Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: mesenteric ischemia

81 Albendazole Ameliorates Inflammatory Response in a Rat Model of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Authors: Kamyar Moradi

Abstract:

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia is known as a life-threatening condition. Re-establishment of blood flow in this condition can lead to mesenteric ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury, which is accompanied by inflammatory response. Still, clear blueprint of inflammatory mechanism underlying MIR injury has not been provided. Interestingly, Albendazole has exhibited notable effects on inflammation and cytokine production. In this study, we aimed to evaluate outcomes of MIR injury following pretreatment with Albendazole with respect to assessment of mesenteric inflammation and ischemia threshold. Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into sham operated, vehicle treated, Albendazole 100 mg/kg, and Albendazole 200 mg/kg groups. MIR injury was induced by occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 30 minutes followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Samples were utilized for assessment of epithelial survival and villous height. Immunohistochemistry study revealed intestinal expression of TNF-α and HIF-1-α. Gene expression of NF-κB/TLR4/TNF-α/IL-6 was measured using RTPCR. Also, protein levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum and intestine were assessed by ELISA method. Results: Histopathological study demonstrated that pretreatment with Albendazole could ameliorate decline in villous height and epithelial survival following MIR injury. Also, systemic inflammation was suppressed after administration of Albendazole. Analysis of possible participating inflammatory pathway could demonstrate that intestinal expression of NF-κB/TLR4/TNF-α/IL-6 is significantly attenuated in treated groups. Eventually, IHC study illustrated concordant decline in mesenteric expression of HIF-1-α/TNF-α. Conclusion: Single dose pretreatment with Albendazole could ameliorate inflammatory response and enhance ischemia threshold following induction of MIR injury. Still, more studies would clarify existing causality in this phenomenon.

Keywords: albendazole, ischemia reperfusion injury, inflammation, mesenteric ischemia

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80 Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Review of a Rare Complication and Aberrant Anatomy

Authors: Joshua Russell, Omar Zubair, Reuben Ndegwa

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Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon condition that can be challenging to diagnose in the acute setting, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Very rarely has acute acalculous cholecystitis been described in the setting of mesenteric ischemia. Case: This was the case in a 78-year-old male, who initially presented with clinical and radiological evidence of small bowel obstruction, thought likely secondary to malignancy. The patient had a 6-week history of anorexia, worsening lower abdominal pain, and ~30kg of unintentional weight loss over a 12-month period and a CT- scan demonstrated a transition point in the distal ileum. The patient became increasingly hemodynamically unstable and peritonitic, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intra-operatively, however, no obvious transition point was identified, and instead, the gallbladder was markedly gangrenous and oedematous, consistent with acalculous cholecystitis. An open total cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit post-operatively and continued to deteriorate over the proceeding 48 hours, with two re-look laparotomies demonstrating progressively worsening bowel ischemia, initially in the distribution of the superior mesenteric artery and then the coeliac trunk. On review, the patient was found to have an aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. The extent of ischemia was considered non-survivable, and the patient was palliated. Discussion: Multiple theories currently exist for the underlying pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis, including biliary stasis, sepsis, and ischemia. This case lends further support to ischemia as the underlying etiology of acalculous cholecystitis. This is particularly the case when considered in the context of the patient’s aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery, which occurs in 11-14% of patients. Conclusion: This case report adds further insight to the debate surrounding the pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis. It also presents acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of mesenteric ischemia that should always be considered, especially in the elderly patient and in the context of relatively common anatomical variations. Furthermore, the case brings to attention the importance of maintaining dynamic working diagnoses in the setting of evolving pathophysiology and clinical presentations.

Keywords: acalculous cholecystitis, anatomical variation, general surgery, mesenteric ischemia

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79 The Impact of Co-Administration of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Sodium Selenite on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Ovary Model: Biochemical and Histopathologic Evaluation

Authors: Waleed Aly Sayed Ahmed, Eman Kishk, Tahani Shams

Abstract:

Aim: To study the effects of co-administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) and sodium selenite against the damage induced by ovarian ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of forty-two sexually mature, virgin, female rats were divided randomly into six groups of seven each: sham group (C), ischemia group (I), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), ischemia/reperfusion plus 1.4mg/kg sildenafil (I/R+S) group, ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2mg/kg selenium (I/R+Se) group and ischemia/reperfusion plus combination of sildenafil and selenium (I/R+S+Se) group. In ischemia group (I), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 hours (h). In ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 h followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Treated groups received 1.4mg/kg sildenafil or 0.2 mg/kg selenium or both 30 min before reperfusion. Both ovaries were surgically removed carefully. One ovary was examined for histopathological changes and the other was subject to biochemical analysis including malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results: Assessment of ovarian tissue damage using a scoring system showed marked vascular congestion, interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, hemorrhage, and follicular degeneration in ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups. Tissue damage score for I, IR and all treated groups were significantly higher than those of the sham group (p<0.001), while tissue damage score decreased significantly in I/R+S and I/R+Se groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05), and notably, the difference was highly significant in I/R+S+Se group (p<0.001). There was significant increase in MDA levels and reduction in activities of CAT and GPx in I/R group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). In I/R+S and I/R+Se groups, MDA was significantly decreased compared to the I/R group (p<0.05) and the difference was highly significant with co-administration of sildenafil and selenium (p<0.001). CAT and GPx were higher in all treated groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The co-administration of sildenafil citrate and selenium are highly protective against damage induced by ovarian ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Keywords: phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, antioxidant, selenium, ovarian ischemia

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78 Adrenergic and Non-Adrenergic Control of Mesenteric Blood Vessels of Calves

Authors: A. Elmajdoub, A. El-Mahmoudy

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The present study was designed to investigate the neurotransmitters that mediate the excitatory response of the circular muscle of final branches of mesenteric artery in bovine calves. Mesentery was dissected and the iliac branches were separated and used. The final mesenteric branches of diameter 400 micrometers and less responded strongly to norepinephrine and moderately to ATP. However, the mesenteric branches of wider diameters were gradually less responsive to norepinephrine and those of diameter 700 micrometers were exclusively nonresponsive. These arteries were strongly responsive to ATP (100 µM). Norepinephrine response was sensitive to phentolamine (3 µM) and prazosin (5 µM) indicating that it is mediated by α1 receptor; while ATP response was sensitive to suramin (200 µM), PPADS (50 µM), but not to cibacron blue (100 µM) indicating that it is mediated via P2X receptor. Further confirmatory experiments were performed including application of α1 and P2X receptor specific agonists which are methoxamine and α,β-methylene ATP. Methoxamine (1 µM) showed effects similar to norepinephrine in final branches and was without effect in wider branches. α,β-methylene ATP (1 µM), exhibited more pronounced effects on both wide and narrow branches but in parallel manner to that of ATP. Agonists for α2 and P2Y receptors as clonidine (10 µM) and 2-meThio ATP (10 µM), respectively, were without effect indicating that involvement of these receptors is unlikely. The neuropeptide-Y (200 nM) did not have any effects on either the narrow or the wide rings. Conclusion: These data may imply that in the most peripheral mesenteric arteries a strong vasopressor power represented by norepinephrine and ATP integration is needed for maintaining peripheral resistance; on the other hand a mild vasopressor power mediated only by ATP is enough to maintain the vascular tone in the relatively central mesenteric branches.

Keywords: ATP, calves, mesenteric artery, norepinephrine

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77 Investigation of Ezetimibe Administration on Cell Survival Markers in Kidney Ischemia

Authors: Zahra Heydari

Abstract:

Introduction: One of the major clinical issues is acute renal failure, which is caused by ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in this area, important issues such as tissue necrosis, cell apoptosis, and so on in damaged tissue are suggestive for more researches and study on this subject. Objective: Evaluation of the potential utility of Ezetimibe in reducing injuries and cell death induced by kidney ischemia/ reperfusion through inducing expression changes of different cellular pathways in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Forty rats weighing 180-200g were divided into 4 groups. For this purpose, the first right kidneys of the rats were removed during surgery. After 20 days, the left renal artery was closed with a soft clamp and reperfusion was performed. After 24 hours, blood samples were collected and sent to the laboratory with kidneys to measure bax and bcl-2 by Western blotting and histopathological tests. Results: Quantitative damage reviews of Kidney tissue indicates damage Acute and severe tubular lesions were observed in the ischemia group. Also, the amount of injury was significantly reduced in the treatment group. There was also a significant difference between the ischemia and sham groups. In general, the results show that a single dose of 1.2 mg/kg of ezetimibe can reduce the bax/ bcl-2 ratio compared to the ischemia group. In general, the results showed Ezetimibe is effective in reducing cell damage and death due to ischemia/ reperfusion after renal ischemia through changes in the expression of various cellular pathways in rats.

Keywords: acute renal failure, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, ezetimibe, apoptosis

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76 Inhibition of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase Activity Protects Retinal Ganglionic Cell Death Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion by Reducing the Astroglial Activation in Rat

Authors: Dugeree Otgongerel, Kyong Jin Cho, Yu-Han Kim, Sangmee Ahn Jo

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Excessive activation of glutamate receptor is thought to be involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia- reperfusion damage. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glutamate. Several studies showed that inhibition of GCPII prevents or reduces cellular damage in brain diseases. Thus, in this study, we examined the expression of GCPII in rat retina and the role of GCPII in acute high IOP ischemia-reperfusion damage of eye by using a GCPII inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA). Animal model of ischemia-reperfusion was induced by raising the intraocular pressure for 60 min and followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: either intra-vitreous injection of 2-PMPA (11 or 110 ng per eye) or PBS after ischemia-reperfusion, 2-PMPA treatment without ischemia-reperfusion and sham-operated normal control. GCPII immunoreactivity in normal rat retina was detected weakly in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and retinal ganglionic cell layer (RGL) and also inner plexiform layer (IPL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) strongly where are co-stained with an anti-GFAP antibody, suggesting that GCPII is expressed mostly in Muller and astrocytes. Immunostaining with anti-BRN antibody showed that ischemia- reperfusion caused RGC death (31.5 %) and decreased retinal thickness in all layers of damaged retina, but the treatment of 2-PMPA twice at 0 and 48 hour after reperfusion blocked these retinal damages. GCPII level in RNFL layer was enhanced after ischemia-reperfusion but was blocked by PMPA treatment. This result was confirmed by western blot analysis showing that the level of GCPII protein after ischemia- reperfusion increased by 2.2- fold compared to control, but this increase was blocked almost completely by 110 ng PMPA treatment. Interestingly, GFAP immunoreactivity in the retina after ischemia- reperfusion followed by treatment with PMPA showed similar pattern to GCPII, increase after ischemia-reperfusion but reduction to the normal level by PMPA treatment. Our data demonstrate that increase of GCPII protein level after ischemia-reperfusion injury is likely to cause glial activation and/or retinal cell death which are mediated by glutamate, and GCPII inhibitors may be useful in treatment of retinal disorders in which glutamate excitotoxicity is pathogenic.

Keywords: glutamate carboxypepptidase II, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemia-reperfusion, retinal ganglion cell

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75 Anatomical Studies on the Spleen and Mesenteric Lymph Node of the Grasscutter

Authors: R. M. Korzerzer, J. O. Hambolu, S. O. Salami, S. B. Oladele

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The grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) has become an important source of protein and income to rural dwellers in most West African countries including Nigeria. Twelve apparently healthy grasscutters consisting of six males and six females between the ages of three and seven months were obtained from rural dwellers in Benue state and used for this study. The animals were transported by means of constructed cages to the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and sacrificed using chloroform inhalation gaseous anaesthesia by suffocation. The spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were extirpated and the tissues prepared using standard methods, haematoxilin and eosin stain was used for routine histology, while Rhodamine B-aniline-methylene blue stain was used for staining reticular and elastic fibres. The spleen was dark red in colour and roughly triangular in outline, and was observed to increase consistently with age, maximum values were recorded at seven months of age in both males and females. Mean ± SEM values for splenic weights were 0.67 ± 0.09 g, 1.65 ± 0.35 g and 2.31 ± 0.06 g at three, five and seven months of age, respectively. The percentage ratio of splenic weight to body weight was 0.1%. Histologically, the germinal centres revealed three zones; the germinal centre, cortical layer and the marginal zone. The mesenteric lymph nodes were constantly bean shaped and appeared as opaque white masses which resemble fat but were distinguished from fat by their pearly glossy nature. The mean ± SEM values for mesenteric lymph node weights were 0.056 ± 0.005 g, 0.143 ± 0.034 g and 0.1600 ± 0.023 g at three, five and seven months of age, respectively.

Keywords: anatomical, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, grasscutter

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74 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

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Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

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73 Impaired Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4-Mediated Dilation of Mesenteric Arteries in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Ammar Boudaka, Maryam Al-Suleimani, Hajar BaOmar, Intisar Al-Lawati, Fahad Zadjali

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Background: Hypertension is increasingly becoming a matter of medical and public health importance. The maintenance of normal blood pressure requires a balance between cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. The endothelium, through the release of vasodilating factors, plays an important role in the control of total peripheral resistance and hence blood pressure homeostasis. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive non-selective cation channel that is expressed on the endothelium and contributes to endothelium-mediated vasodilation. So far, no data are available about the morphological and functional status of this channel in hypertensive cases. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether there is any difference in the morphological and functional features of TRPV4 in the mesenteric artery of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Functional feature of TRPV4 in four experimental animal groups: young and adult Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-Y and WKY-A), young and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-Y and SHR-A), was studied by adding 5 µM 4αPDD (TRPV4 agonist) to mesenteric arteries mounted in a four-chamber wire myograph and pre-contracted with 4 µM phenylephrine. The 4αPDD-induced response was investigated in the presence and absence of 1 µM HC067047 (TRPV4 antagonist), 100 µM L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and endothelium. The morphological distribution of TRPV4 in the wall of rat mesenteric arteries was investigated by immunostaining. Real-time PCR was used in order to investigate mRNA expression level of TRPV4 in the mesenteric arteries of the four groups. The collected data were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. with n equal to the number of animals used (one vessel was taken from each rat). To determine the level of significance, statistical comparisons were performed using the student’s t-test and considered to be significantly different at p<0.05. Results: 4αPDD induced a relaxation response in the mesenteric arterial preparations (WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5) that was markedly inhibited by HC067047 (18.30% ± 2.86; n= 5; p<0.05), endothelium removal (19.93% ± 1.50; n = 5; p<0.05) and L-NAME (28.18% ± 3.09; n = 5; p<0.05). The 4αPDD-induced relaxation was significantly lower in SHR-Y compared to WKY-Y (SHR-Y: 70.96% ± 3.65; n = 6, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5-6, p<0.05. Moreover, the 4αPDD-induced response was significantly lower in WKY-A than WKY-Y (WKY-A: 75.58 ± 1.30; n = 5, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5, p<0.05). Immunostaining study showed immunofluorescent signal confined to the endothelial layer of the mesenteric arteries. The expression of TRPV4 mRNA in SHR-Y was significantly lower than in WKY-Y (SHR-Y; 0.67RU ± 0.34; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Furthermore, TRPV4 mRNA expression in WKY-A was lower than its expression in WKY-Y (WKY-A: 0.62RU ± 0.37; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Conclusion: Stimulation of TRPV4, which is expressed on the endothelium of rat mesenteric artery, triggers an endothelium-mediated relaxation response that markedly decreases with hypertension and growing up changes due to downregulation of TRPV4 expression.

Keywords: hypertension, endothelium, mesenteric artery, TRPV4

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72 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth

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Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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71 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

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To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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70 Memory Types in Hemodialysis (HD) Patients; A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan: South East of Iran

Authors: Behnoush Sabayan, Ali Alidadi, Saeid Ebarhimi, N. M. Bakhshani

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Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at a high risk of atherosclerotic and vascular disease; also little information is available for the HD impact on brain structure of these patients. We studied the brain abnormalities in HD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on brain structure of HD patients. Non-contrast MRI was used to evaluate imaging findings. Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% were female. According to study, HD patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had small vessel ischemia than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, which the median time was 3 to 5 months. Most of the small vessel ischemia was located in pre-ventricular, subcortical and white matter (1.33± .471, 1.23± .420 and 1.39±.490). However, the other brain damages like: central pons abnormality, global brain atrophy, thinning of corpus callosum and frontal lobe atrophy were found (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a longer time had small vessel ischemia and we conclude that this small vessel ischemia might be a causative mechanism of brain atrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: Hemodialysis Patients, Duration of Hemodialysis, MRI, Zahedan

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69 The Technique of Mobilization of the Colon for Pull-Through Procedure in Hirschsprung's Disease

Authors: Medet K. Khamitov, Marat M. Ospanov, Vasiliy M. Lozovoy, Zhenis N. Sakuov, Dastan Z. Rustemov

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With a high rectosigmoid transitional zone in children with Hirschsprung’s disease, the upper rectal, sigmoid, left colon arteries are ligated during the pull-through of the descending part of the colon. As a result, the inferior mesenteric artery ceases to participate in the blood supply to the descending part of the colon. As a result, the reduced colon is supplied with blood only by the middle colon artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery. Insufficiency of blood supply to the reduced colon is the cause of the development of chronic hypoxia of the intestinal wall or necrosis of the reduced descending colon. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the left colon artery. However, it is possible to stretch the mesentery, which can lead to bowel retraction to anastomotic leaks and stenosis. Chronic hypoxia of the reduced colon, in turn, is the cause of acquired (secondary) aganglionosis. The highest frequency of anastomotic leaks is observed in children older than five years. The purpose is to reduce the risk of complications in the pull-through procedure of the descending part of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease by ensuring its sufficient mobility and maintaining blood supply to the lower mesenteric artery. Methodology and events. Two children aged 5 and 7 years with Hirschsprung’s disease were operated under the conditions of the hospital in Nur-Sultan. The diagnosis was made using x-ray contrast enema and histological examination. Operational technique. After revision of the left part of the colon and assessment of the architectonics of its blood vessels, parietal mobilization of the affected sigmoid and rectum was performed on laparotomy access, while maintaining the arterial and venous terminal arcades of the sigmoid vessels. Then, the descending branch of the left colon artery was crossed (if there is an insufficient length of the reduced intestine, the left colonic artery itself may also be crossed). This manipulation provides additional mobility of the pull-through descending part of the colon. The resulting "windows" in the mesentery of the reduced intestine were sutured to prevent the development of an internal hernia. Formed a full-blooded, sufficiently long transplant from the transverse loops of the splenic angle and the descending parts of the colon with blood supply from the upper and lower mesenteric artery, freely, without tension, is reduced to the rectal zone with the coloanal anastomosis 1.5 cm above the dentate line. Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patients were discharged on the 7th day. The observation was carried out for six months. In no case, there was a bowel retraction, anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, or other complications. Conclusion. The presented technique of mobilization of the colon for the pull-through procedure in a high transitional rectosigmoid zone of Hirschsprung’s disease allows to maintain normal blood supply to the distal part of the colon and to avoid the tension of the colon. The technique allows reducing the risk of anastomotic leak, bowel necrosis, chronic ischemia, to exclude colon retraction and anastomotic stenosis.

Keywords: blood supply, children, colon mobilization, Hirschsprung's disease, pull-through

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68 Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism of Remote Limb Ischemic Post Conditioning against Global Cerebral Ischemic Injury

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev Taliyan

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Background and purpose: Recent investigations on ischemia and reperfusion injury postulate that transient ischemia of remote organs after a prolonged ischemic insult confers neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms of the remote limb ischemic post-conditioning (RIPOC) are yet to be elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the protective mechanism of RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury using global model of stroke. Materials and methods: Global ischemic reperfusion injury (IR) was achieved by 30 minutes ischemia of cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Induction of global ischemia was followed by 4 brief episodes (30 seconds each) of ischemia and reperfusion of femoral artery to accomplish RIPOC. 5-Hydroxy Decanoic acid (5-HD), a KATP channel blocker (20 mg/kg) was administered after induction of global ischemia and RIPOC intervention. Results: IR injury ensue significant behavioural deficits as manifested by rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared to sham control. Furthermore, IR injury significantly increased oxidonitrative stress and infarct volume as evidenced by biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, Nitrite, SOD) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining respectively. Moreover, RIPOC intervention ameliorated the behavioural performance, attenuated the oxidative stress and infarct volume when compared to IR injury group. However, administration of 5-HD increased the oxidative stress and infarct size while deteriorating the behavioural parameters when compared to RIPOC group. Conclusions: In a nutshell, cerebral IR injury has significantly induced the neuronal damage, whereas RIPOC intervention decreased the neuronal injury. Moreover, 5-HD abolished the neuroprotection offered by RIPOC indicating the putative role of KATP channel opening in RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury.

Keywords: RIPOC, cerebral injury, KATP channel, neuroprotection

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67 The Impact of Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury upon the Biological Function of Mesenteric Lymph

Authors: Beth Taylor, Kojima Mituaki, Atsushi Senda, Koji Morishita, Yasuhiro Otomo

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Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury drives systemic inflammation and organ failure following trauma/haemorrhagic shock (T/HS), through the release of pro-inflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML). However, changes in the biological function of ML are not fully understood, and therefore, a specific model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury is required to obtain ML for the study of its biological function upon inflammatory cells. ML obtained from a model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury was used to assess biological function upon inflammatory cells and investigate changes in the biological function of individual ML components. An additional model was used to determine the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) upon biological function. Rat ML was obtained by mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulation before and after occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMAO). ML was incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes and lymphocytes, and the biological function of these cells was assessed. ML was then separated into supernatant, exosome and micro-vesicle components, and biological activity was compared in monocytes. A model with an additional VNS phase was developed, in which the right cervical vagal nerve was exposed and stimulated, and ML collected for comparison of biological function with the conventional model. The biological function of ML was altered by intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, increasing PMN activation, monocyte activation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased monocyte activation was only induced by the exosome component of ML, with no significant changes induced by the supernatant or micro-vesicle components. VNS partially attenuated monocyte activation, but no attenuation of PMN activation was observed. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury induces changes in the biological function of ML upon both innate and adaptive inflammatory cells, supporting the role of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in driving systemic inflammation following T/HS. The exosome component of ML appears to be critical to the transport of pro-inflammatory mediators in ML. VNS partially attenuates changes in innate inflammatory cell biological activity observed, presenting possibilities for future novel treatment development in multiple organ failure patients.

Keywords: exosomes, inflammation, intestinal ischaemia, mesenteric lymph, vagal stimulation

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66 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

Abstract:

Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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65 Mechanisms of O-1602 Induced Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxation of Rat Small Mesenteric Artery

Authors: Yousuf Al Suleimani, Ahmed Al Mahruqi

Abstract:

A typical cannabinoid O-1602 induces vasorelaxation and activates the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in human endothelial cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanisms of endothelium-independent relaxation of O-1602 in the rat small mesenteric artery using wire myograph. In endothelium-denuded vessels, O-1602 partially produced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation. In vessels depleted of intracellular Ca2+ (by EGTA and methoxamine), CaCl2 produced concentration-dependent contraction. Preincubation with O-1602 (at 10 µM and 30 µM) abolished the contractile responses (P<0.01). The putative antagonist at novel “endothelial anandamide receptor” O-1918 (10 µM) significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of O-1602 on CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction. It is likely that the mechanism of endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to O-1602 is mediated by interfering with Ca2+ entry via an O-1918-sensitive pathway.

Keywords: O-1602, endothelium, vasorelaxation, calcium

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64 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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63 Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement Protects Heart against Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in Wistar Rats

Authors: S. M. Satyam, K. L. Bairy, R. Pirasanthan, R. L. Vaishnav

Abstract:

Zincovit tablets have been used as nutritional food supplement over a prolonged period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effect of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats. Following 21 days of pre-treatment, combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury in terms of increased coronary flow rate (p < 0.01), decreased creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent (p < 0.05), decreased MDA (p < 0.001), 4-HNE (p < 0.001) and increased protein thiol content (p < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated (control) group. This study opens an avenue to clinical studies to demonstrate the validity of this paradigm as a nutritional food supplement, which could improve the clinical outcome of patients subjected to percutaneous angioplasty.

Keywords: grape seed extract, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, Zincovit tablets

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62 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea

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61 Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Ibuprofen Derivative Can Protect Heart After Ischemia-Reperfusion

Authors: Virag Vass, Ilona Bereczki, Erzsebet Szabo, Nora Debreczeni, Aniko Borbas, Pal Herczegh, Arpad Tosaki

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a toxic gas, but it is produced by certain tissues in a small quantity. According to earlier studies, ibuprofen and H₂S has a protective effect against damaging heart tissue caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Recently, we have been investigating the effect of a new water-soluble H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule administered after artificially generated ischemia-reperfusion on isolated rat hearts. The H₂S releasing property of the new ibuprofen derivative was investigated in vitro in medium derived from heart endothelial cell isolation at two concentrations. The ex vivo examinations were carried out on rat hearts. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine, xylazine, and heparin. After thoracotomy, hearts were excised and placed into ice-cold perfusion buffer. Perfusion of hearts was conducted in Langendorff mode via the cannulated aorta. In our experiments, we studied the dose-effect of the H₂S releasing molecule in Langendorff-perfused hearts with the application of gradually increasing concentration of the compound (0- 20 µM). The H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative was applied before the ischemia for 10 minutes. H₂S concentration was measured with an H₂S detecting electrochemical sensor from the coronary effluent solution. The 10 µM concentration was chosen for further experiments when the treatment with this solution was occurred after the ischemia. The release of H₂S is occurred by the hydrolyzing enzymes that are present in the heart endothelial cells. The protective effect of the new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule can be confirmed by the infarct sizes of hearts using the Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Furthermore, we aimed to define the effect of the H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative on autophagic and apoptotic processes in damaged hearts after investigating the molecular markers of these events by western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Our further studies will include the examination of LC3I/II, p62, Beclin1, caspase-3, and other apoptotic molecules. We hope that confirming the protective effect of new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule will open a new possibility for the development of more effective cardioprotective agents with exerting fewer side effects. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the grants of NKFIH- K-124719 and the European Union and the State of Hungary co- financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00043.

Keywords: autophagy, hydrogen sulfide, ibuprofen, ischemia, reperfusion

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60 Neuroprotective Effect of Vildagliptin against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

The burden of stroke is intensely increasing worldwide. Brain injury following transient or permanent focal cerebral ischemia develops ischemic stroke as a consequence of a complex series of pathophysiological events. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent on its insulinotropic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anaesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO. The other three groups were orally administered vildagliptin at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) for 3 successive weeks before subjected to left focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and till the end of the study. Neurological deficit scores and motor activity were assessed 24h following reperfusion. 48h following reperfusion, rats were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were harvested and used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical investigations. Vildagliptin pretreatment improved neurological score deficit, locomotor activity and motor coordination in MCAO rats. Moreover, vildagliptin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), phosphotylinosital 3 kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated of protein kinase B (p-AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) brain contents in addition to reducing protein expression of caspase-3. Also, vildagliptin showed a dose-dependent attenuation in neuronal cell loss and histopathological alterations in MCAO rats. This study proves that vildagliptin exerted the neuroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner as shown in amelioration of neuronal cell loss and histopathological damage in MCAO rats, which may be mediated by attenuating neuronal and motor deficits, it’s anti-oxidant property, activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its anti-apoptotic effect.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, oxidative stress, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, rats, vildagliptin

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59 Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia Based on Support Vector Machine and Gaussian Mixture Model by Using Features of ECG Recordings

Authors: Merve Begum Terzi, Orhan Arikan, Adnan Abaci, Mustafa Candemir

Abstract:

Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world. Therefore, its fast and reliable diagnosis is a major clinical need. ECG is the most important diagnostic methodology which is used to make decisions about the management of the cardiovascular diseases. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, temporary chest pains together with changes in ST segment and T wave of ECG occur shortly before the start of myocardial infarction. In this study, a technique which detects changes in ST/T sections of ECG is developed for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. For this purpose, a database of real ECG recordings that contains a set of records from 75 patients presenting symptoms of chest pain who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constituted. 12-lead ECG’s of the patients were recorded before and during the PCI procedure. Two ECG epochs, which are the pre-inflation ECG which is acquired before any catheter insertion and the occlusion ECG which is acquired during balloon inflation, are analyzed for each patient. By using pre-inflation and occlusion recordings, ECG features that are critical in the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are identified and the most discriminative features for the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are extracted. A classification technique based on support vector machine (SVM) approach operating with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels to detect ischemic events by using ST-T derived joint features from non-ischemic and ischemic states of the patients is developed. The dataset is randomly divided into training and testing sets and the training set is used to optimize SVM hyperparameters by using grid-search method and 10fold cross-validation. SVMs are designed specifically for each patient by tuning the kernel parameters in order to obtain the optimal classification performance results. As a result of implementing the developed classification technique to real ECG recordings, it is shown that the proposed technique provides highly reliable detections of the anomalies in ECG signals. Furthermore, to develop a detection technique that can be used in the absence of ECG recording obtained during healthy stage, the detection of acute myocardial ischemia based on ECG recordings of the patients obtained during ischemia is also investigated. For this purpose, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to represent the joint pdf of the most discriminating ECG features of myocardial ischemia. Then, a Neyman-Pearson type of approach is developed to provide detection of outliers that would correspond to acute myocardial ischemia. Neyman – Pearson decision strategy is used by computing the average log likelihood values of ECG segments and comparing them with a range of different threshold values. For different discrimination threshold values and number of ECG segments, probability of detection and probability of false alarm values are computed, and the corresponding ROC curves are obtained. The results indicate that increasing number of ECG segments provide higher performance for GMM based classification. Moreover, the comparison between the performances of SVM and GMM based classification showed that SVM provides higher classification performance results over ECG recordings of considerable number of patients.

Keywords: ECG classification, Gaussian mixture model, Neyman–Pearson approach, support vector machine

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58 Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ali Kassem, Esam Nada, Amro Abdelhamed, Shigeo Horie

Abstract:

Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P <04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P <04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, microvascular, silent ischemia

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57 Neuroprotective Effects of Allium Cepa Extract Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice

Authors: Jaspal Rana

Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min followed by 24 h reperfusion was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rise in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion, neuroprotective, stroke, antioxidant

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56 Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) Mediated Neuroprotective Effect against Ischemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury in Cerebral Stroke

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev T.

Abstract:

Free radical damage has been entailed as the major culprit in the ischemic stroke contributing for oxidative damage. Recent investigations on Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) suggested its role in cerebral ischemia and various neurodegenerative disorders with unidentified molecular mechanisms. The current study was designed to investigate putative therapeutic role and possible molecular mechanisms of HSYA administration during the onset of reperfusion in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in cerebral stroke. Cerebral stroke was achieved by focal ischemic model. HSYA (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously via the tail vein 5 minutes before reperfusion. Losses of sensorimotor abilities were evaluated by neurological scoring, spontaneous locomotor activity, and rotarod performance. Extent of oxidative stress was evaluated by biochemical parameters i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The infarct volume of brain was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique. Increased cerebral injury (I/R) was evidenced by motor impairment, increased infarct volume and elevation of MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e.,MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e., GSH, SOD and catalase levels when compared to sham control. However, post conditioning with HSYA (10 mg/kg, i.v.) at the onset of reperfusion has significantly ameliorated sensorimotor abilities, attenuated MDA levels and reduced the infarct volume as compared with vehicle treated I/R injury group. Moreover, HSYA treatments improved antioxidant enzyme levels as compared with vehicle treated I/R-injury group. In conclusion, it may be suggested that HSYA post conditioning could be novel therapeutic approach against I/R injury in cerebral stroke possibly through its anti-oxidant mechanism.

Keywords: HSYA, Ischemia reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
55 Antioxidant Mediated Neuroprotective Effects of Allium Cepa Extract Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice

Authors: Jaspal Rana, Varinder Singh

Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion, was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rose in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: allium cepa, cerebral ischemia, memory, sensorimotor

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54 Allium Cepa Extract Provides Neuroprotection Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice

Authors: Jaspal Rana, Alkem Laboratories, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India Chitkara University, Punjab, India

Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min followed by 24 h reperfusion was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rise in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury, which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: stroke, neuroprotection, ischemia reperfusion, herbal drugs

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53 Gross Anatomical Study on the Tributaries of the Hepatic Portal Vein in Cattle Egret (Bubulcus Ibis)

Authors: Elsayed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash

Abstract:

The aim of the current work study to increase the anatomical knowledge about the cattle egret which considered economically important for farmers. The study was carried out on ten adult, apparently healthy cattle egrets of both sexes. Each bird was exsanguinated; the caudal vena cava was cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with blue colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the tributaries of the hepatic portal vein. The origin, course and tributaries of the right and left hepatic portal veins were studied. The hepatic portal venous system collected venous blood from the abdominal viscera including; glandular and muscular stomachs, liver, pancreas, spleen, small intestine and large intestine. The hepatic portal vein was formed by the left and the right hepatic portal veins. The smaller left one drained blood from the glandular and muscular stomachs through the ventral and the left proventriculus as well as the left gastric veins. The most tributaries of the right hepatic portal vein drained blood from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen by the proventriculosplenic, the gastropancreaticoduodenal and the common mesenteric veins.

Keywords: cattle egret, common mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, anatomy

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52 Angiogenic, Cytoprotective, and Immunosuppressive Properties of Human Amnion and Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Kenichi Yamahara, Makiko Ohshima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Hidetoshi Tsuda, Akihiko Taguchi, Toshihiro Soma, Hiroyasu Ogawa, Jun Yoshimatsu, Tomoaki Ikeda

Abstract:

We have previously reported the therapeutic potential of rat fetal membrane(FM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using various rat models including hindlimb ischemia, autoimmune myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. In this study, 1) we isolated and characterized MSCs from human amnion and chorion; 2) we examined their differences in the expression profile of growth factors and cytokines; and 3) we investigated the therapeutic potential and difference of these MSCs using murine hindlimb ischemia and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of GVHD disease. Our results highlight that human amnionand chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

Keywords: amnion, chorion, fetal membrane, mesenchymal stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 341