Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13429

Search results for: multi plastic hinge design

13429 Seismic Evaluation of Multi-Plastic Hinge Design Approach on RC Shear Wall-Moment Frame Systems against Near-Field Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Tehranizadeh, Mahboobe Forghani

Abstract:

The impact of higher modes on the seismic response of dual structural system consist of concrete moment-resisting frame and with RC shear walls is investigated against near-field earthquakes in this paper. a 20 stories reinforced concrete shear wall-special moment frame structure is designed in accordance with ASCE7 requirements and The nonlinear model of the structure was performed on OpenSees platform. Nonlinear time history dynamic analysis with 3 near-field records are performed on them. In order to further understand the structural collapse behavior in the near field, the response of the structure at the moment of collapse especially the formation of plastic hinges is explored. The results revealed that the amplification of moment at top of the wall due to higher modes, the plastic hinge can form in the upper part of wall, even when designed and detailed for plastic hinging at the base only (according to ACI code).on the other hand, shear forces in excess of capacity design values can develop due to the contribution of the higher modes of vibration to dynamic response due to the near field can cause brittle shear or sliding failure modes. The past investigation on shear walls clearly shows the dual-hinge design concept is effective at reducing the effects of the second mode of response. An advantage of the concept is that, when combined with capacity design, it can result in relaxation of special reinforcing detailing in large portions of the wall. In this study, to investigate the implications of multi-design approach, 4 models with varies arrangement of hinge plastics at the base and height of the shear wall are considered. results base on time history analysis showed that the dual or multi plastic hinges approach can be useful in order to control the high moment and shear demand of higher mode effect.

Keywords: higher mode effect, Near-field earthquake, nonlinear time history analysis, multi plastic hinge design

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13428 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez

Abstract:

Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as cross-section properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: columns, plastic hinge length, regression analysis, reinforced concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
13427 A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.

Keywords: advanced analysis, beam-column, fiber-hinge, plastic hinge, steel frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
13426 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure Based on Plastic Rotation

Authors: Kahil Amar, Meziani Faroudja, Khelil Nacim

Abstract:

The principal objective of this study is the evaluation of the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures, taking into account of the behavior laws, reflecting the real behavior of materials, using CASTEM2000 software. A finite element model used is based in modified Takeda model with Timoshenko elements for columns and beams. This model is validated on a Vecchio experimental reinforced concrete (RC) frame model. Then, a study focused on the behavior of a RC frame with three-level and three-story in order to visualize the positioning the plastic hinge (plastic rotation), determined from the curvature distribution along the elements. The results obtained show that the beams of the 1st and 2nd level developed a very large plastic rotations, or these rotations exceed the values corresponding to CP (Collapse prevention with cp qCP = 0.02 rad), against those developed at the 3rd level, are between IO and LS (Immediate occupancy and life Safety with qIO = 0.005 rad and rad qLS = 0.01 respectively), so the beams of first and second levels submit a very significant damage.

Keywords: seismic performance, performance level, pushover analysis, plastic rotation, plastic hinge

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13425 Relocation of Plastic Hinge of Interior Beam Column Connections with Intermediate Bars in Reinforced Concrete and T-Section Steel Inserts in Precast Concrete Frames

Authors: P. Wongmatar, C. Hansapinyo, C. Buachart

Abstract:

Failure of typical seismic frames has been found by plastic hinge occurring on beams section near column faces. Past researches shown that the seismic capacity of the frames can be enhanced if the plastic hinges of the beams are shifted away from the column faces. This paper presents detailing of reinforcements in the interior beam–column connections aiming to relocate the plastic hinge of reinforced concrete and precast concrete frames. Four specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic load including two monolithic specimens and two precast specimens. For one monolithic specimen, typical seismic reinforcement was provided and considered as a reference specimen named M1. The other reinforced concrete frame M2 contained additional intermediate steel in the connection area compared with the specimen M1. For the precast specimens, embedded T-section steels in joint were provided, with and without diagonal bars in the connection area for specimen P1 and P2, respectively. The test results indicated the ductile failure with beam flexural failure in monolithic specimen M1 and the intermediate steel increased strength and improved joint performance of specimen M2. For the precast specimens, cracks generated at the end of the steel inserts. However, slipping of reinforcing steel lapped in top of the beams was seen before yielding of the main bars leading to the brittle failure. The diagonal bars in precast specimens P2 improved the connection stiffness and the energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: relocation, plastic hinge, intermediate bar, T-section steel, precast concrete frame

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13424 A Case Study on the Seismic Performance Assessment of the High-Rise Setback Tower Under Multiple Support Excitations on the Basis of TBI Guidelines

Authors: Kamyar Kildashti, Rasoul Mirghaderi

Abstract:

This paper describes the three-dimensional seismic performance assessment of a high-rise steel moment-frame setback tower, designed and detailed per the 2010 ASCE7, under multiple support excitations. The vulnerability analyses are conducted based on nonlinear history analyses under a set of multi-directional strong ground motion records which are scaled to design-based site-specific spectrum in accordance with ASCE41-13. Spatial variation of input motions between far distant supports of each part of the tower is considered by defining time lag. Plastic hinge monotonic and cyclic behavior for prequalified steel connections, panel zones, as well as steel columns is obtained from predefined values presented in TBI Guidelines, PEER/ATC72 and FEMA P440A to include stiffness and strength degradation. Inter-story drift ratios, residual drift ratios, as well as plastic hinge rotation demands under multiple support excitations, are compared to those obtained from uniform support excitations. Performance objectives based on acceptance criteria declared by TBI Guidelines are compared between uniform and multiple support excitations. The results demonstrate that input motion discrepancy results in detrimental effects on the local and global response of the tower.

Keywords: high-rise building, nonlinear time history analysis, multiple support excitation, performance-based design

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13423 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju

Abstract:

Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: connections, finite element analysis, seismic design, steel intermediate moment frame

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13422 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle

Abstract:

Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
13421 Numerical Simulation of Encased Composite Column Bases Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Eman Ismail, Adnan Masri

Abstract:

Energy dissipation in ductile moment frames occurs mainly through plastic hinge rotations in its members (beams and columns). Generally, plastic hinge locations are pre-determined and limited to the beam ends, where columns are designed to remain elastic in order to avoid premature instability (aka story mechanisms) with the exception of column bases, where a base is 'fixed' in order to provide higher stiffness and stability and to form a plastic hinge. Plastic hinging at steel column bases in ductile moment frames using conventional base connection details is accompanied by several complications (thicker and heavily stiffened connections, larger embedment depths, thicker foundation to accommodate anchor rod embedment, etc.). An encased composite base connection is proposed where a segment of the column beginning at the base up to a certain point along its height is encased in reinforced concrete with headed shear studs welded to the column flanges used to connect the column to the concrete encasement. When the connection is flexurally loaded, stresses are transferred to a reinforced concrete encasement through the headed shear studs, and thereby transferred to the foundation by reinforced concrete mechanics, and axial column forces are transferred through the base-plate assembly. Horizontal base reactions are expected to be transferred by the direct bearing of the outer and inner faces of the flanges; however, investigation of this mechanism is not within the scope of this research. The inelastic and cyclic behavior of the connection will be investigated where it will be subjected to reversed cyclic loading, and rotational ductility will be observed in cases of yielding mechanisms where yielding occurs as flexural yielding in the beam-column, shear yielding in headed studs, and flexural yielding of the reinforced concrete encasement. The findings of this research show that the connection is capable of achieving satisfactory levels of ductility in certain conditions given proper detailing and proportioning of elements.

Keywords: seismic design, plastic mechanisms steel structure, moment frame, composite construction

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13420 Plastic Behavior of Steel Frames Using Different Concentric Bracing Configurations

Authors: Madan Chandra Maurya, A. R. Dar

Abstract:

Among the entire natural calamities earthquake is the one which is most devastating. If the losses due to all other calamities are added still it will be very less than the losses due to earthquakes. So it means we must be ready to face such a situation, which is only possible if we make our structures earthquake resistant. A review of structural damages to the braced frame systems after several major earthquakes—including recent earthquakes—has identified some anticipated and unanticipated damage. This damage has prompted many engineers and researchers around the world to consider new approaches to improve the behavior of braced frame systems. Extensive experimental studies over the last fourty years of conventional buckling brace components and several braced frame specimens have been briefly reviewed, highlighting that the number of studies on the full-scale concentric braced frames is still limited. So for this reason the study surrounds the words plastic behavior, steel structure, brace frame system. In this study, there are two different analytical approaches which have been used to predict the behavior and strength of an un-braced frame. The first is referred as incremental elasto-plastic analysis a plastic approach. This method gives a complete load-deflection history of the structure until collapse. It is based on the plastic hinge concept for fully plastic cross sections in a structure under increasing proportional loading. In this, the incremental elasto-plastic analysis- hinge by hinge method is used in this study because of its simplicity to know the complete load- deformation history of two storey un-braced scaled model. After that the experiments were conducted on two storey scaled building model with and without bracing system to know the true or experimental load deformation curve of scaled model. Only way, is to understand and analyze these techniques and adopt these techniques in our structures. The study named as Plastic Behavior of Steel Frames using Different Concentric Bracing Configurations deals with all this. This study aimed at improving the already practiced traditional systems and to check the behavior and its usefulness with respect to X-braced system as reference model i.e. is how plastically it is different from X-braced. Laboratory tests involved determination of plastic behavior of these models (with and without brace) in terms of load-deformation curve. Thus, the aim of this study is to improve the lateral displacement resistance capacity by using new configuration of brace member in concentric manner which is different from conventional concentric brace. Once the experimental and manual results (using plastic approach) compared, simultaneously the results from both approach were also compared with nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) approach using ETABS i.e how both the previous results closely depicts the behavior in pushover curve and upto what limit. Tests results shows that all the three approaches behaves somewhat in similar manner upto yield point and also the applicability of elasto-plastic analysis (hinge by hinge method) to know the plastic behavior. Finally the outcome from three approaches shows that the newer one configuration which is chosen for study behaves in-between the plane frame (without brace or reference frame) and the conventional X-brace frame.

Keywords: elasto-plastic analysis, concentric steel braced frame, pushover analysis, ETABS

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13419 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang

Abstract:

In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

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13418 Confinement of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Beams Using U-Links

Authors: Madiha Z. Ammari, Abdul Qader AlNajmi

Abstract:

A new system of U-links was used in this study to confine the concrete core in concrete-filled steel beams. This system aims to employ the separation expected between the steel tube and the concrete core in the compression side of the section in the plastic hinge zone. A total of six rectangular CFT beam specimens were tested under flexure using different D/t ratios and different diameters for the U-links to examine their effect on the flexural behavior of these beams. The ultimate flexural strength of the CFT beam specimens with U-links showed an increase of strength about 47% of the specimen with D/t ratio equals 37.5 above standard CFT beam specimen without U-links inside. State of concrete inside the tubes has shown no crushing of concrete when those beams were cut open at the location of the plastic hinge. Strain measurements revealed that the compressive strain of concrete was 5-6 times the concrete crushing strain.

Keywords: concrete-filled tubes, U-links, plated studies, beams, flexural strength, concrete, confinement

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13417 Moment-Curvature Relation for Nonlinear Analysis of Slender Structural Walls

Authors: E. Dehghan, R. Dehghan

Abstract:

Generally, the slender structural walls have flexural behavior. Since behavior of bending members can be explained by moment–curvature relation, therefore, an analytical model is proposed based on moment–curvature relation for slender structural walls. The moment–curvature relationships of RC sections are constructed through section analysis. Governing equations describing the bond-slip behavior in walls are derived and applied to moment–curvature relations. For the purpose of removing the imprecision in analytical results, the plastic hinge length is included in the finite element modeling. Finally, correlation studies between analytical and experimental results are conducted with the objective to establish the validity of the proposed algorithms. The results show that bond-slip effect is more significant in walls subjected to larger axial compression load. Moreover, preferable results are obtained when ultimate strain of concrete is assumed conservatively.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, slender structural walls, moment-curvature relation, bond-slip, plastic hinge length

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13416 Optimization of Plastic Injection Molding Parameters by Altering Gate and Runner of Feeding System

Authors: Ali Ramezani

Abstract:

Balancing feeding system of plastic injection molding has overriding importance as it minimizes the process’s product defects such as weld line, shrinkage, sink marks and warpage. This article presents the difference between optimization of feeding system in identical multi-cavity molding and family molding using Moldflow Plastic Insight software. In this work, the effect of dimension, shape, position and type of gates and runners on the products quality was studied. The optimization was carried out by analyzing plastic injection molding process parameters, including melt temperature, mold temperature, cooling time, cooling temperature packing time and packing pressure. It was found that symmetrical feeding system is the most efficient shape for diminishing defects in identical multi-cavity molding. However, the same results were not concluded for family molding due to the differences between volume, mass, thickness and shape of cavities.

Keywords: balancing feeding system, family molding, multi-cavity, Moldflow, plastic injection

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13415 Performance Based Design of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Near-Field Earthquakes Using Energy Methods

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi

Abstract:

Performance based design (PBD) is an iterative exercise in which a preliminary trial design of the building structure is selected and if the selected trial design of the building structure does not conform to the desired performance objective, the trial design is revised. In this context, development of a fundamental approach for performance based seismic design of masonry infilled frames with minimum number of trials is an important objective. The paper presents a plastic design procedure based on the energy balance concept for PBD of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed energy based plastic design procedure was implemented for trial performance based seismic design of representative masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames with various practically relevant distributions of masonry infill panels over the frame elevation. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the trial PBD of masonry infilled R/C frames was performed under the action of near-field earthquake ground motions. The results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the proposed energy method is effective for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames under near-field as well as far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: masonry infilled frame, energy methods, near-fault ground motions, pushover analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis, seismic demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
13414 IAM Smart – A Sustainable Way to Reduce Plastics in Organizations

Authors: Krithika Kumaragurubaran, Mannu Thareja

Abstract:

Saving our planet Earth is the responsibility of every human being. Global warming and carbon emissions are killing our planet. We must adopt sustainable practices to give our future generations an equal opportunity to enjoy this planet Earth, our home. One of the most used unsustainable materials is plastic. Plastics are used everywhere. They are cheap, durable, strong, waterproof, non-corrosive with a long life. So longthat it makes plastic unsustainable. With this paper, we want to bring awareness on the usage of plastic in the organizations and how to reduce it by adopting sustainable practices powered by technology. We have taken a case study on the usage of photo ID cards, which are commonly used for authentication and authorization. These ID cards are used by employees or visitors to get access to the restricted areas inside the office buildings. The scale of these plastic cards can be in thousands for a bigger organization. This paper proposes smart alternatives to Identity and Access Management (IAM) which could replace the traditional method of using plastic ID cards. Further, the proposed solution is secure with multi-factor authentication (MFA), cost effective as there is no need to manage the supply chain of ID cards, provides instant IAM with self-service, and has the convenience of smart phone. Smart IAM is not only user friendly however also environment friendly.

Keywords: sustainability, reduce plastic, IAM (Identity and Access Management), multi-factor authentication

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13413 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev

Abstract:

Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: ABS-plastic, automation, control system, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

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13412 Design of Reduced Links for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

Link-to-column connection in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) has been a critical problem since the link flange connected to the column fractured prior to the required link rotation. Even though the problem in link-to-column connection still exist, the use of an eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF have high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under repeated lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In order to address this problem, a reduced web and flange link section is proposed and evaluated in this study. Reducing the web with holes makes the link to control the failure at the edge of holes introduced. Reducing the flange allows the link to control the location at which the plastic hinge is formed. Thus, the failure supposed to occur in the link flange connected at the connection move to the web and to the reduced link flange. Nonlinear FE analysis and experimental investigations have been done on the developed links, and the result shows that the link satisfies the plastic rotation limit recommended in AICS-360-10. Design equations that define the behavior of the proposed link have been recommended, and the equations were verified through the experimental and FE analysis results.

Keywords: EBFs, earthquake disaster, link-to-column connection, reduced link section

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13411 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Arjita Biswas, Sandeep Potnis

Abstract:

Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: bituminous roads, experiments, performance, plastic roads

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13410 Numerical Investigation of Material Behavior During Non-Equal Channel Multi Angular Extrusion

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Asfoury, Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed N. A. Nasr

Abstract:

The current study uses finite element modeling to investigate and analyze a modified form of the from the conventional equal channel multi-angular pressing (ECMAP), using non-equal channels, on the workpiece material plastic deformation. The modified process non-equal channel multi-angular extrusion (NECMAE) is modeled using two-dimensional plane strain finite element model built using the commercial software ABAQUS. The workpiece material used is pure aluminum. The model was first validated by comparing its results to analytical solutions for single-pass equal channel angular extrusion (ECAP), as well as previously published data. After that, the model was used to examine the effects of different % of reductions of the area (for the second stage) on material plastic deformation, corner gap, and required the load. Three levels of reduction in the area were modeled; 10%, 30%, and 50%, and compared to single-pass and double-pass ECAP. Cases with a higher reduction in the area were found to have smaller corner gaps, higher and much uniform plastic deformation, as well as higher required loads. The current results are mainly attributed to the back pressure effects exerted by the second stage, as well as strain hardening effects experienced during the first stage.

Keywords: non-equal channel angular extrusion, multi-pass, sever plastic deformation, back pressure, Finite Element Modelling (FEM)

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13409 Morpho-Anatomical Responses of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown with Different Colored Plastic Mulch

Authors: Edmar N. Franquera, Renato C. Mabesa, Rene Rafael C. Espino, Edralina P. Serrano, Eduardo P. Paningbatan Jr.

Abstract:

The potential of growing lettuce with different colored plastic mulch silver (control), red, orange, yellow and green was evaluated using two lettuce varieties, Looseleaf and Romaine. The experiment was laid out on split plot design following the Randomized Complete Block Design. The Looseleaf variety had better performance in terms of plant fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root length, plant height and yield. However, better response was observed in Romaine in terms of leaf diameter, leaf length, root dry weight and root fresh weight. The color of the mulch reflected different qualities of light and hence the quality of absorbed light by the lettuce plants. A higher Far red and red ratio (FR:R) was obtained from green plastic mulch which was followed by the red plastic mulch. The different colored plastic mulch affected the growth and developmental responses of leaf lettuce morphological and leaf anatomical characteristics. Data in all growth morphological and yield parameters showed that those grown with red plastic mulch had better response and had longer stomates than those lettuce grown with the other colored plastic mulch. The soil temperature 10 cm below the plastic mulch was significantly influenced by the color of the mulch. The red plastic mulch had the highest soil temperature recorded while the lowest soil temperature recorded was within the yellow plastic mulch.

Keywords: anatomical, lettuce, morpholological, plastic mulch

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13408 Complex Rigid-Plastic Deformation Model of Tow Degree of Freedom Mechanical System under Impulsive Force

Authors: Abdelouaheb Rouabhi

Abstract:

In order to study the plastic resource of structures, the elastic-plastic single degree of freedom model described by Prandtl diagram is widely used. The generalization of this model to tow degree of freedom beyond the scope of a simple rigid-plastic system allows investigating the plastic resource of structures under complex disproportionate by individual components of deformation (earthquake). This macro-model greatly increases the accuracy of the calculations carried out. At the same time, the implementation of the proposed macro-model calculations easier than the detailed dynamic elastic-plastic calculations existing software systems such as ANSYS.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, single degree of freedom model, rigid-plastic system, plastic resource, complex plastic deformation, macro-model

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13407 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

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13406 Sustainable Development of Medium Strength Concrete Using Polypropylene as Aggregate Replacement

Authors: Reza Keihani, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Timothy James Clacy

Abstract:

Plastic as an environmental burden is a well-rehearsed topic in the research area. This is due to its global demand and destructive impacts on the environment, which has been a significant concern to the governments. Typically, the use of plastic in the construction industry is seen across low-density, non-structural applications due to its diverse range of benefits including high strength-to-weight ratios, manipulability and durability. It can be said that with the level of plastic consumption experienced in the construction industry, an ongoing responsibility is shown for this sector to continually innovate alternatives for application of recycled plastic waste such as using plastic made replacement from polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and polypropylene in the concrete mix design. In this study, the impact of partially replaced fine aggregate with polypropylene in the concrete mix design was investigated to evaluate the concrete’s compressive strength by conducting an experimental work which comprises of six concrete mix batches with polypropylene replacements ranging from 0.5 to 3.0%. The results demonstrated a typical decline in the compressive strength with the addition of plastic aggregate, despite this reduction generally mitigated as the level of plastic in the concrete mix increased. Furthermore, two of the six plastic-containing concrete mixes tested in the current study exceeded the ST5 standardised prescribed concrete mix compressive strength requirement at 28-days containing 1.50% and 2.50% plastic aggregates, which demonstrated the potential for use of recycled polypropylene in structural applications, as a partial by mass, fine aggregate replacement in the concrete mix.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, polypropylene, sustainability

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13405 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

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13404 Using Multi-Arm Bandits to Optimize Game Play Metrics and Effective Game Design

Authors: Kenny Raharjo, Ramon Lawrence

Abstract:

Game designers have the challenging task of building games that engage players to spend their time and money on the game. There are an infinite number of game variations and design choices, and it is hard to systematically determine game design choices that will have positive experiences for players. In this work, we demonstrate how multi-arm bandits can be used to automatically explore game design variations to achieve improved player metrics. The advantage of multi-arm bandits is that they allow for continuous experimentation and variation, intrinsically converge to the best solution, and require no special infrastructure to use beyond allowing minor game variations to be deployed to users for evaluation. A user study confirms that applying multi-arm bandits was successful in determining the preferred game variation with highest play time metrics and can be a useful technique in a game designer's toolkit.

Keywords: game design, multi-arm bandit, design exploration and data mining, player metric optimization and analytics

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13403 Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Plastic Coated Aggregates

Authors: Malleshappa Japagal, Srinivas Chitragar

Abstract:

The use of waste plastic in pavement is becoming important alternative worldwide for disposal of plastic as well as to improve the stability of pavement and to meet out environmental issues. However, there are still concerns on fatigue and fracture resistance of Hot Mix Asphalt with the addition of plastic waste, (HMA-Plastic mixes) and moisture damage potential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate fracture resistance of HMA-Plastic mixes using semi-circular bending (SCB) test and moisture damage potential by Indirect Tensile strength (ITS) test using retained tensile strength (TSR). In this study, a dense graded asphalt mix with 19 mm nominal maximum aggregate size was designed in the laboratory using Marshall Mix design method. Aggregates were coated with different percentages of waste plastic (0%, 2%, 3% and 4%) by weight of aggregate and performance evaluation of fracture resistance and Moisture damage was carried out. The following parameters were estimated for the mixes: J-Integral or Jc, strain energy at failure, peak load at failure, and deformation at failure. It was found that the strain energy and peak load of all the mixes decrease with an increase in notch depth, indicating that increased percentage of plastic waste gave better fracture resistance. The moisture damage potential was evaluated by Tensile strength ratio (TSR). The experimental results shown increased TRS value up to 3% addition of waste plastic in HMA mix which gives better performance hence the use of waste plastic in road construction is favorable.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, semi circular bending, marshall mix design, tensile strength ratio

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13402 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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13401 Performance Based Seismic Retrofit of Masonry Infiled Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Passive Energy Dissipation Devices

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi

Abstract:

The paper presents a plastic analysis procedure based on the energy balance concept for performance based seismic retrofit of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames with a ‘soft’ ground story using passive energy dissipation (PED) devices with the objective of achieving a target performance level of the retrofitted R/C frame for a given seismic hazard level at the building site. The proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure was employed for developing performance based design (PBD) formulations for PED devices for a simulated application in seismic retrofit of existing frame structures designed in compliance with the prevalent standard codes of practice. The PBD formulations developed for PED devices were implemented for simulated seismic retrofit of a representative code-compliant masonry infilled R/C frame with a ‘soft’ ground story using friction dampers as the PED device. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the retrofitted masonry infilled R/C frames is performed to investigate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure in achieving the target performance level under design level earthquakes. Results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the maximum inter-story drifts in the masonry infilled R/C frames with a ‘soft’ ground story that is retrofitted with the friction dampers designed using the proposed PBD formulations are controlled within the target drifts under near-field as well far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: energy methods, masonry infilled frame, near-field earthquakes, seismic protection, supplemental damping devices

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13400 Plastic Degradation Activity of Bacillus Sp. Isolated from the Gut of Plastic-Fed Yellow Mealworm

Authors: Najat El-Kurdi, Sherif Hammad, Mohamed Ghazi, Sahar El-Shatoury, Khaled Zakaria

Abstract:

The increasing number of plastic production and its importance to humanity in daily life made it a headache to the planet earth. The persistence of plastic wastes in the environment formed a serious problem. They are prominent with their capability to resist microbial degradation for decades. Thus, it was crucial to find ways to eliminate the plastics without depending on conventional recycling methods, which causes the formation of more hazardous compounds and doubles the problem. In this paper, mealworms were fed with a mixture of plastic wastes such as plastic bags, Styrofoam, PE foam, and plastic tarpaulins film as the sole food source for a month. Frass was collected at the end of the test and examined using FTIR analysis. Also, the gut bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA. The results show the mineralization of plastic in the frass of plastic-fed worms when compared to control. The 16S rRNA and the BLAST analysis showed that the obtained isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus Sp especially Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis showed their relatedness to the other Bacillus species in the NCBI database.

Keywords: mealworm, waste management, plastic-degrading bacteria, gut microbiome, Bacillus sp

Procedia PDF Downloads 51