Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1555

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

1555 Application of the Global Optimization Techniques to the Optical Thin Film Design

Authors: D. Li

Abstract:

Optical thin films are used in a wide variety of optical components and there are many software tools programmed for advancing multilayer thin film design. The available software packages for designing the thin film structure may not provide optimum designs. Normally, almost all current software programs obtain their final designs either from optimizing a starting guess or by technique, which may or may not involve a pseudorandom process, that give different answers every time, depending upon the initial conditions. With the increasing power of personal computers, functional methods in optimization and synthesis of optical multilayer systems have been developed such as DGL Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithms, Needle Optimization, Inductive Optimization and Flip-Flop Optimization. Among these, DGL Optimization has proved its efficiency in optical thin film designs. The application of the DGL optimization technique to the design of optical coating is presented. A DGL optimization technique is provided, and its main features are discussed. Guidelines on the application of the DGL optimization technique to various types of design problems are given. The innovative global optimization strategies used in a software tool, OnlyFilm, to optimize multilayer thin film designs through different filter designs are outlined. OnlyFilm is a powerful, versatile, and user-friendly thin film software on the market, which combines optimization and synthesis design capabilities with powerful analytical tools for optical thin film designers. It is also the only thin film design software that offers a true global optimization function.

Keywords: Optimization, Optical coatings, design software, thin film design

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1554 Uniform Porous Multilayer-Junction Thin Film for Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performance

Authors: Ping-Ping Zhang, Hui-Zhang, Xu-Hui Sun

Abstract:

Highly-uniform In2O3/CuO bilayer and multilayer porous thin films were successfully fabricated using self-assembled soft template and simple sputtering deposition technique. The sensor based on the In2O3/CuO bilayer porous thin film shows obviously improved sensing performance to ethanol at the lower working temperature, compared to single layer counterpart sensors. The response of In2O3/CuO bilayer sensors exhibits nearly 3 and 5 times higher than those of the single layer In2O3 and CuO porous film sensors over the same ethanol concentration, respectively. The sensing mechanism based on p-n hetero-junction, which contributed to the enhanced sensing performance was also experimentally confirmed by a control experiment which the SiO2 insulation layer was inserted between the In2O3 and CuO layers to break the p-n junction. In addition, the sensing performance can be further enhanced by increasing the number of In2O3/CuO junction layers. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors for practical sensing applications.

Keywords: Gas Sensor, multilayer porous thin films, In2O3/CuO, p-n junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1553 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Chemical Treatment, thin film, Cd1−xZnxS, depth profile, RBS, RUMP simulation, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
1552 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan

Abstract:

To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, high corrosion resistance, transition metal nitride coatings, magnetron sputter

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1551 Sol–Gel Derived Durable Antireflective Multilayered TiO2/SiO2 Coating for Solar Glass

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayer TiO2-SiO2 containing PDMS coatings were produced. Also, the effect of triton as a porosity maker on single and multilayer silica and titania coatings was investigated. The results showed stability of optical triton containing coatings disappears with time. Because of the presence of triton in solution improve the wetting properties of PDMS sols and helps lead to instability by water absorption. However; without triton, antireflective multilayer coatings with high transmittance 98% and excellent durability were prepared by sol–gel process using poly dimethyl siloxane as additive. This coating can be used as well as in solar applications.

Keywords: thin film, sol-gel, PDMS, anti-reflective, titania-silica, triton

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1550 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: Optical, Absorption, thin film, bulk

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1549 Vertically Grown P–Type ZnO Nanorod on Ag Thin Film

Authors: Jihyun Park, Tae Il Lee, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

A Silver (Ag) thin film is introduced as a template and doping source for vertically aligned p–type ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were grown using a ammonium hydroxide based hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the Ag thin film was dissolved to generate Ag ions in the solution. The Ag ions can contribute to doping in the wurzite structure of ZnO and the (111) grain of Ag thin film can be the epitaxial temporal template for the (0001) plane of ZnO. Hence, Ag–doped p–type ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on the substrate, which can be an electrode or semiconductor for the device application. To demonstrate the potentials of this idea, p–n diode was fabricated and its electrical characteristics were demonstrated.

Keywords: hydrothermal process, Ag–doped ZnO nanorods, p–type ZnO

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1548 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1547 Electromechanical Reliability of ITO/Ag/ITO Multilayer Coated Pet Substrate for Optoelectronic Application

Authors: D. W. Mohammed, J. Bowen, S. N. Kukureka

Abstract:

Successful design and fabrication of flexible devices for electrode components requires a low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, high mechanical reliability. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is currently the predominant transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film in potential applications such as flexible organic light- emitting diodes, flat-panel displays, solar cells, and thin film transistors (TFTs). However ITO films are too brittle and their resistivity is rather high in some cases compared with ITO/Ag/ ITO, and they cannot completely meet flexible optoelectronic device requirements. Therefore, in this work the mechanical properties of ITO /Ag/ITO multilayer film that deposited on Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared with the single layered ITO sample were investigated using bending fatigue, twisting fatigue and thermal cycling experiments. The electrical resistance was monitored during the application of mechanical and thermal loads to see the pattern of relationship between the load and the electrical continuity as a consequent of failure. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to provide surface characterization of the mechanically-tested samples. The effective embedment of the Ag layer between upper and lower ITO films led to metallic conductivity and superior flexibility to the single ITO electrode, due to the high failure strain of the ductile Ag layer. These results indicate that flexible ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes are a promising candidate for use as transparent conductor in flexible displays. They provided significantly reduced sheet resistance compared to ITO, and improved bending and twisting properties both as a function of radius, angle and thermal cycling.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, PET, ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, failure strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1546 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

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1545 Microstructural Study of Mechanically Alloyed Powders and the Thin Films of Cufe Alloys

Authors: Mechri hanane, Azzaz Mohammed

Abstract:

Polycrystalline CuFe thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation process (Physical vapor deposition), using the nanocrystalline CuFe powder obtained by mechanical alloying After 24 h of milling elemental powders. The microscopic study of nanocrystalline powder and the thin film of Cu70Fe30 binary alloy were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cross-sectional TEM images showed that the obtained CuFe layer was polycrystalline film of about 20 nm thick and composed of grains of different size ranging from 4 nm to 18 nm.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Thin Films, SEM, TEM

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1544 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Navab Singh, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: Metal, Porous, melting point, dewetting, themal annealing

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1543 Segmental Dynamics of Poly(Alkyl Methacrylate) Chain in Ultra-Thin Spin-Cast Films

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

Polymeric materials are often used in a form of thin film such as food wrap and surface coating. In such the applications, polymer films thinner than 100 nm have been often used. The thickness of such the ultra-thin film is less than the unperturbed size of a polymer chain; therefore, the polymer chain in an ultra-thin film is strongly constrained. However, the details on the constrained dynamics of polymer molecules in ultra-thin films are still unclear. In the current study, the segmental dynamics of single polymer chain was directly investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The individual chains of poly(alkyl methacrylate) labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule were observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was directly analyzed. The segmental motion in a thin film with a thickness of 10 nm was found to be suppressed compared to that in a bulk state. The detailed analysis of the molecular motion revealed that the diffusion rate of the in-plane rotation was similar to the thin film and the bulk; on the other hand, the out-of-plane motion was restricted in a thin film. This result indicates that the spatial restriction in an ultra-thin film thinner than the unperturbed chain dimension alters the dynamics of individual molecules in a polymer system.

Keywords: Polymer Materials, Single molecule, super-resolution techniques, molecular motion, fluorescence microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1542 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium

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1541 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Jiang Fan, Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay

Abstract:

Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode

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1540 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan

Abstract:

Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, thin film, XRD, EDX, DLC

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1539 Mechanical Behavior of PVD Single Layer and Multilayer under Indentation Tests

Authors: K. Kaouther, D. Hafedh, A. Ben Cheikh Larbi

Abstract:

Various structures and compositions thin films were deposited on 100C6 (AISI 52100) steel substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The morphological proprieties were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vickers microindentation tests were performed with a Shimadzu HMV-2000 hardness testing machine. Hardness measurement was carried out using Jonsson and Hogmark model. The results show that the coatings topography was dominated by domes and craters. Mechanical behavior and failure modes under microindentation were depending of coatings structure and composition. TiAlN multilayer showed exception in the microindentation resistance compared to TiN single layer and TiAlN/TiAlN nanolayer. Piled structure provides an increase of failure resistance and a decrease in cracks propagation.

Keywords: cracking, Multilayer, Damage Mechanisms, PVD thin films, microindentation

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1538 Theoretical Analysis of the Optical and Solid State Properties of Thin Film

Authors: E. I. Ugwu

Abstract:

Theoretical analysis of the optical and Solid State properties of ZnS thin film using beam propagation technique in which a scalar wave is propagated through the material thin film deposited on a substrate with the assumption that the dielectric medium is section into a homogenous reference dielectric constant term, and a perturbed dielectric term, representing the deposited thin film medium is presented in this work. These two terms, constitute arbitrary complex dielectric function that describes dielectric perturbation imposed by the medium of for the system. This is substituted into a defined scalar wave equation in which the appropriate Green’s Function was defined on it and solved using series technique. The green’s value obtained from Green’s Function was used in Dyson’s and Lippmann Schwinger equations in conjunction with Born approximation method in computing the propagated field for different input regions of field wavelength during which the influence of the dielectric constants and mesh size of the thin film on the propagating field were depicted. The results obtained from the computed field were used in turn to generate the data that were used to compute the band gaps, solid state and optical properties of the thin film such as reflectance, Transmittance and reflectance with which the band gap obtained was found to be in close approximate to that of experimental value.

Keywords: propagation, scalar wave, optical and solid state properties, thin film, dielectric medium, perturbation, Lippmann Schwinger equations, Green’s Function

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1537 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei

Abstract:

Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: Residual Stress, multilayer film, β-ray irradiation, laser-induced damage threshold

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1536 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla

Abstract:

We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, debonding, peel test, thin film adhesion

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1535 Effect of Fabrication Errors on High Frequency Filter Circuits

Authors: Wesam Ali

Abstract:

This paper provides useful guidelines to the circuit designers on the magnitude of fabrication errors in multilayer millimeter-wave components that are acceptable and presents data not previously reported in the literature. A particularly significant error that was quantified was that of skew between conductors on different layers, where it was found that a skew angle of only 0.1° resulted in very significant changes in bandwidth and insertion loss. The work was supported by a detailed investigation on a 35GHz, multilayer edge-coupled band-pass filter, which was fabricated on alumina substrates using photoimageable thick film process.

Keywords: Multilayer, fabrication errors, high frequency band, photoimagable technology

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1534 Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of P-Type AgBiS₂ Energy Harvesting Materials as an Absorber of Solar Cell by Copper Doping

Authors: Yasaman Tabari-Saadi, Kaiwen Sun, Jialiang Huang, Martin Green, Xiaojing Hao

Abstract:

Optical and electrical properties of p-type AgBiS₂ absorber material have been improved by copper doping on silver sites. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggest that complete solid solutions of Ag₁₋ₓCuₓBiS₂ thin film have been formed. The carrier concentration of pure AgBiS₂ thin film deposited by the chemical process is 4.5*E+14 cm⁻³, and copper doping leads to the improved carrier concentration despite the semiconductor AgBiS₂ remains p-type semiconductor. Copper doping directly changed the absorption coefficient and increased the optical band gap (~1.5eV), which makes it a promising absorber for thin-film solar cell applications.

Keywords: copper doped, AgBiS2, carrier concentration, p-type semiconductor, thin-film solar cell

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1533 Coating of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Thin Films on Poly(S/EGDMA) HIPE Loaded with Hydroxyapatite as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Kornkanok Noulta, Pornsri Pakeyangkoon, Stephen T. Dubas, Pomthong Malakul, Manit Nithithanakul

Abstract:

In recent years, interest in the development of material for tissue engineering application has increased considerably. Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) (PolyHIPE) foam is a material that is good candidate for used in tissue engineering application due to its 3D structure and highly porous with interconnected pore. The PolyHIPE was prepared from poly (styrene/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) through high internal phase emulsion polymerization technique and loaded with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve biocompatibility. To further increase hydrophilicity of the obtained polyHIPE, layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) technique was used. A surface property of polyHIPE was characterized by contact angle measurement. Morphology and pore size was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell viability was revealed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay technique.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Scaffold, polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, high internal phase emulsion, polyhipe foam

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1532 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jae-Min Myoung, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

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1531 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Z. Hassan, Saleh H. Abud, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Photoluminescence, porous InGaN, SMS photodetector

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1530 TiN/TiO2 Nanostructure Coating on Glass Substrate

Authors: R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori, F. Dabir

Abstract:

In this work, a nanostructured TiO2 layer was coated onto a FTO-less glass substrate using screen printing technique for back contact DSSC application. Then, titanium nitride thin film was applied on TiO2 layer by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) as charge collector layer. The microstructure of prepared TiO2 layer was characterized by SEM. The sheet resistance, microstructure and elemental composition of titanium nitride thin films were analysed by four point probe, SEM, and EDS, respectively. TiO2 layer had porous nanostructure. The EDS analysis of TiN thin film showed presence of chlorine impurity. Sheet resistance of TiN thin film was 30 Ω/sq. With respect to the results, PACVD TiN can be a good candidate as a charge collector layer in back contacts DSSC.

Keywords: TiO2, tin, charge collector, DSSC

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1529 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi

Abstract:

In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor

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1528 Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano- Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application

Authors: L. Major, J. M. Lackner, M. Dyner, B. Major

Abstract:

Development of new generation bio- tribological, multilayer coatings, opens an avenue for fabrication of future high- tech functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano- composite, Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools. Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nano- multilayer coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition conditions on bio- tribological properties of the coatings were studied. The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed nano- multilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical tools. Bio- medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-on-disc mechanical test. The microhardness was done using Berkovich indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell indenter. From the bio- tribological point of view, the optimal properties had the C106_1 material.

Keywords: Tribology, bio- tribological coatings, cell- material interaction, hybrid PLD

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1527 Protein Crystallization Induced by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Tetsuo Okutsu

Abstract:

We have developed a crystallization plate with the function of promoting protein crystallization. A gold thin film is deposited on the crystallization plate. A protein solution is dropped thereon, and crystallization is promoted when the protein is irradiated with light of a wavelength that protein does not absorb. Protein is densely adsorbed on the gold thin film surface. The light excites the surface plasmon resonance of the gold thin film, the protein is excited by the generated enhanced electric field induced by surface plasmon resonance, and the amino acid residues are radicalized to produce protein dimers. The dimers function as templates for protein crystals, crystallization is promoted.

Keywords: Crystallization, Protein, lysozyme, plasmon, RNaseA

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1526 Tin and Tin-Copper Composite Nanorod Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Applications

Authors: B. D. Polat, O. Keles

Abstract:

Physical vapor deposition under conditions of an obliquely incident flux results in a film formation with an inclined columnar structure. These columns will be oriented toward the vapor source because of the self-shadowing effect, and they are homogenously distributed on the substrate surface because of the limited surface diffusion ability of ad-atoms when there is no additional substrate heating. In this work, the oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique is used to fabricate thin films containing inclined nanorods. The results demonstrate that depending on the thin film composition, the morphology of the nanorods changed as well. The galvanostatic analysis of these thin film anodes reveals that a composite CuSn nanorods having approximately 900mAhg-1 of initial discharge capacity, performs higher electrochemical performance compared to pure Sn nanorods containing anode material. The long cycle life and the advanced electrochemical properties of the nano-structured composite electrode might be attributed to its improved mechanical tolerance and enhanced electrical conductivity depending on the Cu presence in the nanorods.

Keywords: anode, Lithium Ion Batteries, Cu-Sn thin film, oblique angle deposition

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