Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: CIGS

12 Theoretical Analysis of Graded Interface CdS/CIGS Solar Cell

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Dennai Benmoussa, Abderrachid Helmaoui

Abstract:

We have theoretically calculated the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a graded interface CdS/CIGS solar cell, which can be experimentally fabricated. Because the conduction band discontinuity or spike in an abrupt heterojunction CdS/CIGS solar cell can hinder the separation of hole-electron by electric field, a graded interface layer is uses to eliminate the spike and reduces recombination in space charge region. This paper describes the role of the graded band gap interface layer in decreasing the performance of the heterojunction cell. By optimizing the thickness of the graded region, an improvement of conversion efficiency has been observed in comparison to the conventional CIGS system.

Keywords: heterojunction, solar cell, graded interface, CIGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
11 Numerical Simulation of Multijunction GaAs/CIGS Solar Cell by AMPS-1D

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Benmoussa Dennai, Abderrahman Hemmani, Abderrachid Helmaoui

Abstract:

During the past few years a great variety of multi-junction solar cells has been developed with the aim of a further increase in efficiency beyond the limits of single junction devices. This paper analyzes the GaAs/CIGS based tandem solar cell performance by AMPS-1D numerical modeling. Various factors which affect the solar cell’s performance are investigated, carefully referring to practical cells, to obtain the optimum parameters for the GaAs and CIGS top and bottom solar cells. Among the factors studied are thickness and band gap energy of dual junction cells.

Keywords: multijunction solar cell, GaAs, CIGS, AMPS-1D

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
10 Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Performances

Authors: Mekhannene Amine

Abstract:

In this paper, we began in the first step by two-dimensional simulation of a CIGS solar cell, in order to increase the current record efficiency of 20.48% for a single CIGS cell. Was created by utilizing a set of physical and technological parameters a solar cell of reference (such as layer thicknesses, gallium ratio, doping levels and materials properties) documented in bibliography and very known in the experimental field. This was accomplished through modeling and simulation using Atlas SILVACO-TCAD, an tool two and three dimensions very powerful and very adapted. This study has led us to determine the influence of different environmental parameters such as illumination (G) and temperature (T). In the second step, we continued our study by determining the influence of physical parameters (the acceptor of concentration NA) and geometric (thickness t) of the CIGS absorber layer, were varied to produce an optimum efficiency of 24.36%. This approach is promising to produce a CIGS classic solar cell to conduct a maximum performance.

Keywords: solar cell, cigs, photovoltaic generator, illumination, temperature, Atlas SILVACO-TCAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 539
9 Optimization of Cu (In, Ga)Se₂ Based Thin Film Solar Cells: Simulation

Authors: Razieh Teimouri

Abstract:

Electrical modelling of Cu (In,Ga)Se₂ thin film solar cells is carried out with compositionally graded absorber and CdS buffer layer. Simulation results are compared with experimental data. Surface defect layers (SDL) are located in CdS/CIGS interface for improving open circuit voltage simulated structure through the analysis of the interface is investigated with or without this layer. When SDL removed, by optimizing the conduction band offset (CBO) position of the buffer/absorber layers with its recombination mechanisms and also shallow donor density in the CdS, the open circuit voltage increased significantly. As a result of simulation, excellent performance can be obtained when the conduction band of window layer positions higher by 0.2 eV than that of CIGS and shallow donor density in the CdS was found about 1×10¹⁸ (cm⁻³).

Keywords: CIGS solar cells, thin film, SCAPS, buffer layer, conduction band offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
8 CuIn₃Se₅ Colloidal Nanocrystals and Its Ink-Coated Films for Photovoltaics

Authors: M. Ghali, M. Elnimr, G. F. Ali, A. M. Eissa, H. Talaat

Abstract:

CuIn₃Se₅ material is indexed as ordered vacancy compounds having excellent matching properties with CuInGaSe (CIGS) solar absorber layer. For example, the valence band offset of CuIn₃Se₅ with CIGS is nearly 0.3 eV, and the lattice mismatch is less than 1%, besides the absence of discontinuity in their conduction bands. Thus, CuIn₃Se₅ can work as a passivation layer for repelling holes from CIGS/CdS interface and hence to reduce the interface carriers recombination and consequently enhancing the efficiency of CIGS/CdS solar cells. Theoretically, it was reported earlier that an improvement in the efficiency of p-CIGS-based solar cell with a thin ~100 nm of n-CuIn₃Se₅ layer is expected. Recently, a reported experiment demonstrated significant improvement in the efficiency of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown CIGS solar cells from 13.4 to 14.5% via inserting a thin layer of MBE-grown Cu(In,Ga)₃Se₅ layer at the CdS/CIGS interface. It should be mentioned that CuIn₃Se₅ material in either bulk or thin film form, are usually fabricated by high vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., three-source co-evaporation, RF sputtering, flash evaporation, and molecular beam epitaxy). In addition, achieving photosensitive films of n-CuIn₃Se₅ material is important for new hybrid organic/inorganic structures, where inorganic photo-absorber layer, with n-type conductivity, can form n–p junction with organic p-type material (e.g., conductive polymers). A detailed study of the physical properties of CuIn₃Se₅ is still necessary for better understanding of device operation and further improvement of solar cells performance. Here, we report on the low-cost synthesis of CuIn₃Se₅ material in nano-scale size, with an average diameter ~10nm, using simple solution-based colloidal chemistry. In contrast to traditionally grown bulk tetragonal CuIn₃Se₅ crystals using high Vacuum-based technology, our colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ nanocrystals show cubic crystal structure with a shape of nanoparticles and band gap ~1.33 eV. Ink-coated thin films prepared from these nanocrystals colloids; display n-type character, 1.26 eV band gap and strong photo-responsive behavior with incident white light. This suggests the potential use of colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ as an active layer in all-solution-processed thin film solar cells.

Keywords: nanocrystals, CuInSe, thin film, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

Abstract:

Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
6 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam

Abstract:

A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CIGS, copper alloys, electrodeposition, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5 In2S3 Buffer Layer Properties for Thin Film Solar Cells Based on CIGS Absorber

Authors: A. Bouloufa, K. Djessas

Abstract:

In this paper, we reported the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of In2S3 thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by physical vapor deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The In2Se3 material used for deposition was synthesized from its constituent elements. It was found that all samples exhibit one phase which corresponds to β-In2S3 phase. Values of band gap energy of the films obtained at different substrate temperatures vary in the range of 2.38-2.80 eV and decrease with increasing substrate temperature.

Keywords: buffer layer, In2S3, optical properties, PVD, structural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
4 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
3 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1 Cu₂(ZnSn)(S)₄ Electrodeposition from a Single Bath for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Mahfouz Saeed

Abstract:

Cu₂(ZnSn)(S)₄ (CTZS) offers potential advantages over CuInGaSe₂ (CIGS) as solar thin film because to its higher band gap. Preparing such photovoltaic materials by electrochemical techniques is particularly attractive due to the lower processing cost and the high throughput of such techniques. Several recent publications report CTZS electroplating; however, the electrochemical process still facing serious challenges such as a sulfur atomic ration which is about 50% of the total alloy. We introduce in this work an improved electrolyte composition which enables the direct electrodeposition of CTZS from a single bath. The electrolyte is significantly more dilute in comparison to common baths described in the literature. The bath composition we introduce is: 0.0032 M CuSO₄, 0.0021 M ZnSO₄, 0.0303 M SnCl₂, 0.0038 M Na₂S₂O₃, and 0.3 mM Na₂S₂O3. PHydrion is applied to buffer the electrolyte to pH=2, and 0.7 M LiCl is applied as supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical process was carried at a rotating disk electrode which provides quantitative characterization of the flow (room temperature). Comprehensive electrochemical behavior study at different electrode rotation rates are provided. The effects of agitation on atomic composition of the deposit and its adhesion to the molybdenum back contact are discussed. The post treatment annealing was conducted under sulfur atmosphere with no need for metals addition from the gas phase during annealing. The potential which produced the desired atomic ratio of CTZS at -0.82 V/NHE. Smooth deposit, with uniform composition across the sample surface and depth was obtained at 500 rpm rotation speed. Final sulfur atomic ratio was adjusted to 50.2% in order to have the desired atomic ration. The final composition was investigated using Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy technique (EDS). XRD technique used to analyze CTZS crystallography and thickness. Complete and functional CTZS PV devices were fabricated by depositing all the required layers in the correct order and the desired optical properties. Acknowledgments: Case Western Reserve University for the technical help and for using their instruments.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CTZS, thin film, electrochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 145