Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: myocardial ischemia

144 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth

Abstract:

Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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143 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

Abstract:

To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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142 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
141 Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia Based on Support Vector Machine and Gaussian Mixture Model by Using Features of ECG Recordings

Authors: Merve Begum Terzi, Orhan Arikan, Adnan Abaci, Mustafa Candemir

Abstract:

Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world. Therefore, its fast and reliable diagnosis is a major clinical need. ECG is the most important diagnostic methodology which is used to make decisions about the management of the cardiovascular diseases. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, temporary chest pains together with changes in ST segment and T wave of ECG occur shortly before the start of myocardial infarction. In this study, a technique which detects changes in ST/T sections of ECG is developed for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. For this purpose, a database of real ECG recordings that contains a set of records from 75 patients presenting symptoms of chest pain who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constituted. 12-lead ECG’s of the patients were recorded before and during the PCI procedure. Two ECG epochs, which are the pre-inflation ECG which is acquired before any catheter insertion and the occlusion ECG which is acquired during balloon inflation, are analyzed for each patient. By using pre-inflation and occlusion recordings, ECG features that are critical in the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are identified and the most discriminative features for the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are extracted. A classification technique based on support vector machine (SVM) approach operating with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels to detect ischemic events by using ST-T derived joint features from non-ischemic and ischemic states of the patients is developed. The dataset is randomly divided into training and testing sets and the training set is used to optimize SVM hyperparameters by using grid-search method and 10fold cross-validation. SVMs are designed specifically for each patient by tuning the kernel parameters in order to obtain the optimal classification performance results. As a result of implementing the developed classification technique to real ECG recordings, it is shown that the proposed technique provides highly reliable detections of the anomalies in ECG signals. Furthermore, to develop a detection technique that can be used in the absence of ECG recording obtained during healthy stage, the detection of acute myocardial ischemia based on ECG recordings of the patients obtained during ischemia is also investigated. For this purpose, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to represent the joint pdf of the most discriminating ECG features of myocardial ischemia. Then, a Neyman-Pearson type of approach is developed to provide detection of outliers that would correspond to acute myocardial ischemia. Neyman – Pearson decision strategy is used by computing the average log likelihood values of ECG segments and comparing them with a range of different threshold values. For different discrimination threshold values and number of ECG segments, probability of detection and probability of false alarm values are computed, and the corresponding ROC curves are obtained. The results indicate that increasing number of ECG segments provide higher performance for GMM based classification. Moreover, the comparison between the performances of SVM and GMM based classification showed that SVM provides higher classification performance results over ECG recordings of considerable number of patients.

Keywords: ECG classification, Gaussian mixture model, Neyman–Pearson approach, support vector machine

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140 Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement Protects Heart against Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in Wistar Rats

Authors: S. M. Satyam, K. L. Bairy, R. Pirasanthan, R. L. Vaishnav

Abstract:

Zincovit tablets have been used as nutritional food supplement over a prolonged period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effect of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats. Following 21 days of pre-treatment, combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury in terms of increased coronary flow rate (p < 0.01), decreased creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent (p < 0.05), decreased MDA (p < 0.001), 4-HNE (p < 0.001) and increased protein thiol content (p < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated (control) group. This study opens an avenue to clinical studies to demonstrate the validity of this paradigm as a nutritional food supplement, which could improve the clinical outcome of patients subjected to percutaneous angioplasty.

Keywords: grape seed extract, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, Zincovit tablets

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139 Possible Role of Fenofibrate and Clofibrate in Attenuated Cardioprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning in Hyperlipidemic Rat Hearts

Authors: Gurfateh Singh, Mu Khan, Razia Khanam, Govind Mohan

Abstract:

Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the beneficial role of Fenofibrate & Clofibrate in attenuated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Materials & Methods: Experimental hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding high fat diet to rats for a period of 28 days. Isolated langendorff’s perfused normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. The myocardial infarct size was assessed macroscopically using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB release to assess the extent of cardiac injury. Moreover, the oxidative stress in heart was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide anion generation and reduced form of glutathione. Results: The ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been noted to induce oxidative stress by increasing TBARS, superoxide anion generation and decreasing reduced form of glutathione in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Moreover, I/R produced myocardial injury, which was assessed in terms of increase in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent and decrease in coronary flow rate in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. In addition, the hyperlipidemic rat hearts showed enhanced I/R-induced myocardial injury with high degree of oxidative stress as compared with normal rat hearts subjected to I/R. Four episodes of IPC (5 min each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal rat hearts as assessed in terms of improvement in coronary flow rate and reduction in myocardial infarct size, LDH, CK-MB and oxidative stress. On the other hand, IPC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was abolished in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. However, Treatment with Fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), Clofibrate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) as a agonists of PPAR-α have not affected the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat hearts, but its treatment markedly restored the cardioprotective potentials of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Conclusion: It is noted that the high degree of oxidative stress produced in hyperlipidemic rat heart during reperfusion and consequent down regulation of PPAR-α may be responsible to abolish the cardioprotective potentials of IPC.

Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic preconditioning, PPAR-α

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138 Diagnostic Properties of Exercise or Pharmacological Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Per-Vessel Basis: A Clinical Validation Study

Authors: Ahmadreza Bagheri, Seyyed S. Eftekhari, Shervin Rashidinia

Abstract:

Background: Various stress tests have been proposed yet to assess patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, their diagnostic properties in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are variable and their applicability remained somewhat vague. The aim of this study is to validate per-vessel diagnostic properties of 3 types of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in gated SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) using either exercise or pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole or dobutamine. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 314 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran between September 2015 and January 2017 were completely reviewed in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 3 months after stress myocardial perfusion scan. Eventually, the results were analyzed in per-vessel basis to find the proper modality for each involved vessel or scanned site. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.15 ± 4.94 years (30-85) and 35.03% were women. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated as 56.59%, 54.24%, and 55.09%, respectively. These values were 56.43% and 53.25%, 54.46% and 47.36%, 56.75% and 54.83% for dipyridamole and exercise, respectively. Ischemia of the anterior wall through exercise stress testing has the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting LAD (Left Anterior Descending artery) involvement. Inferior wall hypokinesia and anterolateral wall ischemia during exercise stress testing have the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting RCA (Right Coronary Artery) and LCX artery (Left Circumflex Artery) stenosis, respectively. Conclusion: Stress myocardial perfusion scan should be carried out on the basis of the findings of the preliminary investigations on suspicion of a specific coronary artery or involved myocardial wall.

Keywords: dipyridamole, dobutamine, single-photon emission computed tomography, stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

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137 Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ali Kassem, Esam Nada, Amro Abdelhamed, Shigeo Horie

Abstract:

Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P <04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P <04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, microvascular, silent ischemia

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136 The Impact of Co-Administration of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Sodium Selenite on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Ovary Model: Biochemical and Histopathologic Evaluation

Authors: Waleed Aly Sayed Ahmed, Eman Kishk, Tahani Shams

Abstract:

Aim: To study the effects of co-administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) and sodium selenite against the damage induced by ovarian ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of forty-two sexually mature, virgin, female rats were divided randomly into six groups of seven each: sham group (C), ischemia group (I), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), ischemia/reperfusion plus 1.4mg/kg sildenafil (I/R+S) group, ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2mg/kg selenium (I/R+Se) group and ischemia/reperfusion plus combination of sildenafil and selenium (I/R+S+Se) group. In ischemia group (I), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 hours (h). In ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 h followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Treated groups received 1.4mg/kg sildenafil or 0.2 mg/kg selenium or both 30 min before reperfusion. Both ovaries were surgically removed carefully. One ovary was examined for histopathological changes and the other was subject to biochemical analysis including malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results: Assessment of ovarian tissue damage using a scoring system showed marked vascular congestion, interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, hemorrhage, and follicular degeneration in ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups. Tissue damage score for I, IR and all treated groups were significantly higher than those of the sham group (p<0.001), while tissue damage score decreased significantly in I/R+S and I/R+Se groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05), and notably, the difference was highly significant in I/R+S+Se group (p<0.001). There was significant increase in MDA levels and reduction in activities of CAT and GPx in I/R group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). In I/R+S and I/R+Se groups, MDA was significantly decreased compared to the I/R group (p<0.05) and the difference was highly significant with co-administration of sildenafil and selenium (p<0.001). CAT and GPx were higher in all treated groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The co-administration of sildenafil citrate and selenium are highly protective against damage induced by ovarian ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Keywords: phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, antioxidant, selenium, ovarian ischemia

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135 Utility of Cardiac Biomarkers in Combination with Exercise Stress Testing in Patients with Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Rawa Delshada, Sanaa G. Hamab, Rastee D. Koyeec

Abstract:

Eighty patients with suspected ischemic heart disease were enrolled in the present study. They were classified into two groups: patients with positive exercise stress test results (n=40) and control group with negative exercise stress test results (n=40). Serum concentration of troponin I, Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) and Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) were measured one hour after performing stress test. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to measure both troponin I, H-FABP levels, while IMA levels were measured by albumin cobalt binding test. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean concentration of troponin I between two groups (0.75±0.55ng/ml) for patients with positive test result vs. (0.71±0.55ng/ml) for negative test result group with P>0.05. Contrary to our expectation, mean IMA level was slightly higher among control group (70.88±39.76U/ml) compared to (62.7±51.9U/ml) in positive test result group, but still with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Median H-FABP level was also higher among negative exercise stress testing group compared the positive one (2ng/ml vs. 1.9ng/ml respectively), but failed to reach statistically significant difference (P>0.05). When quartiles model used to explore the possible association between each study biomarkers with the others; serum H-FABP level was lowest (1.7ng/ml) in highest quartile of IMA and lowest H-FABP (1.8ng/ml) in highest quartile of troponin I but with no statistically significant association (P>0.05). Myocardial ischemia, more likely occurred after exercise stress test, is not capable of causing troponin I release. Furthermore, an increase in H-FABP and IMA levels after stress test are not reflecting myocardial ischemia. Moreover, the combination of troponin I, H-FABP and IMA after measuring their post exercise levels does not improve the diagnostic utility of exercise stress test enormously.

Keywords: cardiac biomarkers, ischemic heart disease, troponin I, ischemia modified albumin, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, exercise stress testing

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134 Study of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Type 2 Diabeic Males: Egyptian Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yhea Kishik, Ali Hassan, Mohamed Abdelwahab

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Introduction: Accelerated coronary and peripheral vascular atherosclerosis is one of the most common and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. A recent aspect of coronary artery disease in this condition is its silent nature. The aim of the work: Detection of the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in Upper Egypt type 2 diabetic males and to select male diabetic population who should be screened for SMI. Patients and methods: 100 type 2 diabetic male patients with a negative history of angina or anginal equivalent symptoms and 30 healthy control were included. Full medical history and thorough clinical examination were done for all participants. Fasting and post prandial blood glucose level, lipid profile, (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, and C-reactive protein were done for all participants Resting ECG, trans-thoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise ECG, myocardial perfusion imaging were done for all participants and patients positive for one or more NITs were subjected for coronary angiography. Results Twenty nine patients (29%) were positive for one or more NITs in the patients group compared to only one case (3.3%) in the controls. After coronary angiography, 20 patients were positive for significant coronary artery stenosis in the patients group, while it was refused to be done by the patient in the controls. There were statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, family history of DM and IHD with higher levels of microalbuminuria, C-reactive protein, total lipids in patient group versus controls According to coronary angiography, patients were subdivided into two subgroups, 20 positive for SMI (positive for coronary angiography) and 80 negative for SMI (negative for coronary angiography). No statistical difference regarding family history of DM and type of diabetic therapy was found between the two subgroups. Yet, smoking, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of IHD were significantly higher in diabetics positive versus those negative for SMI. 90% of patients in subgroup positive for SMI had two or more cardiac risk factors while only two patients had one cardiac risk factor (10%). Uncontrolled DM was detected more in patients positive for SMI. Diabetic complications were more prevalent in patients positive for SMI versus those negative for SMI. Most of the patients positive for SMI have DM more than 5 years duration. Resting ECG and resting Echo detected only 6 and 11 cases, respectively, of the 20 positive cases in group positive for SMI compared to treadmill exercise ECG and myocardial perfusion imaging that detected 16 and 18 cases respectively, Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic male patients should be screened for detection of SMI when aged above 50 years old, diabetes duration is more than 5 years, presence of two or more cardiac risk factors and/or patients suffering from one or more of the chronic diabetic complications. CRP, is an important parameter for selection of type 2 diabetic male patients who should be screened for SMI. Non invasive cardiac tests are reliable for screening of SMI in these patients in our locality.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, Silent myocardial ischemia, Stress tests, type 2 DM

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133 An Empirical Study to Predict Myocardial Infarction Using K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Md. Minhazul Islam, Shah Ashisul Abed Nipun, Majharul Islam, Md. Abdur Rakib Rahat, Jonayet Miah, Salsavil Kayyum, Anwar Shadaab, Faiz Al Faisal

Abstract:

The target of this research is to predict Myocardial Infarction using unsupervised Machine Learning algorithms. Myocardial Infarction Prediction related to heart disease is a challenging factor faced by doctors & hospitals. In this prediction, accuracy of the heart disease plays a vital role. From this concern, the authors have analyzed on a myocardial dataset to predict myocardial infarction using some popular Machine Learning algorithms K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering. This research includes a collection of data and the classification of data using Machine Learning Algorithms. The authors collected 345 instances along with 26 attributes from different hospitals in Bangladesh. This data have been collected from patients suffering from myocardial infarction along with other symptoms. This model would be able to find and mine hidden facts from historical Myocardial Infarction cases. The aim of this study is to analyze the accuracy level to predict Myocardial Infarction by using Machine Learning techniques.

Keywords: Machine Learning, K-means, Hierarchical Clustering, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Disease

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132 Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patient with Triple-Vessel Disease in Limited Resources Hospital: A Case Report

Authors: Fanniyah Anis, Bram Kilapong

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Myocardial reperfusion injury is defined as the cellular damage that results from a period of ischemia, followed by the reestablishment of the blood supply to the infarcted tissue. Ventricular tachycardia is one of the most commonly encountered reperfusion arrhythmia as one of the types of myocardial perfusion injury. Prompt and early treatment can reduce mortality, despite limited resources of the hospital in high risk patients with history of triple vessel disease. Case report, Male 53 years old has been diagnosed with NSTEMI with 3VD and comorbid disease of Hypertension and has undergone revascularization management with Percutaneous coronary intervention. Ventricular tachycardia leading to cardiac arrest occurred right after the stent was inserted. Resuscitation was performed for almost 2 hours until spontaneous circulation returned. Patient admitted in ICU with refractory cardiac shock despite using combination of ionotropic and vasopressor agents under standard non-invasive monitoring due to the limitation of the hospital. Angiography was performed again 5 hours later to exclude other possibilities of blockage of coronary arteries and conclude diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Patient continually managed with combination of antiplatelet agents and maintenance dose of anti-arrhythmia agents. The handling of the patient was to focus more on supportive and preventive from further deteriorating of the condition. Patient showed clinically improvement and regained consciousness within 24 hours. Patient was successfully discharged from ICU within 3 days without any neurological sequela and was discharge from hospital after 3 days observation in general ward. Limited Resource of hospital did not refrain the physician from attaining a good outcome for this myocardial reperfusion injury case and angiography alone can be used to confirm the diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury.

Keywords: limited resources hospital, myocardial reperfusion injury, prolonged resuscitation, refractory cardiogenic shock, reperfusion arrhythmia, revascularization, triple-vessel disease

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131 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase Activity and Apolipoprotein B: Predictors of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha Vilas More

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Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia as a consequence of atherosclerosis. TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40, MI subjects and 40 healthy individuals in control group. PON 1 Arylesterase activity (ARE) was measured by using phenylacetate. Phenotyping was done by double substrate method, serum AOPP by using chloramine T and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 1 ARE activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR, and RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 1 ARE activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions: Decrease in PON 1 ARE activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression showed PON1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product, apolipoprotein B, PON 1 arylesterase activity, myocardial infarction

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130 Investigation of Ezetimibe Administration on Cell Survival Markers in Kidney Ischemia

Authors: Zahra Heydari

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Introduction: One of the major clinical issues is acute renal failure, which is caused by ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in this area, important issues such as tissue necrosis, cell apoptosis, and so on in damaged tissue are suggestive for more researches and study on this subject. Objective: Evaluation of the potential utility of Ezetimibe in reducing injuries and cell death induced by kidney ischemia/ reperfusion through inducing expression changes of different cellular pathways in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Forty rats weighing 180-200g were divided into 4 groups. For this purpose, the first right kidneys of the rats were removed during surgery. After 20 days, the left renal artery was closed with a soft clamp and reperfusion was performed. After 24 hours, blood samples were collected and sent to the laboratory with kidneys to measure bax and bcl-2 by Western blotting and histopathological tests. Results: Quantitative damage reviews of Kidney tissue indicates damage Acute and severe tubular lesions were observed in the ischemia group. Also, the amount of injury was significantly reduced in the treatment group. There was also a significant difference between the ischemia and sham groups. In general, the results show that a single dose of 1.2 mg/kg of ezetimibe can reduce the bax/ bcl-2 ratio compared to the ischemia group. In general, the results showed Ezetimibe is effective in reducing cell damage and death due to ischemia/ reperfusion after renal ischemia through changes in the expression of various cellular pathways in rats.

Keywords: acute renal failure, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, ezetimibe, apoptosis

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129 Silent Myocardial Infarction Presented with Homonymous Hemianopia in a Non-Diabetic Middle Aged Man

Authors: Seyed Fakhroddin Hejazi, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Leili Iranirad

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Silent myocardial infarction is defined as the appearance of pathological Q waves in the electrocardiogram, without objective signs of myocardial infarction and any minimal or atypical symptoms. Although this condition has been known for a long time, but little is known about its phenomenon and the mechanisms of it remain unclear. Its coincidence with stroke is also still controversial. This case report introduces a middle-aged man with silent myocardial infarction presented with homonymous hemianopia, which except stage 1 hypertension, had no other major cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, family history of cardiac diseases and smoking. In conclusion, this case report indicated that existence of only one cardiovascular risk factor would lead to the development of MI or stroke.

Keywords: silent myocardial infarction, homonymous hemianopia, stroke, hypertension

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128 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

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The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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127 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Y. S. Yusoff, G. Streftaris, H. R Waters

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Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease

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126 Inhibition of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase Activity Protects Retinal Ganglionic Cell Death Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion by Reducing the Astroglial Activation in Rat

Authors: Dugeree Otgongerel, Kyong Jin Cho, Yu-Han Kim, Sangmee Ahn Jo

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Excessive activation of glutamate receptor is thought to be involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia- reperfusion damage. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glutamate. Several studies showed that inhibition of GCPII prevents or reduces cellular damage in brain diseases. Thus, in this study, we examined the expression of GCPII in rat retina and the role of GCPII in acute high IOP ischemia-reperfusion damage of eye by using a GCPII inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA). Animal model of ischemia-reperfusion was induced by raising the intraocular pressure for 60 min and followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: either intra-vitreous injection of 2-PMPA (11 or 110 ng per eye) or PBS after ischemia-reperfusion, 2-PMPA treatment without ischemia-reperfusion and sham-operated normal control. GCPII immunoreactivity in normal rat retina was detected weakly in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and retinal ganglionic cell layer (RGL) and also inner plexiform layer (IPL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) strongly where are co-stained with an anti-GFAP antibody, suggesting that GCPII is expressed mostly in Muller and astrocytes. Immunostaining with anti-BRN antibody showed that ischemia- reperfusion caused RGC death (31.5 %) and decreased retinal thickness in all layers of damaged retina, but the treatment of 2-PMPA twice at 0 and 48 hour after reperfusion blocked these retinal damages. GCPII level in RNFL layer was enhanced after ischemia-reperfusion but was blocked by PMPA treatment. This result was confirmed by western blot analysis showing that the level of GCPII protein after ischemia- reperfusion increased by 2.2- fold compared to control, but this increase was blocked almost completely by 110 ng PMPA treatment. Interestingly, GFAP immunoreactivity in the retina after ischemia- reperfusion followed by treatment with PMPA showed similar pattern to GCPII, increase after ischemia-reperfusion but reduction to the normal level by PMPA treatment. Our data demonstrate that increase of GCPII protein level after ischemia-reperfusion injury is likely to cause glial activation and/or retinal cell death which are mediated by glutamate, and GCPII inhibitors may be useful in treatment of retinal disorders in which glutamate excitotoxicity is pathogenic.

Keywords: glutamate carboxypepptidase II, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemia-reperfusion, retinal ganglion cell

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125 Angiogenic, Cytoprotective, and Immunosuppressive Properties of Human Amnion and Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Kenichi Yamahara, Makiko Ohshima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Hidetoshi Tsuda, Akihiko Taguchi, Toshihiro Soma, Hiroyasu Ogawa, Jun Yoshimatsu, Tomoaki Ikeda

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We have previously reported the therapeutic potential of rat fetal membrane(FM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using various rat models including hindlimb ischemia, autoimmune myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. In this study, 1) we isolated and characterized MSCs from human amnion and chorion; 2) we examined their differences in the expression profile of growth factors and cytokines; and 3) we investigated the therapeutic potential and difference of these MSCs using murine hindlimb ischemia and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of GVHD disease. Our results highlight that human amnionand chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

Keywords: amnion, chorion, fetal membrane, mesenchymal stem cells

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124 The Development of Cardiac Tamponade after Spinal Surgery in a Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: Hacer Y. Teke, Sultan Pehlivan, Mustafa Karapırlı, Asude Gökmen, Sait Özsoy

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The case is here presented of a patient with DMD with electrocardiograph findings within normal limits who underwent spinal surgery then developed the rarely seen complication of cardiac tamponade which resulted in death. A 17-year old male with DMD was admitted to hospital for spinal surgery. Due to a postoperative drop in hemoglobin, blood transfusion was administered to the patient, no complication developed and he was discharged on the third day. Four days after discharge, the patient worsened at home and an ambulance was called. Before the nearest hospital was reached, the patient died in the ambulance. An autopsy was performed. A fatal but rarely seen complication of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is myocardial rupture. 85% of ruptures occur in the first week of AMI but just as they can be seen on the day of the infarct, they can also be seen 2 weeks later. The case presented here had infarction findings related to different times and in different areas.

Keywords: duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, myocardial rupture, anesthesia

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123 Memory Types in Hemodialysis (HD) Patients; A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan: South East of Iran

Authors: Behnoush Sabayan, Ali Alidadi, Saeid Ebarhimi, N. M. Bakhshani

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Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at a high risk of atherosclerotic and vascular disease; also little information is available for the HD impact on brain structure of these patients. We studied the brain abnormalities in HD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on brain structure of HD patients. Non-contrast MRI was used to evaluate imaging findings. Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% were female. According to study, HD patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had small vessel ischemia than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, which the median time was 3 to 5 months. Most of the small vessel ischemia was located in pre-ventricular, subcortical and white matter (1.33± .471, 1.23± .420 and 1.39±.490). However, the other brain damages like: central pons abnormality, global brain atrophy, thinning of corpus callosum and frontal lobe atrophy were found (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a longer time had small vessel ischemia and we conclude that this small vessel ischemia might be a causative mechanism of brain atrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: Hemodialysis Patients, Duration of Hemodialysis, MRI, Zahedan

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122 Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Review of a Rare Complication and Aberrant Anatomy

Authors: Joshua Russell, Omar Zubair, Reuben Ndegwa

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Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon condition that can be challenging to diagnose in the acute setting, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Very rarely has acute acalculous cholecystitis been described in the setting of mesenteric ischemia. Case: This was the case in a 78-year-old male, who initially presented with clinical and radiological evidence of small bowel obstruction, thought likely secondary to malignancy. The patient had a 6-week history of anorexia, worsening lower abdominal pain and ~30kg of unintentional weight loss over a 12-month period, and a CT scan demonstrating a transition point in the distal ileum. The patient became increasingly hemodynamically unstable and peritonitic, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intra-operatively, however, no obvious transition point was identified, and instead, the gallbladder was markedly gangrenous and oedematous, consistent with acalculous cholecystitis. A total open cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit postoperatively and continued to deteriorate over the proceeding 48 hours, with two re-look laparotomies demonstrating progressively worsening bowel ischemia, initially in the distribution of the superior mesenteric artery then the coeliac trunk. On review, the patient was found to have an aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. The extent of ischemia was considered non-survivable, and the patient was palliated. Discussion: Multiple theories currently exist for the underlying pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis, including biliary stasis, sepsis, and ischemia. This case lends further support to ischemia as the underlying etiology of acalculous cholecystitis. This is particularly the case when considered in the context of the patient’s aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery, which occurs in 11-14% of patients. Conclusion: This case report adds further insight to the debate surrounding the pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis. It also presents acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of mesenteric ischemia that should always be considered, especially in the elderly patient and in the context of relatively common anatomical variations. Furthermore, the case brings to attention the importance of maintaining dynamic working diagnoses in the setting of evolving pathophysiology and clinical presentations.

Keywords: acalculous cholecystitis, anatomical variation, general surgery, mesenteric ischemia

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121 Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism of Remote Limb Ischemic Post Conditioning against Global Cerebral Ischemic Injury

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev Taliyan

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Background and purpose: Recent investigations on ischemia and reperfusion injury postulate that transient ischemia of remote organs after a prolonged ischemic insult confers neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms of the remote limb ischemic post-conditioning (RIPOC) are yet to be elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the protective mechanism of RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury using global model of stroke. Materials and methods: Global ischemic reperfusion injury (IR) was achieved by 30 minutes ischemia of cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Induction of global ischemia was followed by 4 brief episodes (30 seconds each) of ischemia and reperfusion of femoral artery to accomplish RIPOC. 5-Hydroxy Decanoic acid (5-HD), a KATP channel blocker (20 mg/kg) was administered after induction of global ischemia and RIPOC intervention. Results: IR injury ensue significant behavioural deficits as manifested by rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared to sham control. Furthermore, IR injury significantly increased oxidonitrative stress and infarct volume as evidenced by biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, Nitrite, SOD) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining respectively. Moreover, RIPOC intervention ameliorated the behavioural performance, attenuated the oxidative stress and infarct volume when compared to IR injury group. However, administration of 5-HD increased the oxidative stress and infarct size while deteriorating the behavioural parameters when compared to RIPOC group. Conclusions: In a nutshell, cerebral IR injury has significantly induced the neuronal damage, whereas RIPOC intervention decreased the neuronal injury. Moreover, 5-HD abolished the neuroprotection offered by RIPOC indicating the putative role of KATP channel opening in RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury.

Keywords: RIPOC, cerebral injury, KATP channel, neuroprotection

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120 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby

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We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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119 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, energy metabolism, hydroxyproline

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118 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora

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Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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117 Delicate Balance between Cardiac Stress and Protection: Role of Mitochondrial Proteins

Authors: Zuzana Tatarkova, Ivana Pilchova, Michal Cibulka, Martin Kolisek, Peter Racay, Peter Kaplan

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Introduction: Normal functioning of mitochondria is crucial for cardiac performance. Mitochondria undergo mitophagy and biogenesis, and mitochondrial proteins are subject to extensive post-translational modifications. The state of mitochondrial homeostasis reflects overall cellular fitness and longevity. Perturbed mitochondria produce less ATP, release greater amounts of reactive molecules, and are more prone to apoptosis. Therefore mitochondrial turnover is an integral aspect of quality control in which dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively eliminated through mitophagy. Currently, the progressive deterioration of physiological functions is seen as accumulation of modified/damaged proteins with limiting regenerative ability and disturbance of such affected protein-protein communication throughout aging in myocardial cells. Methodologies: For our study was used immunohistochemistry, biochemical methods: spectrophotometry, western blotting, immunodetection as well as more sophisticated 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for evaluation protein-protein interactions and specific post-translational modification. Results and Discussion: Mitochondrial stress response to reactive species was evaluated as electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, redox-active molecules, and their possible communication. Protein-protein interactions revealed a strong linkage between age and ETC protein subunits. Redox state was strongly affected in senescent mitochondria with shift in favor of more pro-oxidizing condition within cardiomyocytes. Acute myocardial ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury affected ETC complexes I, II and IV with no change in complex III. Ischemia induced decrease in total antioxidant capacity, MnSOD, GSH and catalase activity with recovery in some extent during reperfusion. While MnSOD protein content was higher in IR group, activity returned to 95% of control. Nitric oxide is one of the biological molecules that can out compete MnSOD for superoxide and produce peroxynitrite. This process is faster than dismutation and led to the 10-fold higher production of nitrotyrosine after IR injury in adult with higher protection in senescent ones. 2D protein profiling revealed 140 mitochondrial proteins, 12 of them with significant changes after IR injury and 36 individual nitrotyrosine-modified proteins further identified by mass spectrometry. Linking these two groups, 5 proteins were altered after IR as well as nitrated, but only one showed massive nitration per lowering content of protein after IR injury in adult. Conclusions: Senescent cells have greater proportion of protein content, which might be modulated by several post-translational modifications. If these protein modifications are connected to functional consequences and protein-protein interactions are revealed, link may lead to the solution. Assume all together, dysfunctional proteostasis can play a causative role and restoration of protein homeostasis machinery is protective against aging and possibly age-related disorders. This work was supported by the project VEGA 1/0018/18 and by project 'Competence Center for Research and Development in the field of Diagnostics and Therapy of Oncological diseases', ITMS: 26220220153, co-financed from EU sources.

Keywords: aging heart, mitochondria, proteomics, redox state

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116 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

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Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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115 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

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Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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