Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: E. I. Ugwu

12 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi

Abstract:

The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: Lung, Histopathology, Fibrosis, food plants, wild rats, cell-rebuilding

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11 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: Behavior, Occupational Stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship

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10 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

Abstract:

Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: Data, Malware, Work place, employee

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9 Reciprocal Interferences in Bilingual English-Igbo Speaking Society: The Implications in Language Pedagogy

Authors: Ugwu Elias Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Discussions on bilingualism have always dwelt on how the mother tongue interferes with the target language. This interference is considered a serious problem in second language learning. Usually, the interference has been phonological. But the objective of this research is to explore how the target language interferes with the mother tongue. In the case of the Igbo language, it interferes with English mostly at the phonological level while English interferes with Igbo at the realm of vocabulary. The result is a new language \"Engligbo\" which is a hybrid of English and Igbo. The Igbo language spoken by about 25 million people is one of the three most prominent languages in Nigeria. This paper discusses the phenomenal Engligbo, and other implications for Igbo learners of English. The method of analysis is descriptive. A number of recommendations were made that would help teachers handle problems arising from such mutual interferences.

Keywords: bilingualism, implications, Language Pedagogy, reciprocal interferences

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8 A Software Tool for Computer Forensic Investigation Using Client-Side Web History Visualization

Authors: Francisca Onaolapo Oladipo, Peter Afam Ugwu

Abstract:

Records of user activities which are valuable for forensic investigation purposes are provided by web browsers -these records in most cases are not in visual formats that are easily understood, thereby requiring some extra processes. This paper describes the implementation of a software tool for client-side web history visualization providing suitable forensic evidence for investigative purposes. Visual C#, Perl and gnuplot were deployed on Windows Operating System (OS) environment to implement the system and the resulting tool parses and transforms a web browser history into a visual format that enables an investigator to quickly and efficiently explore, understand, and interpret the user online activities in the context of a specific investigation. The system was tested using two forensic cases: the client-side web history files generated by Mozilla Firefox browser was extracted using MozillaHistoryView utility, then parsed and visualized using bar and stacked column charts. From the visual representation, results of user web activities across various productive and non-productive websites were obtained.

Keywords: History, Visualization, Forensics, web activities

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7 An Improved Image Steganography Technique Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion

Authors: Olaiya Folorunsho, Comfort Y. Daramola, Joel N. Ugwu, Lawrence B. Adewole, Olufisayo S. Ekundayo

Abstract:

In today world, there is a tremendous rise in the usage of internet due to the fact that almost all the communication and information sharing is done over the web. Conversely, there is a continuous growth of unauthorized access to confidential data. This has posed a challenge to information security expertise whose major goal is to curtail the menace. One of the approaches to secure the safety delivery of data/information to the rightful destination without any modification is steganography. Steganography is the art of hiding information inside an embedded information. This research paper aimed at designing a secured algorithm with the use of image steganographic technique that makes use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithm for embedding the data into the bit map image (bmp) in order to enhance security and reliability. In the LSB approach, the basic idea is to replace the LSB of the pixels of the cover image with the Bits of the messages to be hidden without destroying the property of the cover image significantly. The system was implemented using C# programming language of Microsoft.NET framework. The performance evaluation of the proposed system was experimented by conducting a benchmarking test for analyzing the parameters like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The result showed that image steganography performed considerably in securing data hiding and information transmission over the networks.

Keywords: Steganography, least significant bits, image steganography, bit map image

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6 Theoretical Analysis of the Optical and Solid State Properties of Thin Film

Authors: E. I. Ugwu

Abstract:

Theoretical analysis of the optical and Solid State properties of ZnS thin film using beam propagation technique in which a scalar wave is propagated through the material thin film deposited on a substrate with the assumption that the dielectric medium is section into a homogenous reference dielectric constant term, and a perturbed dielectric term, representing the deposited thin film medium is presented in this work. These two terms, constitute arbitrary complex dielectric function that describes dielectric perturbation imposed by the medium of for the system. This is substituted into a defined scalar wave equation in which the appropriate Green’s Function was defined on it and solved using series technique. The green’s value obtained from Green’s Function was used in Dyson’s and Lippmann Schwinger equations in conjunction with Born approximation method in computing the propagated field for different input regions of field wavelength during which the influence of the dielectric constants and mesh size of the thin film on the propagating field were depicted. The results obtained from the computed field were used in turn to generate the data that were used to compute the band gaps, solid state and optical properties of the thin film such as reflectance, Transmittance and reflectance with which the band gap obtained was found to be in close approximate to that of experimental value.

Keywords: propagation, scalar wave, optical and solid state properties, thin film, dielectric medium, perturbation, Lippmann Schwinger equations, Green’s Function

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5 The Context of Human Rights in a Poverty-Stricken Africa: A Reflection

Authors: Ugwu Chukwuka E.

Abstract:

The African context of human right instruments as recognized today can be traced to Africa’s relationship with the Western World. A significant preponderance of these instruments are found in both colonial and post colonial statutes as the colonial laws, the post colonial legal documents as constitutions or Africa’s adherence to relevant international instruments on human rights as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981). In spite of all these human rights instruments inherent in the African continent, it is contended in this paper that, these Western-oriented notion of human rights, emphasizes rights that hardly meets the current needs of contemporary African citizens. Adopting a historical research methodology, this study interrogates the dynamics of the African poverty context in relation to the implementation of human rights instruments in the continent. In this vein, using human rights and poverty scenarios from one Anglophone (Uganda) and one Francophone (Senegal) countries in Africa, the study hypothesized that, majority of Africans are not in a historical condition for the realization of these rights. The raison d’etre for this claim emerges from the fact that, the present generations of African hoi polloi are inundated with extensive powerlessness, ignorance, diseases, hunger and overall poverty that emasculates their interest in these rights instruments. In contrast, the few Africans who have access to the enjoyment of these rights in the continent hardly needs these instruments, as their power and resources base secures them that. The paper concludes that the stress of African states and stakeholders on African affairs should concentrated significantly, on the alleviation of the present historical poverty squalor of Africans, which when attended to, enhances the realization of human right situations in the continent.

Keywords: Human Rights, Poverty, Africa, western world

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4 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu

Abstract:

Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: mango, bactrocera dorsalis, attractants, trapping

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3 Education for Sustainable Development Pedagogies: Examining the Influences of Context on South African Natural Sciences and Technology Teaching and Learning

Authors: A. U. Ugwu

Abstract:

Post-Apartheid South African education system had witnessed waves of curriculum reforms. Accordingly, there have been evidences of responsiveness towards local and global challenges of sustainable development over the past decade. In other words, the curriculum shows sensitivity towards issues of Sustainable Development (SD). Moreover, the paradigm of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was introduced by the UNESCO in year 2015. The SDGs paradigm is essentially a vision towards actualizing sustainability in all aspects of the global society. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in retrospect entails teaching and learning to actualize the intended UNESCO 2030 SDGs. This paper explores how teaching and learning of ESD can be improved, by drawing from local context of the South African schooling system. Preservice natural sciences and technology teachers in their 2nd to 4th years of study at a university’s college of education in South Africa were contacted as participants of the study. Using qualitative case study research design, the study drew from the views and experiences of five (5) purposively selected participants from a broader study, aiming to closely understating how ESD is implemented pedagogically in teaching and learning. The inquiry employed questionnaires and a focus group discussion as qualitative data generation tools. A qualitative data analysis of generated data was carried out using content and thematic analysis, underpinned by interpretive paradigm. The result of analyzed data, suggests that ESD pedagogy at the location where this research was conducted is largely influenced by contextual factors. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that there is a critical need to employ/adopt local experiences or occurrences while teaching sustainable development. Certain pedagogical approaches such as the use of videos relative to local context should also be considered in order to achieve a more realistic application. The paper recommends that educational institutions through teaching and learning should implement ESD by drawing on local contexts and problems, thereby foregrounding constructivism, appreciating and fostering students' prior knowledge and lived experiences.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Education for Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development Goals, context, natural sciences and technology preservice teachers

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2 Beyond Rhetoric and Buzzword, Policies and Politics: Towards Practical Institutional Involvement in Science and Technology Teacher Education Programmes for Sustainable Development

Authors: Alvin Uchenna Ugwu

Abstract:

The United Nation’s 2030 agenda and Global Action Programme (GAP) for implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), has mandated all sectors in the societies, including education, to develop strategies towards actualizing sustainability in all facets of the society, by the year 2030. Education is no doubt a key tool for social change. However, educational institutions in most African nations need a paradigmatic shift to strike a balance between policies (curricular) and practices, with regards to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The paradigm shift in this regard is described as whole-institution/school approach. The whole institution approaches advocate action-focused ESD. In other words, ESD policy and curriculum makers, formal and non-formal education institutions, need to ‘practice what they preach’. This paper is developed from an ongoing study carried out by the author and guided by two research questions: -What are the views of intermediate phase science and technology preservice teachers on the ESD content included in the science and technology modules? -What challenges or enable intermediate phase science and technology pre-service teachers to learn about ESD in science and technology modules? The study drew from the views and experiences of preservice science teachers, learning about ESD in a university’s college of education in South Africa. Using qualitative case study research design, the research data were generated via questionnaires and focus group discussions. Analysis of generated data indicates that universities and institutions of higher learning need to demonstrate practical involvement while implementing ESD in societies, rather than just standing as knowledge media. Findings of the study further suggest that natural sciences and technology courses in teacher education programmes and other institutions of higher learning, should be perceived as key transformative tools in shaping the consciousness of students towards integrating and fostering ESD in developing countries such as South Africa. Thus, this paper seeks to promote ‘Whole Institution Involvement’ in teacher education colleges in South Africa, as a measure of improving ESD in higher education settings. The paper suggests that in order to achieve ESD in higher education settings and beyond, policies and practices should be reexamined beyond rhetoric and buzzwords. The paper further argues that implementation of ESD is largely influenced by context, hence two different contexts should be examined empirically.

Keywords: Education for Sustainable Development, higher education institutions, pre-service science teachers, qualitative case study research, whole institution involvement

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1 Mining and Ecological Events and its Impact on the Genesis and Geo-Distribution of Ebola Outbreaks in Africa

Authors: E Tambo, O. O. Olalubi, E. C. Ugwu, J. Y. Ngogang

Abstract:

Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of international health emergency concern, the status quo of responses and efforts to stem the worst-recorded Ebola epidemic Ebola outbreak is still precariously inadequate in most of the affected in West. Mining natural resources have been shown to play a key role in both motivating and fuelling ethnic, civil and armed conflicts that have plagued a number of African countries over the last decade. Revenues from the exploitation of natural resources are not only used in sustaining the national economy but also armies, personal enrichment and building political support. Little is documented on the mining and ecological impact on the emergence and geographical distribution of Ebola in Africa over time and space. We aimed to provide a better understanding of the interconnectedness among issues of mining natural, resource management, mining conflict and post-conflict on Ebola outbreak and how wealth generated from abundant natural resources could be better managed in promoting research and development towards strengthening environmental, socioeconomic and health systems sustainability on Ebola outbreak and other emerging diseases surveillance and responses systems prevention and control, early warning alert, durable peace and sustainable development rather than to fuel conflicts, resurgence and emerging diseases epidemics in the perspective of community and national/regional approach. Our results showed the first assessment of systematic impact of all major minerals conflict events diffusion over space and time and mining activities on nine Ebola genesis and geo-distribution in affected countries across Africa. We demonstrate how, where and when mining activities in Africa increase ecological degradation, conflicts at the local level and then spreads violence across territory and time by enhancing the financial capacities of fighting groups/ethnics and diseases onset. In addition, led process of developing minimum standards for natural resource governance; improving governmental and civil society capacity for natural resource management, including the strengthening of monitoring and enforcement mechanisms; understanding the post-mining and conflicts community or national reconstruction and rehabilitation programmes in strengthening or developing community health systems and regulatory mechanisms. In addition the quest for the control over these resources and illegal mining across the landscape forest incursion provided increase environmental and ecological instability and displacement and disequilibrium, therefore affecting the intensity and duration of mining and conflict/wars and episode of Ebola outbreaks over time and space. We highlight the key findings and lessons learnt in promoting country or community-led process in transforming natural resource wealth from a peace liability to a peace asset. The imperative necessity for advocacy and through facilitating intergovernmental deliberations on critical issues and challenges affecting Africa community transforming exploitation of natural resources from a peace liability to outbreak prevention and control. The vital role of mining in increasing government revenues and expenditures, equitable distribution of wealth and health to all stakeholders, in particular local communities requires coordination, cooperative leadership and partnership in fostering sustainable developmental initiatives from mining context to outbreak and other infectious diseases surveillance responses systems in prevention and control, and judicious resource management.

Keywords: Ecological, Mining, Impact, Ebola, Mines, outbreak, mining conflicts, mining companies, miners

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