proportion of the words is more balanced in the female corpus. As for changes in language usage over time, some notable differences in the frequency and collocation features of the words examined were identified: some of the words collocate with more positive words in the 2nd subcorpora than in the 1st, which points to the semantic change of these words over time.
Keywords: gender differences, negative emotive words, semantic changes over time, twitterProcedia PDF Downloads 130
6 Controlled Synthesis of Pt₃Sn-SnOx/C Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Authors: Dorottya Guban, Irina Borbath, Istvan Bakos, Peter Nemeth, Andras Tompos
Abstract:One of the greatest challenges of the implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is to find active and durable electrocatalysts. The cell performance is always limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode since it is at least 6 orders of magnitude slower than the hydrogen oxidation on the anode. Therefore high loading of Pt is required. Catalyst corrosion is also more significant on the cathode, especially in case of mobile applications, where rapid changes of loading have to be tolerated. Pt-Sn bulk alloys and SnO2-decorated Pt3Sn nanostructures are among the most studied bimetallic systems for fuel cell applications. Exclusive formation of supported Sn-Pt alloy phases with different Pt/Sn ratios can be achieved by using controlled surface reactions (CSRs) between hydrogen adsorbed on Pt sites and tetraethyl tin. In this contribution our results for commercial and a home-made 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts modified by tin anchoring via CSRs are presented. The parent Pt/C catalysts were synthesized by modified NaBH4-assisted ethylene-glycol reduction method using ethanol as a solvent, which resulted either in dispersed and highly stable Pt nanoparticles or evenly distributed raspberry-like agglomerates according to the chosen synthesis parameters. The 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts prepared that way showed improved electrocatalytic performance in the ORR and stability in comparison to the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts. Then, in order to obtain Sn-Pt/C catalysts with Pt/Sn= 3 ratio, the Pt/C catalysts were modified with tetraethyl tin (SnEt4) using three and five consecutive tin anchoring periods. According to in situ XPS studies in case of catalysts with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles, pre-treatment in hydrogen even at 170°C resulted in complete reduction of the ionic tin to Sn0. No evidence of the presence of SnO2 phase was found by means of the XRD and EDS analysis. These results demonstrate that the method of CSRs is a powerful tool to create Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles exclusively, without tin deposition onto the carbon support. On the contrary, the XPS results revealed that the tin-modified catalysts with raspberry-like Pt agglomerates always contained a fraction of non-reducible tin oxide. At the same time, they showed increased activity and long-term stability in the ORR than Pt/C, which was assigned to the presence of SnO2 in close proximity/contact with Pt-Sn alloy phase. It has been demonstrated that the content and dispersion of the fcc Pt3Sn phase within the electrocatalysts can be controlled by tuning the reaction conditions of CSRs. The bimetallic catalysts displayed an outstanding performance in the ORR. The preparation of a highly dispersed 20Pt/C catalyst permits to decrease the Pt content without relevant decline in the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts.
Keywords: anode catalyst, cathode catalyst, controlled surface reactions, oxygen reduction reaction, PtSn/C electrocatalystProcedia PDF Downloads 172
5 Application of Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis to Make the Operation of Monitoring Networks More Economical
Authors: Norbert Magyar, Jozsef Kovacs, Peter Tanos, Balazs Trasy, Tamas Garamhegyi, Istvan Gabor Hatvani
Abstract:Water is one of the most important common resources, and as a result of urbanization, agriculture, and industry it is becoming more and more exposed to potential pollutants. The prevention of the deterioration of water quality is a crucial role for environmental scientist. To achieve this aim, the operation of monitoring networks is necessary. In general, these networks have to meet many important requirements, such as representativeness and cost efficiency. However, existing monitoring networks often include sampling sites which are unnecessary. With the elimination of these sites the monitoring network can be optimized, and it can operate more economically. The aim of this study is to illustrate the applicability of the CCDA (Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis) to the field of water quality monitoring and optimize the monitoring networks of a river (the Danube), a wetland-lake system (Kis-Balaton & Lake Balaton), and two surface-subsurface water systems on the watershed of Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő and on the Szigetköz area over a period of approximately two decades. CCDA combines two multivariate data analysis methods: hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Its goal is to determine homogeneous groups of observations, in our case sampling sites, by comparing the goodness of preconceived classifications obtained from hierarchical cluster analysis with random classifications. The main idea behind CCDA is that if the ratio of correctly classified cases for a grouping is higher than at least 95% of the ratios for the random classifications, then at the level of significance (α=0.05) the given sampling sites don’t form a homogeneous group. Due to the fact that the sampling on the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő was conducted at the same time at all sampling sites, it was possible to visualize the differences between the sampling sites belonging to the same or different groups on scatterplots. Based on the results, the monitoring network of the Danube yields redundant information over certain sections, so that of 12 sampling sites, 3 could be eliminated without loss of information. In the case of the wetland (Kis-Balaton) one pair of sampling sites out of 12, and in the case of Lake Balaton, 5 out of 10 could be discarded. For the groundwater system of the catchment area of Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő all 50 monitoring wells are necessary, there is no redundant information in the system. The number of the sampling sites on the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő can decrease to approximately the half of the original number of the sites. Furthermore, neighbouring sampling sites were compared pairwise using CCDA and the results were plotted on diagrams or isoline maps showing the location of the greatest differences. These results can help researchers decide where to place new sampling sites. The application of CCDA proved to be a useful tool in the optimization of the monitoring networks regarding different types of water bodies. Based on the results obtained, the monitoring networks can be operated more economically.
Keywords: combined cluster and discriminant analysis, cost efficiency, monitoring network optimization, water qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 277
4 The Intensity of Root and Soil Respiration Is Significantly Determined by the Organic Matter and Moisture Content of the Soil
Authors: Zsolt Kotroczó, Katalin Juhos, Áron Béni, Gábor Várbíró, Tamás Kocsis, István Fekete
Abstract:Soil organic matter plays an extremely important role in the functioning and regulation processes of ecosystems. It follows that the C content of organic matter in soil is one of the most important indicators of soil fertility. Part of the carbon stored in them is returned to the atmosphere during soil respiration. Climate change and inappropriate land use can accelerate these processes. Our work aimed to determine how soil CO2 emissions change over ten years as a result of organic matter manipulation treatments. With the help of this, we were able to examine not only the effects of the different organic matter intake but also the effects of the different microclimates that occur as a result of the treatments. We carried out our investigations in the area of the Síkfőkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatment) Project. The research area is located in the southern, hilly landscape of the Bükk Mountains, northeast of Eger (Hungary). GPS coordinates of the project: 47°55′34′′ N and 20°26′ 29′′ E, altitude 320-340 m. The soil of the area is Luvisols. The 27-hectare protected forest area is now under the supervision of the Bükki National Park. The experimental plots in Síkfőkút were established in 2000. We established six litter manipulation treatments each with three 7×7 m replicate plots established under complete canopy cover. There were two types of detritus addition treatments (Double Wood and Double Litter). In three treatments, detritus inputs were removed: No Litter No Roots plots, No Inputs, and the Controls. After the establishment of the plots, during the drier periods, the NR and NI treatments showed the highest CO2 emissions. In the first few years, the effect of this process was evident, because due to the lack of living vegetation, the amount of evapotranspiration on the NR and NI plots was much lower, and transpiration practically ceased on these plots. In the wetter periods, the NL and NI treatments showed the lowest soil respiration values, which were significantly lower compared to the Co, DW, and DL treatments. Due to the lower organic matter content and the lack of surface litter cover, the water storage capacity of these soils was significantly limited, therefore we measured the lowest average moisture content among the treatments after ten years. Soil respiration is significantly influenced by temperature values. Furthermore, the supply of nutrients to the soil microorganisms is also a determining factor, which in this case is influenced by the litter production dictated by the treatments. In the case of dry soils with a moisture content of less than 20% in the initial period, litter removal treatments showed a strong correlation with soil moisture (r=0.74). In very dry soils, a smaller increase in moisture does not cause a significant increase in soil respiration, while it does in a slightly higher moisture range. In wet soils, the temperature is the main regulating factor, above a certain moisture limit, water displaces soil air from the soil pores, which inhibits aerobic decomposition processes, and so heterotrophic soil respiration also declines.
Keywords: soil biology, organic matter, nutrition, DIRT, soil respirationProcedia PDF Downloads 8
3 Enhancing the Performance of Automatic Logistic Centers by Optimizing the Assignment of Material Flows to Workstations and Flow Racks
Authors: Sharon Hovav, Ilya Levner, Oren Nahum, Istvan Szabo
Abstract:In modern large-scale logistic centers (e.g., big automated warehouses), complex logistic operations performed by human staff (pickers) need to be coordinated with the operations of automated facilities (robots, conveyors, cranes, lifts, flow racks, etc.). The efficiency of advanced logistic centers strongly depends on optimizing picking technologies in synch with the facility/product layout, as well as on optimal distribution of material flows (products) in the system. The challenge is to develop a mathematical operations research (OR) tool that will optimize system cost-effectiveness. In this work, we propose a model that describes an automatic logistic center consisting of a set of workstations located at several galleries (floors), with each station containing a known number of flow racks. The requirements of each product and the working capacity of stations served by a given set of workers (pickers) are assumed as predetermined. The goal of the model is to maximize system efficiency. The proposed model includes two echelons. The first is the setting of the (optimal) number of workstations needed to create the total processing/logistic system, subject to picker capacities. The second echelon deals with the assignment of the products to the workstations and flow racks, aimed to achieve maximal throughputs of picked products over the entire system given picker capacities and budget constraints. The solutions to the problems at the two echelons interact to balance the overall load in the flow racks and maximize overall efficiency. We have developed an operations research model within each echelon. In the first echelon, the problem of calculating the optimal number of workstations is formulated as a non-standard bin-packing problem with capacity constraints for each bin. The problem arising in the second echelon is presented as a constrained product-workstation-flow rack assignment problem with non-standard mini-max criteria in which the workload maximum is calculated across all workstations in the center and the exterior minimum is calculated across all possible product-workstation-flow rack assignments. The OR problems arising in each echelon are proved to be NP-hard. Consequently, we find and develop heuristic and approximation solution algorithms based on exploiting and improving local optimums. The LC model considered in this work is highly dynamic and is recalculated periodically based on updated demand forecasts that reflect market trends, technological changes, seasonality, and the introduction of new items. The suggested two-echelon approach and the min-max balancing scheme are shown to work effectively on illustrative examples and real-life logistic data.
Keywords: logistics center, product-workstation, assignment, maximum performance, load balancing, fast algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 168
2 Sex Differences in Age-Related AMPK-Sirt1 Axis Alteration in Human Heart
Authors: Maria Luisa Barcena De Arellano, Sofya Pozdniakova, Pavelas Karkacas, Anja Kuhl, Istvan Baczko, Yury Ladilov, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
Abstract:Introduction: Aging is associated with deterioration of the physiological function, leading to systemic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction that promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. Sex differences in aging-related cardiovascular diseases have been postulated. However, their precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the sex difference in the age-related alteration in Sirt1-AMPK signaling and its relation to the mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammation. Methods: Male and female human non-disease lateral left ventricular wall tissue (young (17–40 years; n= 7 male and 7 female) and old (50–68 years; n= 9 male and 8 female)) were used. qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were performed for expression analyses of Sirt1, AMPK, pAMPK, ac-Ku70, TFAM, PGC-1α, Sirt3, SOD2 and catalase. CD68 was used as a marker for macrophages and the ratio of IL-12:IL10 (pro-inflammatory phenotype (high IL-12/low IL-10) and anti-inflammatory phenotype (low IL-12/high IL-10) was used to examine the inflammatory stage in the heart. Results: Sirt1 expression was significantly higher in young females compared to young males, whereas in aged hearts Sirt1 expression was significantly downregulated in females, but not in males. In line with the Sirt1 downregulation in aged females, acetylation of nuclear Ku70, a direct target of Sirt1, in aged female hearts was significantly elevated. The activity of AMPK was significantly decreased in aged individuals, however no sex differences in the AMPK expression or activity were found in young or old individuals. The expression of mitochondrial proteins TOM40, SOD2 and Sirt3 was significantly higher in young females compared to young males, while in aged female hearts SOD2 and TOM40 were downregulated. In addition, the expression of catalase, a key cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-oxidative enzyme was significantly higher in young females and this female sex benefit was lost in aged hearts. In addition, the number of cardiac macrophages was significantly increased in old female, but not in male hearts. Consistently, the pro-inflammatory shift in old females was further confirmed by differences in the IL12/IL10 ratio in young female cardiac tissue in a favour of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 (ratio 1:4) compared to young males (ratio 1:1). The anti-inflammatory environment in the heart was lost in aged females (ratio 1:1). Conclusion: Aging leads to the significant downregulation of Sirt1 expression and elevated acetylation of Ku70 in female, but not in male hearts. Furthermore, a beneficial upregulation of mitochondrial and anti-oxidative proteins in young females is lost with aging. Moreover, the malfunctions in the expression of Sirt1 and mitochondrial proteins in aged female hearts is accompanied by a significant pro-inflammatory shift. The study provides a molecular basis for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in old women.
Keywords: inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, aging, Sirt1-AMPK axisProcedia PDF Downloads 199
1 Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Istvan Szilagyi, Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster
Abstract:Antioxidant enzymes are the most efficient defense systems against reactive oxygen species, which cause severe damage in living organisms and industrial products. However, their supplementation is problematic due to their high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. Immobilization on carrier nanoparticles is a promising research direction towards the improvement of their functional and colloidal stability. In that way, their applications in biomedical treatments and manufacturing processes in the food, textile and cosmetic industry can be extended. The main goal of the present research was to prepare and formulate antioxidant bionanocomposites composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme, anionic clay (layered double hydroxide, LDH) nanoparticle and heparin (HEP) polyelectrolyte. To characterize the structure and the colloidal stability of the obtained compounds in suspension and solid state, electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. LDH-SOD composite was synthesized by enzyme immobilization on the clay particles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in a strong adsorption of the SOD on the LDH surface, i.e., no enzyme leakage was observed once the material was suspended in aqueous solutions. However, the LDH-SOD showed only limited resistance against salt-induced aggregation and large irregularly shaped clusters formed during short term interval even at lower ionic strengths. Since sufficiently high colloidal stability is a key requirement in most of the applications mentioned above, the nanocomposite was coated with HEP polyelectrolyte to develop highly stable suspensions of primary LDH-SOD-HEP particles. HEP is a natural anticoagulant with one of the highest negative line charge density among the known macromolecules. The experimental results indicated that it strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged LDH-SOD surface leading to charge inversion and to the formation of negatively charged LDH-SOD-HEP. The obtained hybrid materials formed stable suspension even under extreme conditions, where classical colloid chemistry theories predict rapid aggregation of the particles and unstable suspensions. Such a stabilization effect originated from electrostatic repulsion between the particles of the same sign of charge as well as from steric repulsion due to the osmotic pressure raised during the overlap of the polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the SOD enzyme kept its structural and functional integrity during the immobilization and coating processes and hence, the LDH-SOD-HEP bionanocomposite possessed excellent activity in decomposition of superoxide radical anions, as revealed in biochemical test reactions. In conclusion, due to the improved colloidal stability and the good efficiency in scavenging superoxide radical ions, the developed enzymatic system is a promising antioxidant candidate for biomedical or other manufacturing processes, wherever the aim is to decompose reactive oxygen species in suspensions.
Keywords: clay, enzyme, polyelectrolyte, formulationProcedia PDF Downloads 173