Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 364

Search results for: coronary artery obstruction

364 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

Abstract:

To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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363 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
362 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur

Abstract:

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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361 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

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360 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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359 Investigation the Effect of Velocity Inlet and Carrying Fluid on the Flow inside Coronary Artery

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study OpenFOAM 4.4.2 was used to investigate flow inside the coronary artery of the heart. This step is the first step of our future project, which is to include conjugate heat transfer of the heart with three main coronary arteries. Three different velocities were used as inlet boundary conditions to see the effect of velocity increase on velocity, pressure, and wall shear of the coronary artery. Also, three different fluids, namely the University of Wisconsin solution, gelatin, and blood was used to investigate the effect of different fluids on flow inside the coronary artery. A code based on Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes (RANS) equations was written and implemented with the real boundary condition that was calculated based on MRI images. In order to improve the accuracy of the current numerical scheme, hex dominant mesh is utilized. When the inlet velocity increases to 0.5 m/s, velocity, wall shear stress, and pressure increase at the narrower parts.

Keywords: CFD, simulation, OpenFOAM, heart

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358 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, knowledge discovery, extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
357 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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356 Management of Coronary Heart Disease through Yoga

Authors: Subramaniam Iyer

Abstract:

The most common disease that is pertaining to all human beings is heart-related. The reasons for coronary artery disease are due to lifestyle and eating habits. Due to this, many people mentally become sick, feeling that soon they will die due to their heart problems. This results in stress and anxiety, which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are the commonest curative remedy in India, but it is proposed through this article some remedies through yoga. This article does not guarantee a 100% result, but it is a preventive remedy for coronary artery disease. Yoga is giving a new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases, it provides remedies that will be lifelong. It is brought to many people by Patanjali. Yoga will provide support to patients having coronary artery disease through its various relevant postures (asanas), which can be done very easily. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly, you will be relieved from a particular disease. If it is performed every day, it will add vital energy for a smooth life, even if you are suffering from any chronic disease. In this article, we will be providing 6 postures (asanas), which can be performed at any time in the day, but the early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get a good result. Secondly, these postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves, don’t do these postures as it will be harmful to your body.

Keywords: coronary artery, yoga, disease, remedy, medicine

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355 Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Radhe Tado, Ashish B. Deoghare, K. M. Pandey

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.

Keywords: angiography, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS)

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354 Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Index as Predictors of the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yaser Kamal, Mohamed Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Hussen

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Recently, there is an increasing interest in Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) as non-invasive tools for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis. We aim to examine the role of CIMT and ABI as predictors of the severity of angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 60 patients who were investigated by coronary angiography at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. CIMT: After the carotid arteries were located by transverse scans, the probe was rotated 90 ° to obtain and record longitudinal images of bilateral carotid arteries ABI: Each patient was evaluated in the supine position after resting for 5 min. ABI was measured in each leg using a Doppler Ultrasound while the patient remained in the same position. The lowest ABI obtained for either leg was taken as the ABI measurement for the patient. Results: Patients with carotid mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients without thickening (mean IMT > 0.9 mm). Similarly, patients with low ABI (< 0.9) had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients with ABI ≥ 0.9. When the patients were divided into 4 groups (group A, n = 15, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group B, n = 25, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, low ABI; group C, n = 5, mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group D, n = 19, mean IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, low ABI), the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50%) of the groups were significantly different (group A, n = 5: (33.3%); group B, n = 11: (52.4%); group C, n = 4: (60%); group D, n=15, (78.9%), P = 0.001). Conclusion: CIMT and ABI provide useful information on the severity of CAD. Early and aggressive intervention should be considered in patients with CAD and abnormalities in one or both of these non-invasive modalities.

Keywords: ankle brachial index, carotid intima media thickness, coronary artery disease, predictors of severity

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353 Post Coronary Artery Stenting Reflighting: Need for Change in Policy with Changing Antiplatelet Therapy

Authors: Keshavamurthy Ganapathy Bhat, Manvinderpal Singh Marwaha

Abstract:

Background: Coronary artery Disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity, mortality and reason for unfitness amongst aircrew. Coronary angioplasty and stenting are the standard of care for CAD. Antiplatelet drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel(Dual Antiplatelet therapy) are routinely prescribed post-stenting which are permitted for flying. However, in the recent past, Ticagrelor is being used in place of Clopidogrel as per ACC AHA and ESC guidelines. However Ticagrelor is not permitted for flying. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old pilot suffered Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction. Angiography showed blockages in Left Anterior Descending Artery(LAD) and Right coronary artery (RCA). He underwent primary angioplasty and stenting LAD and subsequent stenting to RCA. Recovery was uneventful. One year later he was asymptomatic with normal Left ventricular function and no reversible perfusion defect on stress MPI. He had patent stents and coronaries on check angiogram. However, he was not allowed to fly since he was on Ticagrelor. He had to be switched over to Clopidogrel from Ticagrelor one year after stenting to permit him for flying. Similarly, switching had to be done in a 45-year-old pilot. Ticagrelor has been proven to be more effective than clopidogrel and as safe as Clopidogrel in preventing stent thrombosis. If Clopidogrel is being permitted, there is no need to restrict Ticagrelor. Hence "Policy" needs to be changed. Conclusions: Dual Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care post coronary stenting which has been proved safe and effective. Policy needs to be changed to permit flying with Ticagrelor which is more effective than Clopidogrel and equally safe.

Keywords: antiplatelet drugs, coronary artery disease, stenting, ticagrelor

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352 The Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Local and Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Kamil Ganaev, Elina Vlasova, Andrei Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin

Abstract:

De novo atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication. To date, there are no data on the possible effect of diffuse lesions of coronary arteries on the incidence of postoperative AF complications. Methods. Patients operated on-pump under hypothermic conditions during the calendar year (2020) were studied. Inclusion criteria - isolated CABG and achievement of complete myocardial revascularization. Patients with a history of AF moderate and severe valve dysfunction, hormonal thyroid pathology, initial CHF(Congestive heart failure), as well as patients with developed perioperative complications (IM, acute heart failure, massive blood loss) and deceased were excluded. Thus 227 patients were included; mean age 65±9 years; 69% were men. 89% of patients had a 3-vessel lesion of the coronary artery; the remainder had a 2-vessel lesion. Mean LV size: 3.9±0.3 cm, indexed LV volume: 29.4±5.3 mL/m2. Two groups were considered: D (n=98), patients with diffuse coronary heart disease, and L (n=129), patients with local coronary heart disease. Clinical and demographic characteristics in the groups were comparable. Rhythm assessment: continuous bedside ECG monitoring up to 5 days; ECG CT at 5-7 days after CABG; daily routine ECG registration. Follow-up period - postoperative hospital period. Results. The Median follow-up period was 9 (7;11) days. POFP (Postoperative atrial fibrillation) was detected in 61/227 (27%) patients: 34/98 (35%) in group D versus 27/129 (21%) in group L; p<0.05. Moreover, the values of revascularization index in groups D and L (3.9±0.7 and 3.8±0.5, respectively) were equal, and the mean time Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (107±27 and 80±13min), as well as the mean ischemic time (67±17 and 55±11min) were significantly longer in group D (p<0.05). However, a separate analysis of these parameters in patients with and without developed AF did not reveal any significant differences in group D (CPB time 99±21.2 min, ischemic time 63±12.2 min), or in group L (CPB time 88±13.1 min, ischemic time 58.7±13.2 min). Conclusion. With the diffuse nature of coronary lesions, the incidence of AF in the hospital period after isolated CABG definitely increases. To better understand the role of severe coronary atherosclerosis in the development of POAF, it is necessary to distinguish the influence of organic features of atrial and ventricular myocardium (as a consequence of chronic coronary disease) from the features of surgical correction in diffuse coronary lesions.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, diffuse coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, local coronary artery disease

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351 Predicting the Quality of Life on the Basis of Perceived Social Support among Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Azadeh Yaraghchi, Reza Bagherian Sararoodi, Niknaz Salehi Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein Mandegar, Adis Kraskian Mujembari, Omid Rezaei

Abstract:

Background: Quality of life is one of the most important consequences of disease in psychosomatic disorders. Many psychological factors are considered in predicting quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The present study was aimed to determine the relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: The population included 82 patients who had undergone CABG from October 2014 to May 2015 in four different hospitals in Tehran. The patients were evaluated with Multi-dimension scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and after three months follow up were evaluated by Short-Form quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). The obtained data were analyzed through Pearson correlation test and multiple variable regression models. Findings: A relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with CABG was observed (r=0.374, p<0.01). The results showed that 22.4% of variation in quality of life is predicted by perceived social support components (p<0.01, R2 =0.224). Conclusion: Based on the results, perceived social support is one of the predictors of quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft. Accordingly, these results can be useful in conceiving proactive policies, detecting high risk patients and planning for psychological interventions.

Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft, perceived social support, psychological factors, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
350 Shear Stress and Effective Structural Stress ‎Fields of an Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery

Authors: Alireza Gholipour, Mergen H. Ghayesh, Anthony Zander, Stephen J. Nicholls, Peter J. Psaltis

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical model of an atherosclerotic coronary ‎artery is developed for the determination of high-risk situation and ‎hence heart attack prediction. Employing the finite element method ‎‎(FEM) using ANSYS, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the ‎artery is constructed to determine the shear stress distribution as well ‎as the von Mises stress field. A flexible model for an atherosclerotic ‎coronary artery conveying pulsatile blood is developed incorporating ‎three-dimensionality, artery’s tapered shape via a linear function for ‎artery wall distribution, motion of the artery, blood viscosity via the ‎non-Newtonian flow theory, blood pulsation via use of one-period ‎heartbeat, hyperelasticity via the Mooney-Rivlin model, viscoelasticity ‎via the Prony series shear relaxation scheme, and micro-calcification ‎inside the plaque. The material properties used to relate the stress field ‎to the strain field have been extracted from clinical data from previous ‎in-vitro studies. The determined stress fields has potential to be used as ‎a predictive tool for plaque rupture and dissection.‎ The results show that stress concentration due to micro-calcification ‎increases the von Mises stress significantly; chance of developing a ‎crack inside the plaque increases. Moreover, the blood pulsation varies ‎the stress distribution substantially for some cases.‎

Keywords: atherosclerosis, fluid-structure interaction‎, coronary arteries‎, pulsatile flow

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349 Early and Mid-Term Results of Anesthetic Management of Minimal Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using One Lung Ventilation

Authors: Devendra Gupta, S. P. Ambesh, P. K Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) provides many anesthetic challenges including one lung ventilation (OLV), managing myocardial ischemia, and pain. We present an early and midterm result of the use of this technique with OLV. Method: We enrolled 62 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were anesthetized and left endobronchial tube was placed. During the procedure left lung was isolated and one lung ventilation was maintained through right lung. Operation was performed utilizing off pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Postoperative ventilation was done with single lumen endotracheal tube. Median follow-up is 2.5 years (6 months to 4 years). Results: Median age was 58.5 years (41-77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 36, double vessel in 24 and triple vessel disease in 2 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. In 2 cases difficulty were encounter in placement of endobronchial tube. In 1 case cuff of endobronchial tube was ruptured during intubation. High airway pressure was developed on OLV in 1 case and surgery was accomplished with two lung anesthesia with low tidal volume. Mean postoperative ventilation time was 14.4 hour (11-22). There was no perioperative and 30 day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 3.23% (2 out of 62 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction postoperatively and there were no deaths during follow-up. Conclusion: MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization with OLV in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting.

Keywords: MIDCABG, one lung ventilation, coronary artery bypass grafting, endobronchial tube

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348 Unusual High Origin and Superficial Course of Radial Artery: A Case Report with Embryological Explanation

Authors: Anasuya Ghosh, Subhramoy Chaudhury

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During routine cadaveric dissection at gross anatomy lab of our institution, a radial artery was found with unusual origin and superficial course. Normally the radial artery takes its origin as one of the terminal branches of brachial artery at the level of the neck of radius. It usually lies along the lateral border of fore arm deep to the brachioradialis muscle. While dissecting a 72-year-old Caucasian female cadaver, it was found that the right sided radial artery originated from the upper part of brachial artery of arm, 2 cm below the lower border of teres major muscle, from the lateral aspect of brachial artery. Then the radial artery superficially crossed the brachial artery and median nerve from lateral to medial direction and rested superficially at the cubital fossa. Embryologically, it can be explained as a failure of disappearance, or abnormal persistence of some insignificant embryonic vessels may give rise to this kind of vascular anomalies. As radial artery is one of the most important upper limb arteries, its variation and related complications are clinically significant. This unusual origin and course of radial artery should be kept in mind by all healthcare providers including surgeons and radiologists during routine venipuncture, orthopedic and plastic surgeries of arm, coronary angiographic procedures in radial approach etc. to prevent unwanted complications.

Keywords: brachial artery anomalies, brachio-radial artery, high origin radial artery, superficial radial artery

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347 Correlation of Serum Apelin Level with Coronary Calcium Score in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: M. Zeitoun, K. Abdallah, M. Rashwan

Abstract:

Introduction: A growing body of evidence indicates that apelin, a relatively recent member of the adipokines family, has a potential anti-atherogenic effect. An association between low serum apelin state and coronary artery disease (CAD) was previously reported; however, the relationship between apelin and the atherosclerotic burden was unclear. Objectives: Our aim was to explore the correlation of serum apelin level with coronary calcium score (CCS) as a quantitative marker of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 100 consecutive subjects referred for cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessment of CAD (mean age 54 ± 9.7 years, 51 male and 49 females). Clinical parameters, glycemic and lipid profile, high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum creatinine and complete blood count were assessed. Serum apelin levels were determined using a commercially available Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) Kit. High-resolution non-contrast CT images were acquired by a 64-raw MDCT and CCS was calculated using the Agatston scoring method. Results: Forty-three percent of the studied subjects had positive coronary artery calcification (CAC). The mean CCS was 79 ± 196.5 Agatston units. Subjects with detectable CAC had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and WBCs count than subjects without detectable CAC (p < 0.05). Most importantly, subjects with detectable CAC had significantly lower serum apelin level than subjects without CAC (1.3 ± 0.4 ng/ml vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum apelin levels and CCS (r = 0.591, p < 0.001); on multivariate analysis this correlation was found to be independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and hs-CRP. Conclusion:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an independent association between apelin and CCS in patients with suspected CAD. Apelin emerges as a possible novel biomarker for CAD, but this result remains to be proved prospectively.

Keywords: HbA1c, apelin, adipokines, coronary calcium score (CCS), coronary artery disease (CAD)

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346 Prediction of Coronary Artery Stenosis Severity Based on Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Yu-Jia Jian, Emily Chia-Yu Su, Hui-Ling Hsu, Jian-Jhih Chen

Abstract:

Coronary artery is the major supplier of myocardial blood flow. When fat and cholesterol are deposit in the coronary arterial wall, narrowing and stenosis of the artery occurs, which may lead to myocardial ischemia and eventually infarction. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), estimated 740 million people have died of coronary heart disease in 2015. According to Statistics from Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan, heart disease (except for hypertensive diseases) ranked the second among the top 10 causes of death from 2013 to 2016, and it still shows a growing trend. According to American Heart Association (AHA), the risk factors for coronary heart disease including: age (> 65 years), sex (men to women with 2:1 ratio), obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, lack of exercise and more. We have collected a dataset of 421 patients from a hospital located in northern Taiwan who received coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. There were 300 males (71.26%) and 121 females (28.74%), with age ranging from 24 to 92 years, and a mean age of 56.3 years. Prior to coronary CT angiography, basic data of the patients, including age, gender, obesity index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease and exercise habits, were collected and used as input variables. The output variable of the prediction module is the degree of coronary artery stenosis. The output variable of the prediction module is the narrow constriction of the coronary artery. In this study, the dataset was randomly divided into 80% as training set and 20% as test set. Four machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression, stepwise regression, neural network and decision tree, were incorporated to generate prediction results. We used area under curve (AUC) / accuracy (Acc.) to compare the four models, the best model is neural network, followed by stepwise logistic regression, decision tree, and logistic regression, with 0.68 / 79 %, 0.68 / 74%, 0.65 / 78%, and 0.65 / 74%, respectively. Sensitivity of neural network was 27.3%, specificity was 90.8%, stepwise Logistic regression sensitivity was 18.2%, specificity was 92.3%, decision tree sensitivity was 13.6%, specificity was 100%, logistic regression sensitivity was 27.3%, specificity 89.2%. From the result of this study, we hope to improve the accuracy by improving the module parameters or other methods in the future and we hope to solve the problem of low sensitivity by adjusting the imbalanced proportion of positive and negative data.

Keywords: decision support, computed tomography, coronary artery, machine learning

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345 Numerical Simulation of the Fractional Flow Reserve in the Coronary Artery with Serial Stenoses of Varying Configuration

Authors: Mariia Timofeeva, Andrew Ooi, Eric K. W. Poon, Peter Barlis

Abstract:

Atherosclerotic plaque build-up, commonly known as stenosis, limits blood flow and hence oxygen and nutrient supplies to the heart muscle. Thus, assessment of its severity is of great interest to health professionals. Numerical simulation of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proved to be well correlated with invasively measured FFR used for physiological assessment of the severity of coronary stenosis in arteries. Atherosclerosis may impact the diseased artery in several locations causing serial stenoses, which is a complicated subset of coronary artery disease that requires careful treatment planning. However, hemodynamic of the serial sequential stenoses in coronary arteries has not been extensively studied. The hemodynamics of the serial stenoses is complex because the stenoses in the series interact and affect the flow through each other. To address this, serial stenoses in a 3.4 mm left anterior descending (LAD) artery are examined in this study. Two diameter stenoses (DS) are considered, 30 and 50 percent of the reference diameter. Serial stenoses configurations are divided into three groups based on the order of the stenoses in the series, spacing between them, and deviation of the stenoses’ symmetry (eccentricity). A patient-specific pulsatile waveform is used in the simulations. Blood flow within the stenotic artery is assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, and incompressible. Results for the FFR are reported. Based on the simulation results, it can be deduced that the larger drop in pressure (smaller value of the FFR) is expected when the percentage of the second stenosis in the series is bigger. Varying the distance between the stenoses affects the location of the maximum drop in the pressure, while the minimal FFR in the artery remains unchanged. Eccentric serial stenoses are characterized by a noticeably larger decrease in pressure through the stenoses and by the development of the chaotic flow downstream of the stenoses. The largest drop in the pressure (about 4% difference compared to the axisymmetric case) is obtained for the serial stenoses, where both the stenoses are highly eccentric with the centerlines deflected to the different sides of the LAD. In conclusion, varying configuration of the sequential serial stenoses results in a different distribution of FFR through the LAD. Results presented in this study provide insight into the clinical assessment of the severity of the coronary serial stenoses, which is proved to depend on the relative position of the stenoses and the deviation of the stenoses’ symmetry.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, coronary artery, fractional flow reserve, serial stenoses

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344 Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ali Kassem, Esam Nada, Amro Abdelhamed, Shigeo Horie

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Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P <04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P <04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, microvascular, silent ischemia

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343 Diagnostic Properties of Exercise or Pharmacological Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Per-Vessel Basis: A Clinical Validation Study

Authors: Ahmadreza Bagheri, Seyyed S. Eftekhari, Shervin Rashidinia

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Background: Various stress tests have been proposed yet to assess patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, their diagnostic properties in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are variable and their applicability remained somewhat vague. The aim of this study is to validate per-vessel diagnostic properties of 3 types of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in gated SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) using either exercise or pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole or dobutamine. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 314 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran between September 2015 and January 2017 were completely reviewed in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 3 months after stress myocardial perfusion scan. Eventually, the results were analyzed in per-vessel basis to find the proper modality for each involved vessel or scanned site. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.15 ± 4.94 years (30-85) and 35.03% were women. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated as 56.59%, 54.24%, and 55.09%, respectively. These values were 56.43% and 53.25%, 54.46% and 47.36%, 56.75% and 54.83% for dipyridamole and exercise, respectively. Ischemia of the anterior wall through exercise stress testing has the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting LAD (Left Anterior Descending artery) involvement. Inferior wall hypokinesia and anterolateral wall ischemia during exercise stress testing have the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting RCA (Right Coronary Artery) and LCX artery (Left Circumflex Artery) stenosis, respectively. Conclusion: Stress myocardial perfusion scan should be carried out on the basis of the findings of the preliminary investigations on suspicion of a specific coronary artery or involved myocardial wall.

Keywords: dipyridamole, dobutamine, single-photon emission computed tomography, stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

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342 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

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Objective: To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute,Dhaka,Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Results: Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87 ± 7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032)difference in the two groups(sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidaemic patients having true positive which were statically significant (p < 0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68 (83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant(p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138)and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90%), followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%) and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%), .40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. Conclusion: It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients,resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetis, dyslipidaemic, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: exercise tolerance test, coronary artery disease, coronary angiography, true positive, false positive

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341 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

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Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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340 Effect of Perioperative Protocol of Care on Clinical Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Manal Ahmed, Amal Shehata, Shereen Deeb

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The study's purpose was to determine the effect of the perioperative protocol of care on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects: A sample of 100 adult patients who were planned for coronary artery bypass graft, were selected and divided alternatively and randomly into two equal groups (50 study -50 control).The study was carried out at National heart Institute in Cairo and open heart surgical intensive care unit in Shebin El-Kom Teaching Hospital. Instruments: Four instruments were used for data collection: Interviewing questionnaire, dyspnea analogue scale, Biophysiological measurement instrument, and Compliance assessment sheet. Results: There were statistically significant differences between both groups regarding most respiratory system assessment findings at discharge. More than two-thirds of the study group of the current study had a continuous and regular commitment to diet regimen, which ranked first followed by the compliance of daily living activities then quitting smoking. Conclusions: The perioperative protocol of care has a significant improving effect on respiratory findings, dyspnea degree, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, compliance to diet, therapeutic regimen, daily living activities, and quit smoking among study group undergoing CABG. Recommendations: Perioperative protocol of care should be carried out for CABG patients at open-heart surgical units as well as an illustrative colored booklet about CAD, CABG and perioperative care should be available and distributed to all CABG patients.

Keywords: perioperative, effect, clinical outcomes, coronary artery, bypass graft, protocol of care

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339 Quality of Life of Patients on Oral Antiplatelet Therapy in Outpatient Cardiac Department Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung

Authors: Andhiani Sharfina Arnellya, Mochammad Indra Permana, Dika Pramita Destiani, Ellin Febrina

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Health Research Data, Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2007, showed coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) was the third leading cause of death in Indonesia after hypertension and stroke with 7.2% incidence rate. Antiplatelet is one of the important therapy in management of patients with CHD. In addition to therapeutic effect on patients, quality of life is one aspect of another assessment to see the success of antiplatelet therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients on oral antiplatelet therapy in outpatient cardiac department Dr. Hasan Sadikin central general hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This research is a cross sectional by collecting data through quality of life questionnaire of patients which performed prospectively as primary data and secondary data from medical record of patients. The results of this study showed that 54.3% of patients had a good quality of life, 45% had a moderate quality of life, and 0.7% had a poor quality of life. There are no significant differences in quality of life-based on age, gender, diagnosis, and duration of drug use.

Keywords: antiplatelet, quality of life, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease

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338 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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337 Depression in Non Hospitalized Jordanian Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ibtisam Al-Zaru

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Background: Worldwide, depression among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients is considered a serious problem that may cause many complications and negative consequences; particularly serious being increased mortality and morbidity rate. Studying depression among CAD patients in Jordan has not been investigated thoroughly and thus a need for further studies has been a priority. Aims: To assess depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD; to describe the relationship between socio-demographic data, health related factors, and depression; and to examine the best predictors of depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD. Method: A cross-sectional-descriptive design was used to collect data from 174 non-hospitalized Jordanian patients diagnosed with CAD in outpatients’ cardiac clinics, using a self- administered questionnaires and Cardiac Depression Scale. Results: 53.4% of CAD patients reported mild/moderate, and severe depressive symptoms. Significant relationships between depressive symptoms and some demo-clinical characteristics (i.e. being female gender; having of chronic disease and surgical history; being physically inactive, and perceived their sexual activity, physical and psychological as poor). The preceding factors are also found to be statistically significant predictors for depression among this patients’ group. Conclusion: Jordanian patients with CAD had various levels of severity regarding their depressive symptoms. Therefore, health care providers need to introduce depression assessment and treatment in cardiac rehabilitation to control depression and its impact on the patient. Consequently, such control will reduce co-morbidity, mortality, complications and health costs among CAD patients and enhance the quality of their lives.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, predictors, depression, prevalence

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336 Total Arterial Coronary Revascularization with Aorto-Bifemoral Bipopliteal Bypass: A Case Report

Authors: Nuruddin Mohammod Zahangir, Syed Tanvir Ahmady, Firoz Ahmed, Mainul Kabir, Tamjid Mohammad Najmus Sakib Khan, Nazmul Hossain, Niaz Ahmed, Madhava Janardhan Naik

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The management of combined Coronary Artery Disease and Peripheral Vascular Disease is a challenge and brings with it numerous clinical dilemmas.The 56 year old gentleman presented to our department with significant triple vessel disease with occluded lower end of aorta just before bifurcation and bilateral superficial femoral arteries. Operation was done on 11.03.14. The The Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) and the Right Internal Mammary Artery (RIMA) were harvested in skeletonized manner. The free RIMA was then anastomosed with LIMA to make LIMA-RIMA Y. Cardio Pulmonary Bypass was then established and coronary artery bypass grafts performed. LIMA was anastomosed to the Left Anterior Descending artery. RIMA was anastomosed to Posterior Descending Artery, 1st and 2nd Obtuse Marginal arteries in a sequential manner. Abdomen was opened by midline incision. The infrarenal aorta exposed and was found to be severely diseased. A Vascular Clamp was applied infrarenally, aortotomy done and limited endarterectomy performed. An end-to-side anastomosis was done with upper end of PTFE synthetic Y-graft (14/7 mm) to the infarenal Aorta and the Clamp released. Good flow noted in both limbs of the graft. Patient was then slowly weaned off from Cardio Pulmonary Bypass without difficulty. The distal two limbs of the Y graft were passed to the groin through retroperitoneal tunnels and anastomosed end-to-side with the common femoral arteries. Saphenous vein was interposed between common femoral and popliteal arteries bilaterally through subfascial tunnels in both thigh. On 12th postoperative day he was discharged from hospital in good general condition. Follow up after 3 months of operation the patient is doing good and free of chest pain and claudication pain.

Keywords: total arterial, coronary revascularization, aorto-bifemoral bypass, bifemoro-bipopliteal bypass

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335 Association Analysis of Putative Loci with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Asma Naseer Cheema, Attya Bhatti, Jabar Ali, John Peter

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Background: High cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, inefficient coagulation cascade and hyper inflammatory response all are the basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies are carried out to see the genetic influence of these factors on disease outcome. Objective: The objective of our study was to see the association of 10 putative loci with coronary artery disease in our population. Materials & Methods: We screened our population for 10 putative loci of CAD showing significant association (p < 5x10-8) with candidate genes (regulating the cholesterol metabolism, endothelial function, coagulation cascade and inflammatory response of body). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium in cases and controls s were estimated separately. Approximately 5-10 ng of dried DNA in 384 well plate format was used to genotype each sample on the Sequenom iPLEX assay at University of Pittsburgh Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratories. It was built on single-base primer extension with the MALDI-TOF MS detection possessing high sensitivity and specificity. The SNPs were genotyped through Taqman assay. Hardy Weinberg test was applied. The 10 SNPs were selected as genetic markers for this study (rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650). Results: Mean age of the patient was 52 ± 11 years. Blood pressure and positive family history was found a significant risk factor for CAD. None of the selected SNPs showed significant association with coronary artery disease in our population (p>0.05). Conclusion: rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650 are not significant genetic markers for CAD in our population.

Keywords: CAD, genetic markers, loci, risk factors

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