Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: myocardial scintigraphy

118 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali


To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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117 Diagnostic Properties of Exercise or Pharmacological Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Per-Vessel Basis: A Clinical Validation Study

Authors: Ahmadreza Bagheri, Seyyed S. Eftekhari, Shervin Rashidinia


Background: Various stress tests have been proposed yet to assess patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, their diagnostic properties in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are variable and their applicability remained somewhat vague. The aim of this study is to validate per-vessel diagnostic properties of 3 types of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in gated SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) using either exercise or pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole or dobutamine. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 314 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran between September 2015 and January 2017 were completely reviewed in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 3 months after stress myocardial perfusion scan. Eventually, the results were analyzed in per-vessel basis to find the proper modality for each involved vessel or scanned site. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.15 ± 4.94 years (30-85) and 35.03% were women. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated as 56.59%, 54.24%, and 55.09%, respectively. These values were 56.43% and 53.25%, 54.46% and 47.36%, 56.75% and 54.83% for dipyridamole and exercise, respectively. Ischemia of the anterior wall through exercise stress testing has the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting LAD (Left Anterior Descending artery) involvement. Inferior wall hypokinesia and anterolateral wall ischemia during exercise stress testing have the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting RCA (Right Coronary Artery) and LCX artery (Left Circumflex Artery) stenosis, respectively. Conclusion: Stress myocardial perfusion scan should be carried out on the basis of the findings of the preliminary investigations on suspicion of a specific coronary artery or involved myocardial wall.

Keywords: dipyridamole, dobutamine, single-photon emission computed tomography, stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

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116 Simulation Of A Renal Phantom Using the MAG 3

Authors: Ati Moncef


We describe in this paper the results of a phantom of dynamics renal with MAG3. Our phantom consisted of (tow shaped of kidneys, 1 liver). These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. in a normal conditions we use our phantoms it's possible to acquire a renal images when we can be compared with clinical scintigraphy. In conclusion, Renal phantom also can use in the quality control of a renal scintigraphy.

Keywords: Renal scintigraphy, MAG3, Nuclear medicine, Gamma Camera.

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115 Determination of Critical Organ Doses for Liver Scintigraphy Using Cr-51

Authors: O. Maranci, A. B. Tugrul


Scintigraphy is an imaging method of nuclear events provoked by collisions or charged current interactions with radiation. It is used for diagnostic test used in nuclear medicine via radiopharmaceuticals emitting radiation which is captured by gamma cameras to form two-dimensional images. Liver scintigraphy is widely used in nuclear medicine.Tc-99m and Cr-51 gamma radioisotopes can be used for this purpose. Cr-51 usage is more important for patients’ organ dose that has higher energy and longer half-life as compared to Tc-99m. In this study, it is aimed to determine the required dose for critical organs of patient through liver scintigraphy via Cr-51 gamma radioisotope. Experimental studies were conducted on patients even though conducting experimental studies on patients is extremely difficult for determination of critical organ doses. Torso phantom was utilized to simulate the liver scintigraphy by using 20 mini packages of Cr-51 that were placed on the organ. The radioisotope was produced by irradiation in central thimble of TRIGA MARK II Reactor at 250 KW power. As the results of the study, critical organ doses were determined and evaluated with different critic organs.

Keywords: critical organ doses, liver, scintigraphy, TRIGA Mark-II

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114 An Empirical Study to Predict Myocardial Infarction Using K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Md. Minhazul Islam, Shah Ashisul Abed Nipun, Majharul Islam, Md. Abdur Rakib Rahat, Jonayet Miah, Salsavil Kayyum, Anwar Shadaab, Faiz Al Faisal


The target of this research is to predict Myocardial Infarction using unsupervised Machine Learning algorithms. Myocardial Infarction Prediction related to heart disease is a challenging factor faced by doctors & hospitals. In this prediction, accuracy of the heart disease plays a vital role. From this concern, the authors have analyzed on a myocardial dataset to predict myocardial infarction using some popular Machine Learning algorithms K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering. This research includes a collection of data and the classification of data using Machine Learning Algorithms. The authors collected 345 instances along with 26 attributes from different hospitals in Bangladesh. This data have been collected from patients suffering from myocardial infarction along with other symptoms. This model would be able to find and mine hidden facts from historical Myocardial Infarction cases. The aim of this study is to analyze the accuracy level to predict Myocardial Infarction by using Machine Learning techniques.

Keywords: Machine Learning, K-means, Hierarchical Clustering, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Disease

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113 Silent Myocardial Infarction Presented with Homonymous Hemianopia in a Non-Diabetic Middle Aged Man

Authors: Seyed Fakhroddin Hejazi, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Leili Iranirad


Silent myocardial infarction is defined as the appearance of pathological Q waves in the electrocardiogram, without objective signs of myocardial infarction and any minimal or atypical symptoms. Although this condition has been known for a long time, but little is known about its phenomenon and the mechanisms of it remain unclear. Its coincidence with stroke is also still controversial. This case report introduces a middle-aged man with silent myocardial infarction presented with homonymous hemianopia, which except stage 1 hypertension, had no other major cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, family history of cardiac diseases and smoking. In conclusion, this case report indicated that existence of only one cardiovascular risk factor would lead to the development of MI or stroke.

Keywords: silent myocardial infarction, homonymous hemianopia, stroke, hypertension

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112 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam


The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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111 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Y. S. Yusoff, G. Streftaris, H. R Waters


Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease

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110 Study on Co-Relation of Prostate Specific Antigen with Metastatic Bone Disease in Prostate Cancer on Skeletal Scintigraphy

Authors: Muhammad Waleed Asfandyar, Akhtar Ahmed, Syed Adib-ul-Hasan Rizvi


Objective: To evaluate the ability of serum concentration of prostate specific antigen between two cutting points considering it as a predictor of skeletal metastasis on bone scintigraphy in men with prostate cancer. Settings: This study was carried out in department of Nuclear Medicine at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Method: From August 2013 to November 2013, forty two (42) consecutive patients with prostate cancer who underwent technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99mMDP) whole body bone scintigraphy were prospectively analyzed. The information was collected from the scintigraphic database at a Nuclear medicine department Sindh institute of urology and transplantation Karachi Pakistan. Patients who did not have a serum PSA concentration available within 1 month before or after the time of performing the Tc-99m MDP whole body bone scintigraphy were excluded from this study. A whole body bone scintigraphy scan (from the toes to top of the head) was performed using a whole-body Moving gamma camera technique (anterior and posterior) 2–4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. In addition, all patients necessarily have a pathological report available. Bony metastases were determined from the bone scan studies and no further correlation with histopathology or other imaging modalities were performed. To preserve patient confidentiality, direct patient identifiers were not collected. In all the patients, Prostate specific antigen values and skeletal scintigraphy were evaluated. Results: The mean age, mean PSA, and incidence of bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy were 68.35 years, 370.51 ng/mL and 19/42 (45.23%) respectively. According to PSA levels, patients were divided into 5 groups < 10ng/mL (10/42), 10-20 ng/mL (5/42), 20-50 ng/mL (2/42), 50-100 (3/42), 100- 500ng/mL (3/42) and more than 500ng/mL (0/42) presenting negative bone scan. The incidence of positive bone scan (%) for bone metastasis for each group were O1 patient (5.26%), 0%, 03 patients (15.78%), 01 patient (5.26%), 04 patients (21.05%), and 10 patients (52.63%) respectively. From the 42 patients 19 (45.23%) presented positive scintigraphic examination for the presence of bone metastasis. 1 patient presented bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy having PSA level less than 10ng/mL, and in only 1 patient (5.26%) with bone metastasis PSA concentration was less than 20 ng/mL. therefore, when the cutting point adopted for PSA serum concentration was 10ng/mL, a negative predictive value for bone metastasis was 95% with sensitivity rates 94.74% and the positive predictive value and specificities of the method were 56.53% and 43.48% respectively. When the cutting point of PSA serum concentration was 20ng/mL the observed results for Positive predictive value and specificity were (78.27% and 65.22% respectively) whereas negative predictive value and sensitivity stood (100% and 95%) respectively. Conclusion: Results of our study allow us to conclude that serum PSA concentration of higher than 20ng/mL was the most accurate cutting point than a serum concentration of PSA higher than 10ng/mL to predict metastasis in radionuclide bone scintigraphy. In this way, unnecessary cost can be avoided, since a considerable part of prostate adenocarcinomas present low serum PSA levels less than 20 ng/mL and for these cases radionuclide bone scintigraphy could be unnecessary.

Keywords: bone scan, cut off value, prostate specific antigen value, scintigraphy

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109 Tc-99m MIBI Scintigraphy to Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions, Detected on Planar Bone Scan

Authors: Aniqa Jabeen


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tc-99m MIBI (Technetium 99-methoxy-iso-butyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions, which were detected on planar bone scans. Materials and Methods: 59 patients with bone lesions were enrolled in the study. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the clinical, radiological and the histological findings. Each patient initially underwent a three-phase bone scan with Tc-99m MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) and if evidence of lesion found, the patient then underwent a dynamic and static MIBI scintigraphy after three to four days. The MDP and MIBI scans were evaluated visually and quantitatively. For quantitative analysis count ratios of lesions and contralateral normal side (L/C) were taken by region of interests drawn on scans. The Student T test was applied to assess the significant difference between benign and malignant lesions p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The MDP scans showed the increase tracer uptake, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant uptake of the radiotracer. However significant difference (p-value 0.015), in uptake was seen in malignant (L/C = 3.51 ± 1.02) and benign lesion (L/C = 2.50±0.42) on MIBI scan. Three of thirty benign lesions did not show significant MIBI uptake. Seven malignant appeared as false negatives. Specificity of the scan was 86.66%, and its Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 81.25% whereas the sensitivity of scan was 79.31%. In excluding the axial metastasis from the lesions, the sensitivity of MIBI scan increased to 91.66% and the NPV also increased to 92.85%. Conclusion: MIBI scintigraphy provides its usefulness by distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. MIBI also correctly identifies metastatic lesions. The negative predictive value of the scan points towards its ability to accurately diagnose the normal (benign) cases. However, biopsy remains the gold standard and a definitive diagnostic modality in musculoskeletal tumors. MIBI scan provides useful information in preoperative assessment and in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

Keywords: benign, malignancies, MDP bone scan, MIBI scintigraphy

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108 The Development of Cardiac Tamponade after Spinal Surgery in a Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: Hacer Y. Teke, Sultan Pehlivan, Mustafa Karapırlı, Asude Gökmen, Sait Özsoy


The case is here presented of a patient with DMD with electrocardiograph findings within normal limits who underwent spinal surgery then developed the rarely seen complication of cardiac tamponade which resulted in death. A 17-year old male with DMD was admitted to hospital for spinal surgery. Due to a postoperative drop in hemoglobin, blood transfusion was administered to the patient, no complication developed and he was discharged on the third day. Four days after discharge, the patient worsened at home and an ambulance was called. Before the nearest hospital was reached, the patient died in the ambulance. An autopsy was performed. A fatal but rarely seen complication of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is myocardial rupture. 85% of ruptures occur in the first week of AMI but just as they can be seen on the day of the infarct, they can also be seen 2 weeks later. The case presented here had infarction findings related to different times and in different areas.

Keywords: duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, myocardial rupture, anesthesia

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107 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby


We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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106 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman


The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, energy metabolism, hydroxyproline

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105 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth


Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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104 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora


Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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103 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov


Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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102 Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patient with Triple-Vessel Disease in Limited Resources Hospital: A Case Report

Authors: Fanniyah Anis, Bram Kilapong


Myocardial reperfusion injury is defined as the cellular damage that results from a period of ischemia, followed by the reestablishment of the blood supply to the infarcted tissue. Ventricular tachycardia is one of the most commonly encountered reperfusion arrhythmia as one of the types of myocardial perfusion injury. Prompt and early treatment can reduce mortality, despite limited resources of the hospital in high risk patients with history of triple vessel disease. Case report, Male 53 years old has been diagnosed with NSTEMI with 3VD and comorbid disease of Hypertension and has undergone revascularization management with Percutaneous coronary intervention. Ventricular tachycardia leading to cardiac arrest occurred right after the stent was inserted. Resuscitation was performed for almost 2 hours until spontaneous circulation returned. Patient admitted in ICU with refractory cardiac shock despite using combination of ionotropic and vasopressor agents under standard non-invasive monitoring due to the limitation of the hospital. Angiography was performed again 5 hours later to exclude other possibilities of blockage of coronary arteries and conclude diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Patient continually managed with combination of antiplatelet agents and maintenance dose of anti-arrhythmia agents. The handling of the patient was to focus more on supportive and preventive from further deteriorating of the condition. Patient showed clinically improvement and regained consciousness within 24 hours. Patient was successfully discharged from ICU within 3 days without any neurological sequela and was discharge from hospital after 3 days observation in general ward. Limited Resource of hospital did not refrain the physician from attaining a good outcome for this myocardial reperfusion injury case and angiography alone can be used to confirm the diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury.

Keywords: limited resources hospital, myocardial reperfusion injury, prolonged resuscitation, refractory cardiogenic shock, reperfusion arrhythmia, revascularization, triple-vessel disease

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101 Study of a Few Additional Posterior Projection Data to 180° Acquisition for Myocardial SPECT

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Shimada, Takao Kanzaki


A Dual-detector SPECT system is widely by use of myocardial SPECT studies. With 180-degree (180°) acquisition, reconstructed images are distorted in the posterior wall of myocardium due to the lack of sufficient data of posterior projection. We hypothesized that quality of myocardial SPECT images can be improved by the addition of data acquisition of only a few posterior projections to ordinary 180° acquisition. The proposed acquisition method (180° plus acquisition methods) uses the dual-detector SPECT system with a pair of detector arranged in 90° perpendicular. Sampling angle was 5°, and the acquisition range was 180° from 45° right anterior oblique to 45° left posterior oblique. After the acquisition of 180°, the detector moved to additional acquisition position of reverse side once for 2 projections, twice for 4 projections, or 3 times for 6 projections. Since these acquisition methods cannot be done in the present system, actual data acquisition was done by 360° with a sampling angle of 5°, and projection data corresponding to above acquisition position were extracted for reconstruction. We underwent the phantom studies and a clinical study. SPECT images were compared by profile curve analysis and also quantitatively by contrast ratio. The distortion was improved by 180° plus method. Profile curve analysis showed increased of cardiac cavity. Analysis with contrast ratio revealed that SPECT images of the phantoms and the clinical study were improved from 180° acquisition by the present methods. The difference in the contrast was not clearly recognized between 180° plus 2 projections, 180° plus 4 projections, and 180° plus 6 projections. 180° plus 2 projections method may be feasible for myocardial SPECT because distortion of the image and the contrast were improved.

Keywords: 180° plus acquisition method, a few posterior projections, dual-detector SPECT system, myocardial SPECT

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100 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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99 Modulation of Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Damage by Atorvastatin

Authors: Dalia Atallah, Lamiaa Ahmed, Hala Zaki, Mahmoud Khattab


Background: Isoprenaline (ISO) administration induces myocardial damage via oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Atorvastatin (ATV) treatment improves both oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction yet recent studies have reported a pro-oxidant effect upon ATV administration on both clinical and experimental studies. The present study was directed to investigate the effect of ATV pre-treatment and treatment on ISO-induced myocardial damage. Methods: Male rats were divided into five groups (n = 10). Rats were given ISO (5mg/kg/day, i.p.) for one week with or without ATV (10mg/kg/day, p.o.). ATV was given either as pre-treatment for one week before its co-administration with ISO for another week or as a treatment for two weeks at the end of the ISO administration. At the end of the experiment, the electrocardiographic examination was done and blood was isolated for the estimation of plasma creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity. Rats were then sacrificed and the whole ventricles were isolated for histological examination and the estimation of lipid peroxides as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity, total nitrate-nitrite (NOx), as well as the estimation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Results: ISO-induced myocardial damage showed a significant elevation in ST segment, an increase in CK-MB activity, as well as increased oxidative stress biomarkers. Also, ISO-treated rats showed a significant decrease in myocardial NOx level and eNOS as well as degeneration in the myocardium. ATV pre-treatment didn’t show any protection to ISO-treated rats. On the other hand, ATV treatment showed a significant decrease in both the elevated ST wave and CK-MB activity. Moreover, ATV Treatment succeeded to improve oxidative stress biomarkers, tissue NOx, and eNOS protein expression, as well as amelioration of the histological alterations. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with ATV failed to protect against ISO-induced damage. This might suggest a synergistic pro-oxidant effect upon administration of the pro-oxidant ISO along with ATV as demonstrated by the increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. On the other side, ATV treatment succeeded to significantly improve oxidative stress biomarkers, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial degeneration.

Keywords: atorvastatin, endothelial dysfunction, isoprenaline, oxidative stress

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98 Possible Role of Fenofibrate and Clofibrate in Attenuated Cardioprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning in Hyperlipidemic Rat Hearts

Authors: Gurfateh Singh, Mu Khan, Razia Khanam, Govind Mohan


Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the beneficial role of Fenofibrate & Clofibrate in attenuated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Materials & Methods: Experimental hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding high fat diet to rats for a period of 28 days. Isolated langendorff’s perfused normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. The myocardial infarct size was assessed macroscopically using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB release to assess the extent of cardiac injury. Moreover, the oxidative stress in heart was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide anion generation and reduced form of glutathione. Results: The ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been noted to induce oxidative stress by increasing TBARS, superoxide anion generation and decreasing reduced form of glutathione in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Moreover, I/R produced myocardial injury, which was assessed in terms of increase in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent and decrease in coronary flow rate in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. In addition, the hyperlipidemic rat hearts showed enhanced I/R-induced myocardial injury with high degree of oxidative stress as compared with normal rat hearts subjected to I/R. Four episodes of IPC (5 min each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal rat hearts as assessed in terms of improvement in coronary flow rate and reduction in myocardial infarct size, LDH, CK-MB and oxidative stress. On the other hand, IPC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was abolished in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. However, Treatment with Fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), Clofibrate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) as a agonists of PPAR-α have not affected the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat hearts, but its treatment markedly restored the cardioprotective potentials of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Conclusion: It is noted that the high degree of oxidative stress produced in hyperlipidemic rat heart during reperfusion and consequent down regulation of PPAR-α may be responsible to abolish the cardioprotective potentials of IPC.

Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic preconditioning, PPAR-α

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97 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase Activity and Apolipoprotein B: Predictors of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha Vilas More


Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia as a consequence of atherosclerosis. TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40, MI subjects and 40 healthy individuals in control group. PON 1 Arylesterase activity (ARE) was measured by using phenylacetate. Phenotyping was done by double substrate method, serum AOPP by using chloramine T and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 1 ARE activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR, and RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 1 ARE activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions: Decrease in PON 1 ARE activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression showed PON1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product, apolipoprotein B, PON 1 arylesterase activity, myocardial infarction

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96 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim


Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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95 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das


This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea

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94 Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia Based on Support Vector Machine and Gaussian Mixture Model by Using Features of ECG Recordings

Authors: Merve Begum Terzi, Orhan Arikan, Adnan Abaci, Mustafa Candemir


Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world. Therefore, its fast and reliable diagnosis is a major clinical need. ECG is the most important diagnostic methodology which is used to make decisions about the management of the cardiovascular diseases. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, temporary chest pains together with changes in ST segment and T wave of ECG occur shortly before the start of myocardial infarction. In this study, a technique which detects changes in ST/T sections of ECG is developed for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. For this purpose, a database of real ECG recordings that contains a set of records from 75 patients presenting symptoms of chest pain who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constituted. 12-lead ECG’s of the patients were recorded before and during the PCI procedure. Two ECG epochs, which are the pre-inflation ECG which is acquired before any catheter insertion and the occlusion ECG which is acquired during balloon inflation, are analyzed for each patient. By using pre-inflation and occlusion recordings, ECG features that are critical in the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are identified and the most discriminative features for the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are extracted. A classification technique based on support vector machine (SVM) approach operating with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels to detect ischemic events by using ST-T derived joint features from non-ischemic and ischemic states of the patients is developed. The dataset is randomly divided into training and testing sets and the training set is used to optimize SVM hyperparameters by using grid-search method and 10fold cross-validation. SVMs are designed specifically for each patient by tuning the kernel parameters in order to obtain the optimal classification performance results. As a result of implementing the developed classification technique to real ECG recordings, it is shown that the proposed technique provides highly reliable detections of the anomalies in ECG signals. Furthermore, to develop a detection technique that can be used in the absence of ECG recording obtained during healthy stage, the detection of acute myocardial ischemia based on ECG recordings of the patients obtained during ischemia is also investigated. For this purpose, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to represent the joint pdf of the most discriminating ECG features of myocardial ischemia. Then, a Neyman-Pearson type of approach is developed to provide detection of outliers that would correspond to acute myocardial ischemia. Neyman – Pearson decision strategy is used by computing the average log likelihood values of ECG segments and comparing them with a range of different threshold values. For different discrimination threshold values and number of ECG segments, probability of detection and probability of false alarm values are computed, and the corresponding ROC curves are obtained. The results indicate that increasing number of ECG segments provide higher performance for GMM based classification. Moreover, the comparison between the performances of SVM and GMM based classification showed that SVM provides higher classification performance results over ECG recordings of considerable number of patients.

Keywords: ECG classification, Gaussian mixture model, Neyman–Pearson approach, support vector machine

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93 Detection and Classification of Myocardial Infarction Using New Extracted Features from Standard 12-Lead ECG Signals

Authors: Naser Safdarian, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo


In this paper we used four features i.e. Q-wave integral, QRS complex integral, T-wave integral and total integral as extracted feature from normal and patient ECG signals to detection and localization of myocardial infarction (MI) in left ventricle of heart. In our research we focused on detection and localization of MI in standard ECG. We use the Q-wave integral and T-wave integral because this feature is important impression in detection of MI. We used some pattern recognition method such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect and localize the MI. Because these methods have good accuracy for classification of normal and abnormal signals. We used one type of Radial Basis Function (RBF) that called Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) because of its nonlinearity property, and used other classifier such as k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Naive Bayes Classification. We used PhysioNet database as our training and test data. We reached over 80% for accuracy in test data for localization and over 95% for detection of MI. Main advantages of our method are simplicity and its good accuracy. Also we can improve accuracy of classification by adding more features in this method. A simple method based on using only four features which extracted from standard ECG is presented which has good accuracy in MI localization.

Keywords: ECG signal processing, myocardial infarction, features extraction, pattern recognition

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92 A Dynamic Cardiac Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography Using Conventional Gamma Camera to Estimate Coronary Flow Reserve

Authors: Maria Sciammarella, Uttam M. Shrestha, Youngho Seo, Grant T. Gullberg, Elias H. Botvinick


Background: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually assessed for perfusion defects based on the relative intensity distribution. Dynamic cardiac SPECT, on the other hand, is a new imaging technique that is based on time varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). In this abstract, we report a progress and current status of dynamic cardiac SPECT using conventional gamma camera (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) for estimation of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve. Methods: A group of patients who had high risk of coronary artery disease was enrolled to evaluate our methodology. A low-dose/high-dose rest/pharmacologic-induced-stress protocol was implemented. A standard rest and a standard stress radionuclide dose of ⁹⁹ᵐTc-tetrofosmin (140 keV) was administered. The dynamic SPECT data for each patient were reconstructed using the standard 4-dimensional maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. Acquired data were used to estimate the myocardial blood flow (MBF). The correspondence between flow values in the main coronary vasculature with myocardial segments defined by the standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature were derived. The coronary flow reserve, CFR, was defined as the ratio of stress to rest MBF values. CFR values estimated with SPECT were also validated with dynamic PET. Results: The range of territorial MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between estimated with PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). But the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The mean stress MBF value was significantly lower for angiographically abnormal than that for the normal (Normal Mean MBF = 2.49 ± 0.61, Abnormal Mean MBF = 1.43 ± 0. 0.62, P < .001). Conclusions: The visually assessed image findings in clinical SPECT are subjective, and may not reflect direct physiologic measures of coronary lesion. The MBF and CFR measured with dynamic SPECT are fully objective and available only with the data generated from the dynamic SPECT method. A quantitative approach such as measuring CFR using dynamic SPECT imaging is a better mode of diagnosing CAD than visual assessment of stress and rest images from static SPECT images Coronary Flow Reserve.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, clinical SPECT/CT, selective coronary angiograph, ⁹⁹ᵐTc-Tetrofosmin

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91 Outcomes of Using Guidelines for Caring and Referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thanom Kaeniam


ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a state of sudden death of the heart muscle due to sudden blockage of the artery. STEMI patients are usually in critical condition and with a potential opportunity for sudden death. Therefore, management guidelines for safety in caring and referring STEMI patients are needed. The objective of this developmental research was to assess the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects of the study were 22 nurses in the emergency room, and doctors on duty in the accident and emergency room selected using purposive sampling with inclusion criteria. The research instruments were the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients, and record forms for the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients (a general record form for STEMI patients, a record form for SK administering, a referring record form for PCI, and a record form for dead patient in the accident and emergency room and during referring). The instruments were tested for content validity by three experts, and the reliability was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20). The descriptive statistic employed was the percentage. The outcomes of using the guidelines for caring and referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department revealed that before using the guidelines in 2009, 2010, and 2011, there were 84, 73, and 138 STEMI patients receiving services at the accident and emergency room, of which, only 9, 32, and 48 patients were referred for PCI/SK medications, or 10.74; 43.84; and 34.78 percent, and the death rates were 10.71; 10.95; and 11.59 percent, respectively. However, after the use of the guidelines in 2012, 2013, and 2014, there were 97, 77, and 57 patients, of which, the increases to 77, 72, and 55 patients were referred for PCI /SK medications or 79.37; 93.51; and 96.49 percent, and the death rates were reduced to 10.30; 6.49; and 1.76 percent, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the use of the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department increased the effectiveness and quality of nursing, especially in terms of SK medication, caring and referring patients for PCI to reduce the death rate.

Keywords: outcomes, guidelines for caring, referring, myocardial infarction, STEMI

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90 Development of a Myocardial Patch with 3D Hydrogel Electrical Stimulation System

Authors: Yung-Gi Chen, Pei-Leun Kang, Yu-Hsin Lin, Shwu-Jen Chang


Myocardial tissue has limited self-repair ability due to its loss of differentiation characteristic for most mature cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the effective use of stem cell technology in regenerative medicine is an important development to alleviate the current difficulties in cardiac disease treatment. The main purpose of this project was to develop a 3-D hydrogel electrical stimulating system for promoting the differentiation of stem cells into myocardial cells, and the patch will be used to repair damaged myocardial tissue. This project was focused on the preparation of the electrical stimulation system with carbon/CaCl₂ electrodes covered with carbon nanotube-hydrogel. In this study, we utilized screen imprinting techniques and used Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) membranes as printing substrates to fabricate a carbon/CaCl₂ interdigitated electrode that covered with alginate/carbon nanotube hydrogels. The single-walled carbon nanotube was added in the hydrogel to enhance the mechanical strength and conductivity of hydrogel. In this study, we used PLGA (85:15) as electrode preparing substrate. The CaCl₂/ EtOH solution (80% w/v) was mixed into carbon paste to prepare various concentration calcium-containing carbon paste (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% v/v). Different concentrations of alginate (1%, 1.5%, 2% v/v) and SWCNT(Diameter < 2nm, length between 5-15μm) (1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) are gently immobilized on the electrode by cross-linking with calcium chloride. The three-dimensional hydrogel electrode was tested for its redox efficiency by cyclic voltammetry to determine the optimal parameters for the hydrogel electrode preparation. From the result of the final electrodes, it indicated that the electrode was not easy to maintain the pattern of the interdigitated electrode when the concentration of calcium of chloride was more than 10%. According to the gel rate test and cyclic voltammetry experiment results showed the SWCNT could increase the electron conduction of hydrogel electrodes significantly. So far the 3D electrode system has been completed, 2% alginate mixed with 3mg SWCNT is the optimal condition to construct the most complete structure for the hydrogel preparation.

Keywords: myocardial tissue engineering, screen printing technology, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), alginate, single walled carbon nanotube

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89 Development of 4D Dynamic Simulation Tool for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Myocardial Functions

Authors: Deepa, Yashbir Singh, Shi Yi Wu, Michael Friebe, Joao Manuel R. S. Tavares, Hu Wei-Chih


Cardiovascular disease can be detected by measuring the regional and global wall motion of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart; In this study, we designed a dynamic simulation tool using Computed Tomography (CT) images to assess the difference between actual and simulated left ventricular functions. Thirteen healthy subjects were involved in the study with actual and simulated left ventricular functions. In this research, we found the high correlation between actual left ventricular wall motion and simulated left ventricular wall motion. Our results confirm that our simulation tool is feasible for simulating left ventricular motion.

Keywords: cardiac imaging, left-ventricular remodeling, cardiac wall motion, myocardial functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 184