Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: A. Ben Cheikh Larbi

41 A Nanoindentation Study of Thin Film Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed, Khlifi Kaouther


Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The micro structures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters which are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nano indentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 240 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: Hardness, Nanoindentation, CrN, AlCrN coatings

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40 Mechanical Behavior of PVD Single Layer and Multilayer under Indentation Tests

Authors: K. Kaouther, D. Hafedh, A. Ben Cheikh Larbi


Various structures and compositions thin films were deposited on 100C6 (AISI 52100) steel substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The morphological proprieties were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vickers microindentation tests were performed with a Shimadzu HMV-2000 hardness testing machine. Hardness measurement was carried out using Jonsson and Hogmark model. The results show that the coatings topography was dominated by domes and craters. Mechanical behavior and failure modes under microindentation were depending of coatings structure and composition. TiAlN multilayer showed exception in the microindentation resistance compared to TiN single layer and TiAlN/TiAlN nanolayer. Piled structure provides an increase of failure resistance and a decrease in cracks propagation.

Keywords: cracking, Multilayer, Damage Mechanisms, PVD thin films, microindentation

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39 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: Rahou Mohamed, Sebaa Fethi, Cheikh Abdelmadjid


Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration, and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach have been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Tolerance, Position, Dispersion

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38 Merging of Results in Distributed Information Retrieval Systems

Authors: Larbi Guezouli, Imane Azzouz


This work is located in the domain of distributed information retrieval ‘DIR’. A simplified view of the DIR requires a multi-search in a set of collections, which forces the system to analyze results found in these collections, and merge results back before sending them to the user in a single list. Our work is to find a fusion method based on the relevance score of each result received from collections and the relevance of the local search engine of each collection.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Datamining, distributed IR systems, merging results

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37 Selection of Relevant Servers in Distributed Information Retrieval System

Authors: Benhamouda Sara, Guezouli Larbi


Nowadays, the dissemination of information touches the distributed world, where selecting the relevant servers to a user request is an important problem in distributed information retrieval. During the last decade, several research studies on this issue have been launched to find optimal solutions and many approaches of collection selection have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a new collection selection approach that takes into consideration the number of documents in a collection that contains terms of the query and the weights of those terms in these documents. We tested our method and our studies show that this technique can compete with other state-of-the-art algorithms that we choose to test the performance of our approach.

Keywords: relevance, distributed information retrieval, server selection, collection selection

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36 Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion of Esparto Paper Industry Wastewater Effluent in a Batch Digester Using IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)

Authors: Boubaker Fezzani, Ridha Ben Cheikh, Tarek Rouissi


In this work the original ADM1, implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink, was modified and adapted and applied to reproduce the experimental results of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of Esperto paper industry wastewater in a batch digester. The data set from lab-scale experiment runs were used to calibrate and validate the model. The simulations’ results indicated that the modified ADM1 was able to predict reasonably well the steady state results of gas flows, methane and carbon dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed with all influents concentrations.

Keywords: Simulation, Mathematical Modelling, Anaerobic Digestion, ADM1, batch digester, esparto paper industry effluent, mesophilic temperature

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35 Control Law Design of a Wheeled Robot Mobile

Authors: Ghania Zidani, Said Drid, Larbi Chrifi-Alaoui, Abdeslam Benmakhlouf, Souad Chaouch


In this paper, we focus on the study for path tracking control of unicycle-type Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMR), by applying the Backstepping technic. The latter is a relatively new technic for nonlinear systems. To solve the problem of constraints nonholonomics met in the path tracking of such robots, an adaptive Backstepping based nonlinear controller is developed. The stability of the controller is guaranteed, using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results show that the proposed controller achieves the objective and ensures good path tracking.

Keywords: Nonlinear Control Systems, Backstepping control, kinematic and dynamic controllers, Lyapunov methods, Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR)

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34 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual


The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: Additives, Lead-Acid Battery, positive plate, impedance (EIS)

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33 Modeling the Time-Dependent Rheological Behavior of Clays Used in Fabrication of Ceramic

Authors: M. Belhadri, N. Boudjenane, R. Reffis, Larbi Hammadi, N. Benhallou, R. Houjedje


Many of clays exhibited the thixotropic behavior in which, the apparent viscosity of material decreases with time of shearing at constant shear rate. The structural kinetic model (SKM) was used to characterize the thixotropic behavior of two different kinds of clays used in fabrication of ceramic. Clays selected for analysis represent the fluid and semisolid clays materials. The SKM postulates that the change in the rheological behavior is associated with shear-induced breakdown of the internal structure of the clays. This model for the structure decay with time at constant shear rate assumes nth order kinetics for the decay of the material structure with a rate constant.

Keywords: ceramic, viscosity, Clays, structural kinetic model, thixotropy

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32 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani


In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: treatment, El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio

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31 Numerical Modeling for Water Engineering and Obstacle Theory

Authors: Mounir Adal, Baalal Azeddine, Afifi Moulay Larbi


Numerical analysis is a branch of mathematics devoted to the development of iterative matrix calculation techniques. We are searching for operations optimization as objective to calculate and solve systems of equations of order n with time and energy saving for computers that are conducted to calculate and analyze big data by solving matrix equations. Furthermore, this scientific discipline is producing results with a margin of error of approximation called rates. Thus, the results obtained from the numerical analysis techniques that are held on computer software such as MATLAB or Simulink offers a preliminary diagnosis of the situation of the environment or space targets. By this we can offer technical procedures needed for engineering or scientific studies exploitable by engineers for water.

Keywords: Simulation, Engineering, Water, Computer, Underground, numerical modeling, Numerical Analysis Methods, MATLAB, velocity, iteration, obstacles solving

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30 Recognition of Noisy Words Using the Time Delay Neural Networks Approach

Authors: Khenfer-Koummich Fatima, Mesbahi Larbi, Hendel Fatiha


This paper presents a recognition system for isolated words like robot commands. It’s carried out by Time Delay Neural Networks; TDNN. To teleoperate a robot for specific tasks as turn, close, etc… In industrial environment and taking into account the noise coming from the machine. The choice of TDNN is based on its generalization in terms of accuracy, in more it acts as a filter that allows the passage of certain desirable frequency characteristics of speech; the goal is to determine the parameters of this filter for making an adaptable system to the variability of speech signal and to noise especially, for this the back propagation technique was used in learning phase. The approach was applied on commands pronounced in two languages separately: The French and Arabic. The results for two test bases of 300 spoken words for each one are 87%, 97.6% in neutral environment and 77.67%, 92.67% when the white Gaussian noisy was added with a SNR of 35 dB.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Noise, Speech Recognition, TDNN

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29 Sliding Mode MRAS Observer for Optimized Backstepping Control of Induction Motor

Authors: Chaouch Souad, Abdou Latifa, Larbi Chrifi Alaoui


This paper deals with sensorless backstepping control of induction motor using MRAS technique associated to sliding mode approach. A high order genetic algorithm structure is used to approximate a control law designed by the Backstepping technique, and to find the best parameters globally optimized. However, the Backstepping control approach is unsuitable for high performance applications because the need of a speed sensor for increased accuracy and the absence of any error decay mechanism. In this paper a nonlinear observer, obtained by combining sliding mode structure and model reference adaptive system (MRAS), is designed for the rotor flux and rotor speed estimations. To validate the proposed method, the results are presented for showing the improved drive characteristics and performances.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Induction Motor, sliding mode observer, Backstepping control

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28 Voice Commands Recognition of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using HTK

Authors: Mesbahi Larbi, Hendel Fatiha, Khenfer-Koummich Fatma


this paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a man-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to tele-operate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands spoken in two languages: French and Arabic. The recognition rate obtained is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equal to 30 db, the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69% and 80% for French speech recognition rate. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: Noise, Speech Recognition, voice command, Arabic, HMM, TIMIT, HTK

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27 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor


This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: Properties, mortar, clay brick waste, quarry sand

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26 Correlation of IFNL4 ss469415590 and IL28B rs12979860 with the Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Response among Tunisian Patients

Authors: Khaoula Azraiel, Mohamed Mehdi Abassi, Amel Sadraoui, Walid Hammami, Azouz Msaddek, Imed Cheikh, Maria Mancebo, Elisabet Perez-Navarro, Antonio Caruz, Henda Triki, Ahlem Djebbi


IL28B rs12979860 genotype is confirmed as an important predictor of response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). IFNL4 ss469415590 is a newly discovered polymorphism that could also affect the sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IL28B and IFNL4 genotypes with peginterferon/ribavirin treatment response in Tunisians patients with CHC and to determine which of these SNPs, was the stronger marker. A total of 120 patients were genotyped for both rs12979860 and ss469415590 polymorphisms. The association of each genetic marker with SVR was analyzed and comparison between the two SNPs was calculated by logistic regression models. For rs12979860, 69.6% of patients with CC, 41.8% with CT and 42.8% with TT achieved SVR (p = 0.003). Regarding ss469415590, 70.4% of patients with TT/TT genotype achieved SVR compared to 42.8% with TT/ΔG and 37.5% with ΔG /ΔG (p = 0.002). The presence of CC and TT/TT genotypes was independently associated with treatment response with an OR of 3.86 for each. In conclusion, both IL28B rs12979860 and IFNL4 ss469415590 variants were associated with response to pegIFN/RBV in Tunisian patients, without any additional benefit in performance for IFNL4. Our results are different from those detected in Sub-Saharan Africa countries.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Polymorphism, IFNL4, IL28B, Peginterferon/ribavirin

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25 Recognition of Voice Commands of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Mesbahi Larbi, Hendel Fatiha, Khenfer Koummich Fatma


This paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a human-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to teleoperate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands pronounced in two languages: French and Arabic. The obtained recognition rate is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equals 30 dB, in this case; the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69%, and the French speech recognition rate is 80%. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: Noise, voice command, TIMIT, HTK, hidden markov model (HMM), Arabic speech recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
24 Application of Hybrid Honey Bees Mating Optimization Algorithm in Multiuser Detection of Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: N. Larbi, F. Debbat


Wireless communication systems have changed dramatically and shown spectacular evolution over the past two decades. These radio technologies are engaged in a quest endless high-speed transmission coupled to a constant need to improve transmission quality. Various radio communication systems being developed use code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. This work analyses a hybrid honey bees mating optimization algorithm (HBMO) applied to multiuser detection (MuD) in CDMA communication systems. The HBMO is a swarm-based optimization algorithm, which simulates the mating process of real honey bees. We apply a hybridization of HBMO with simulated annealing (SA) in order to improve the solution generated by the HBMO. Simulation results show that the detection based on Hybrid HBMO, in term of bit error rate (BER), is viable option when compared with the classic detectors from literature under Rayleigh flat fading channel.

Keywords: simulated annealing, Genetic Algorithm, BER, DS-CDMA multiuser detection, hybrid HBMO

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23 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Abdelkader Outzourhit, Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour


Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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22 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber


Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: Crystallinity, hot air flow, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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21 Experimental and Theoretical Study on Hygrothermal Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminates

Authors: S. Larbi, S. Djebali, A. Bilek, R. Bensaada


The manufacture of composite parts is a major issue in many industrial domains. Polymer composite materials are ideal for structural applications where high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are required. However, exposition to extreme environment conditions (temperature, humidity) affects mechanical properties of organic composite materials and lead to an undesirable degradation. Aging mechanisms in organic matrix are very diverse and vary according to the polymer and the aging conditions such as temperature, humidity etc. This paper studies the hygrothermal aging effect on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced plastics laminates at 40 °C in different environment exposure. Two composite materials are used to conduct the study (carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/vinyl ester with two stratifications for both the materials [904/04] and [454/04]). The experimental procedure includes a mechanical characterization of the materials in a virgin state and exposition of specimens to two environments (seawater and demineralized water). Absorption kinetics for the two materials and both the stratifications are determined. Three-point bending test is performed on the aged materials in order to determine the hygrothermal effect on the mechanical properties of the materials.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, FRP laminates, hygrothermal aging, theory of laminates

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20 The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision-Making: An Applied Study on Algeria Telecoms Mobile "MOBILIS"

Authors: Benlakhdar Mohamed Larbi, Yagoub Asma


Purpose: This study aims at highlighting the significance and importance of utilizing marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making, by clarifying the need for quick and efficient decision-making due to time saving and preventing of duplication of work. Design, methodology, approach: The study shows the roles of each part of MKIS for developing marketing strategy, which present a real challenge to individuals and institutions in an era characterized by uncertainty and clarifying the importance of each part separately, depending on decision type and the nature of the situation. The empirical research method was evaluated by specialized experts, conducted by means of questionnaires. Correlation analysis was employed to test the validity of the procedure. Results: The empirical study findings confirmed positive relationships between the level of utilizing and adopting ‘decision support system and marketing intelligence’ and the success of an organizational decision-making, and provide the organization with a competitive advantage as it allows the organization to solve problems. Originality/value: The study offer better understanding of performance- increasing market share as an organizational decision making based on marketing information system.

Keywords: Marketing Research, Database, Decision-making, Decision Support System, Marketing Intelligence

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19 Video Text Information Detection and Localization in Lecture Videos Using Moments

Authors: Guezouli Larbi, Belkacem Soundes


This paper presents a robust and accurate method for text detection and localization over lecture videos. Frame regions are classified into text or background based on visual feature analysis. However, lecture video shows significant degradation mainly related to acquisition conditions, camera motion and environmental changes resulting in low quality videos. Hence, affecting feature extraction and description efficiency. Moreover, traditional text detection methods cannot be directly applied to lecture videos. Therefore, robust feature extraction methods dedicated to this specific video genre are required for robust and accurate text detection and extraction. Method consists of a three-step process: Slide region detection and segmentation; Feature extraction and non-text filtering. For robust and effective features extraction moment functions are used. Two distinct types of moments are used: orthogonal and non-orthogonal. For orthogonal Zernike Moments, both Pseudo Zernike moments are used, whereas for non-orthogonal ones Hu moments are used. Expressivity and description efficiency are given and discussed. Proposed approach shows that in general, orthogonal moments show high accuracy in comparison to the non-orthogonal one. Pseudo Zernike moments are more effective than Zernike with better computation time.

Keywords: pseudo Zernike moments, lecture videos, text detection, text localization

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18 Sterilization Incident Analysis by the Association of Litigation and Risk Management Method

Authors: Asma Ben Cheikh, Hela Ghali, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Salwa Khefacha, Lamine Dhidah, Souhir Chelly, Houyem Said Latiri


The hospital risk management department is firstly involved in the methodological analysis of grade zero sterilization incidents. The system is based on a subsequent analysis process in compliance with the ongoing requirements of the Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) for a reactive approach to risk, allowing to identify failures and start the appropriate preventive and corrective measures. The use of the association of litigation and risk management (ALARM) method makes easier the grade zero analysis and brings to light the team or institutional, organizational, temporal, individual factors representative of undesirable effects. Two main factors come out again from this analysis, pre-disinfection step of the emergency block unsupervised instrumentalist intern was poorly done since she did not remove the battery from micro air motor. At the sterilization unit, the worker who was not supervised by the nurse did the conditioning of the motor without having checked it if it still contained the battery. The main cause is that the management of human resources was inadequate at both levels, the instrumental trainee in the block who was not supervised by his supervisor and the worker of the sterilization unit who was not supervised by the responsible nurse. There is a lack of research help, advice, and collaboration. The difficulties encountered during this type of analysis are multiple. The first is based on its necessary acceptance by the various actors of care involved, which should not perceive it as a tool leading to individual punishment, but rather as a means to improve their practices.

Keywords: Risk management, sterilization, incident, ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management Method)

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17 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf


In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: WLAN, WiMAX, HFSS, planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, C and Ku

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16 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Larbi, S. Djebali, A. Bilek


The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: steel, Graphite, mass loss, wear rate, polyester, bronze, friction coefficient

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15 Study of the Performances of an Environmental Concrete Based on Recycled Aggregates and Marble Waste Fillers Addition

Authors: Larbi Belagraa, Miloud Beddar, Abderrazak Bouzid


The needs of the construction sector still increasing for concrete. However, the shortage of natural resources of aggregate could be a problem for the concrete industry, in addition to the negative impact on the environment due to the demolition wastes. Recycling aggregate from construction and demolition (C&D) waste presents a major interest for users and researchers of concrete since this constituent can occupies more than 70% of concrete volume. The aim of the study here in is to assess the effect of sulfate resistant cement combined with the local mineral addition of marble waste fillers on the mechanical behavior of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Physical and mechanical properties of RAC including the density, the flexural and the compressive strength were studied. The non destructive test methods (pulse-velocity, rebound hammer) were performed . The results obtained were compared to crushed aggregate concrete (CAC) using the normal compressive testing machine test method. The optimal content of 5% marble fillers showed an improvement for both used test methods (compression, flexion and NDT). Non-destructive methods (ultrasonic and rebound hammer test) can be used to assess the strength of RAC, but a correction coefficient is required to obtain a similar value to the compressive strength given by the compression tests. The study emphasizes that these waste materials can be successfully and economically utilized as additional inert filler in RAC formulation within similar performances compared to a conventional concrete.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, marble waste fillers, natural aggregate, non-destructive testing (NDT), recycled aggregate concrete

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14 Linking Temporal Changes of Climate Factors with Staple Cereal Yields in Southern Burkina Faso

Authors: Pius Borona, Cheikh Mbow, Issa Ouedraogo


In the Sahel, climate variability has been associated with a complex web of direct and indirect impacts. This natural phenomenon has been an impediment to agro-pastoral communities who experience uncertainty while involving in farming activities which is also their key source of livelihood. In this scenario, the role of climate variability in influencing the performance, quantity and quality of staple cereals yields, vital for food and nutrition security has been a topic of importance. This response of crops and subsequent yield variability is also a subject of immense debate due to the complexity of crop development at different stages. This complexity is further compounded by influence of slowly changing non-climatic factors. With these challenges in mind, the present paper initially explores the occurrence of climate variability at an inter annual and inter decadal level in South Burkina Faso. This is evidenced by variation of the total annual rainfall and the number of rainy days among other climatic descriptors. Further, it is shown how district-scale cereal yields in the study area including maize, sorghum and millet casually associate variably to the inter-annual variation of selected climate variables. Statistical models show that the three cereals widely depict sensitivity to the length of the growing period and total dry days in the growing season. Maize yields on the other hand relate strongly to the rainfall amount variation (R2=51.8%) showing high moisture dependence during critical growth stages. Our conclusions emphasize on adoption of efficient water utilization platforms especially those that have evidently increased yields and strengthening of forecasts dissemination.

Keywords: Climate Variability, Rainfall, Seasonality, Burkina Faso, cereal yields, rain fed farming

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13 Photoelastic Analysis and Finite Elements Analysis of a Stress Field Developed in a Double Edge Notched Specimen

Authors: S. Larbi, S. Djebali, A. Bilek, M. Beldi, T. Cherfi


Finite elements analysis and photoelasticity are used to determine the stress field developed in a double edge notched specimen loaded in tension. The specimen is cut in a birefringent plate. Experimental isochromatic fringes are obtained with circularly polarized light on the analyzer of a regular polariscope. The fringes represent the loci of points of equal maximum shear stress. In order to obtain the stress values corresponding to the fringe orders recorded in the notched specimen, particularly in the neighborhood of the notches, a calibrating disc made of the same material is loaded in compression along its diameter in order to determine the photoelastic fringe value. This fringe value is also used in the finite elements solution in order to obtain the simulated photoelastic fringes, the isochromatics as well as the isoclinics. A color scale is used by the software to represent the simulated fringes on the whole model. The stress concentration factor can be readily obtained at the notches. Good agreements are obtained between the experimental and the simulated fringe patterns and between the graphs of the shear stress particularly in the neighborhood of the notches. The purpose in this paper is to show that one can obtain rapidly and accurately, by the finite element analysis, the isochromatic and the isoclinic fringe patterns in a stressed model as the experimental procedure can be time consuming. Stress fields can therefore be analyzed in three dimensional models as long as the meshing and the limit conditions are properly set in the program.

Keywords: Photoelasticity, stress concentration factor, isochromatic fringe, isoclinic fringe

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
12 Customer’s Choice of a Bank: An Empirical Enquiry from the Banked Ghanaian

Authors: Emmanuel Larbi Offei, Felix Agyei-Sasu, Maura Naa Densua Ashong


Ghana has 26 universal banks and several banking and non-banking financial institutions operating in the country. The growing number of banks has heightened competition among banks to attract and retain customers more customers to ensure sustainability. Hence the need to identify and understand factors that influences customers’ choice of banks cannot be overemphasised. This study investigates the determinants of bank selection criteria by banking customers in Ghana. Four banks were purposively sampled for this study namely Barclays, Standard Chartered, Sahel Sahara and Unibank. Convenience sampling was then used to select 114 bank customers in Accra and interviewed. Questionnaires were used to collect data that were analysed in tables and charts with the use of STATA software. The findings of the study revealed that quick/prompt services and complaint handling, safety of funds, networked branches, easy access to functional Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and low/moderate service charges were the major determinants of customers’ choice of banks. The results further show that 89.5 percent of all deposits are held in either current or savings accounts. About 22.1 percent of the respondents indicated that they have plans of changing their banks in the near future because they are not satisfied with their banks. A gender analysis of the choice criteria showed differences between the choice criteria of the male as compared to the female. The study recommends that banks in Ghana should focus on products and policies that will not compromise on the safety of funds of their customers. Again, banks must address customer complaints and dissatisfactions as promptly as possible by taking pragmatic steps to address administrative bureaucracies and infrastructural challenges that prolong the duration of banking transactions.

Keywords: Competition, banks, determinants, Ghana, customers’ choice

Procedia PDF Downloads 317